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, Kenmogne Simo Thierry Césaire, Hzounda Fokou Jean Baptiste, Arrey Arah Hysantine, Yinyang Jacques, Adiogo Dieudonne
Published: 22 December 2021
Advances in Research pp 54-64; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i630319

Abstract:
The main aim of this study was to determine the quality of vegetable oils consumed by the population in Yaoundé. The study was carried out on 14 vegetable oils sampled following a survey. The antioxidant potentials of these oils were analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP total antioxidant capacity. The concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Fe) were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The acid and peroxide values were assessed using methods described by the Cameroonian standard on vegetable oils. The sample included 8 brands of which, 5 of refined palm oil, 4 of soybean oil, 1 brand of cottonseed oil, sunflower oil, and cold extracted olive oil, red palm oil bleached palm oil each. The antioxidant activity showed a good correlation, with red palm oil having the greatest antioxidant potential and bleached palm oil having the least antioxidant potential. The Pb, Cu, and Fe contents had the following conformities: 71.4%, 100% respectively. For the acid and peroxide values, we found 50% and 21.4%, respectively. Six of the fourteen (42.9%) analyzed oils contained less than 33 IU/g vitamin A. These results highlight the poor quality of the oils consumed in Yaoundé.
Muhammad Nurjihadi, Agus Wahyudi, Reza Muhammad Rizqi, Muhammad Nur Fietroh
Published: 20 December 2021
Advances in Research pp 38-53; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i630318

Abstract:
Aims: This study aims to identify the consumption behavior of people in West Nusa Tenggara Province during the COVID-19 pandemic. Study Design: This research is quantitative descriptive. Place and Duration of Study: The location of this research was carried out in West Nusa Tenggara Province which consists of 10 regencies/cities namely West Lombok Regency, Central Lombok Regency, East Lombok Regency, North Lombok Regency, West Sumbawa Regency, Sumba Regency, Dompu Regency, Bima Regency, Mataram City, City of Bima. Duration of Study starts October 2021 - December 2021. Methodology: With a sample of 100 respondents. Collecting data using a questionnaire. Then to analyze the data using the three box method. Results: The results showed that the consumption behavior of the people in West Nusa Tenggara Province, which was seen from primary needs, showed that the average need index reached 82% or in the high category, where more people chose to buy masks during the pandemic. Then for secondary needs, the average need index reaches 65% or in the medium category, where people prefer to set aside money for education costs rather than vacationing with family. Final, In meeting the tertiary needs, people prefer to buy land/buildings. In this case, the tertiary needs are in the medium category with the demand index reaching 50%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that during the pandemic, the people of West Nusa Tenggara had various consumption patterns. both primary consumption which is in the high category, as well as secondary and tertiary consumption which is in the medium category.
Zuwaira Abubakar Shagari, Aliyu Mahmuda, Ummu Kulthum Muhammad, Aliyu Ibrahim Dabai, Aliyu Sarkin Baki, Muhammad Bello, Asiya Umar Imam, Muhammad Ganau
Published: 16 December 2021
Advances in Research pp 28-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i630317

Abstract:
Leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Leptadania hastata and Momordica balsamina are locally used by traditional birth attendants at pre and post-partum. The present study investigates the phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts against isolates of L. monocytogenes. Standard microbiological techniques were used to isolate and identify the bacteria. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, alkaloids, terpinoids and glycosides in the studied extracts. MIC of the extract of M. balsamina shows a total inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes at a concentration of 2,000µg/mL. No isolate was inhibited at concentration lower than 125µg/mL of M. balsamina extract. MIC of the extract against L. hastata was observed at a concentration of 2,000µg/mL. O. basilicum extract inhibited the growth of the isolates at a concentration of 2,000µg/mL. The MBC of the extracts, was between 5,000-0.61µg/mL were used, however, no antibacterial activity was observed on the bacterium with any of the three plants extracts at all concentration levels (0.61-5000πg/mL). The leaf extracts demonstrated significant inhibitory activity but lack bacteriocidal effects on L. monocytogenes. It was recommended that further studies on the preparation, effective doses and side effects of these extracts in animal models are warranted.
B. S. Galdolage, R. M. K. S. Rasanjalee
Published: 10 December 2021
Advances in Research pp 14-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i630316

Abstract:
The swift growth of technological improvements has supported the continuing transformation of the service sector, in its conversion from conventional physical service encounters handled by service professionals into customer-controlled self-service technologies (SSTs). Even though prior research attempts have been made in assessing the acceptance of technology in general, the insufficient focus is placed on self-service technologies. Further, understanding the target customer is crucial with the fierce competition existing in the market sided with the development of technology. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate which elements comprise the customers’ technology playfulness and anxiety and how it influence the use of self-service technologies in the Sri Lankan commercial banking sector. The study undertook a qualitative approach with 50 semi-structured interviews from Western province banking customers who use SSTs utilizing a non-probabilistic purposeful sampling strategy. The data were analyzed using the technique of thematic analysis. The findings revealed “Enjoyment”, “Fun”, “Innovativeness”, “Entertaining”, “Creativity”, “Pleasure” and “Appealing features” as the seven themes of technology playfulness motivating the use of SSTs and “Transaction doubts”, “Elderly difficulties”, “Verification doubts” and “Security doubts” as the four themes of hindering factors towards the use of SSTs in the banking sector. The findings would contribute to the literature gap on the customer movement towards self-service technologies. Insights from the study would support the practitioners in understanding how to improve with the proper use of technology and delivery of self-service technologies in the commercial banking sector of Sri Lanka.
Published: 3 December 2021
Advances in Research pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i630315

Abstract:
The 21st-century has witnessed the catalytic effect of Information Technology (IT) on organisational operations through increased robustness and sustained competitive advantage in the knowledge economy. Technology’s disruptive diffusion has not sparred the human resource practice; thus, this study investigates the adoption of electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM) by a telecommunications-based organisation in Zimbabwe. The study utilised a quantitative case design using a questionnaire targeting 130 managers and supervisors. In meeting the study’s objective, factor analysis using principal component analysis and varimax rotation was conducted. The results show that the three constructs had a direct impact on the adoption of e-HRM. The respondents agreed that e-HRM had automated employee records management and improved communication between employees and managers, increasing productivity. Identified benefits from the results include lowering administrative costs, delivering state of the art HRM services, enabling HR staff more time to focus on strategic reorientation, increasing HRM effectiveness and efficiency, and facilitating the scouting of the best talent globally. The respondents noted that aligning e-HRM processes to the HRM function had some restraints, such as unwillingness to accommodate change, confidentiality and security of personal records through hacking. The study generates new knowledge for benchmarking as Zimbabwean organisations endeavour to embrace e-HRM. The study contributes literature on e-HRM adoption, which appears scant in developing countries such as Zimbabwe. More research on e-HRM adoption in developing countries provides practical and theoretical implications for the HRM practice and the research community. Future studies could involve several organisations for more generalisability of the results.
Published: 3 November 2021
Advances in Research pp 34-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i530314

Abstract:
This study responds to the disruptive environment in which educational institutions globally find themselves in the COVID-19 lockdown, where remote-based teaching was adapted to ensure continuous learning. Globally, over 90% of learners are affected by the closure of learning institutions. The study evaluates the digital transformation necessitated by the COVID-19 lockdown through the perception of faculty. Despite the rapid technological developments and high adoption of technology-mediated tools in most developed countries, developing countries lag. E-learning adoption has remained low in most developing countries, and this study aims to investigate the acceptance of Moodle at a rural university in Zimbabwe. This quantitative study utilised the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model to explore how the institution used the COVID-19 pandemic as a springboard to accelerate the adoption of virtual learning systems. Very few studies have been conducted to evaluate Moodle acceptance in a developing country context using the UTAUT model during a pandemic such as the COVID-19. An online questionnaire was distributed to 200 faculty members. The results revealed that performance and effort expectancy and the facilitating conditions positively influenced the behavioural intention to use Moodle. However, in contrast, social influence did not positively influence the actual usage of Moodle. Educationists and technologists can use the results of the study to improve e-learning deployment in developing countries. The study also builds on ongoing research on e-learning implementation and evaluation using the UTAUT model. Future studies should be conducted across several institutions and involve students to come up with more generalisable results.
O. O. Ojo, A. A. Shittu, S. A. Ojo
Published: 22 October 2021
Advances in Research pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i530313

Abstract:
The study examined the relationship between event centres’ locational pattern and tourism development in Ado Ekiti. This is a survey research which involved the use of questionnaire. The data was analysed descriptively and inferentially. Findings from the study revealed that: only few event centres are built in the outskirt of the town. It also showed that event centres are built spacious like hall and are built where it is easily accessible within the residential areas in Ado Ekiti. The study further revealed that tourist finds it more comfortable locating event centres that are well situated. The study also showed that location of event centres have impacts on tourism development in the study area as location play a major role in beautification of the city, comfortability and source of attraction for tourist. The study concluded that increase in event centres has also increased tourism activities in Ado Ekiti. The study recommended that it is necessary to find suitable strategies to source fund for the development of event centres by private and public sectors which will help to facilitate tourism development in the study area. It is also important to note that domestication of the modern methods of building event centre is needed in order to have an attractive event centre which will also enhance the development of tourism in Ado Ekiti among others.
Xolisile Mokoena,
Published: 18 October 2021
Advances in Research pp 16-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i530312

Abstract:
The cytotoxicity potentials of methamphetamine (METH) is presumably associated with oxidative stress induced apoptosis, this study therefore, investigated the toxic potentials of METH in neuroblastoma cells and further determined it effects on the mitochondrial activity. Human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE (2) cells cultured in DMEM/F12 were used in this study. The cells were treated acutely with methamphetamine (1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/mL) over 24, and were allowed to recover from METH treatment over 48, 72, and 96 h. Cell viability study was done with Trypanblue exclusion assay. The cell proliferative characteristics of the neuroblastoma cell line were investigated by constructinga cell proliferation curve. Mitochondrial activity was assessed using the XTT Assay. Statistical analysis were done with Graph Pad prism and significant difference were considered at p<0.001, 0.01 and 0.05. The result showed normal growth in the untreated neuroblastoma cell over the 96 h of monitoring. Following treatment with METH, significant decrease in cell growth was observed when treated acutely with 5 and 10 µg/mL METH and allowed till 72 and 96 h recovery period. The SK-N-BE (2) treated with increasing concentration of METH showed no significant difference in cell viability over the recovery period from METH exposure. Toxicity of SK-N-BE (2) cells was only observed when treated with 10 µg/mL of METH. Significant decrease in mitochondria activity was observed when the cells were treated with 5, 10, 20, and 50 µg/mL METH and allowed till 72 h recovery. The result showed that METH is cytotoxic to the SK-N-BE (2) cells and the mechanism of toxicity might be associated with inhibition of mitochondrial activity.
Alice Ribeiro Cavalcante, Eva Luana Almeida da Silva, Panait Abu Nidal Alves dos Santos, Hanna Gracie Inez De Freitas Lima, Welton Aaron de Almeida, Emmanuel Viana Pontual,
Published: 11 October 2021
Advances in Research pp 7-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i530311

Abstract:
Cereal crops strongly contribute with the world economy and because of this the reduction of their productivity may lead to irreparable economic consequences worldwide. The maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais is the main pest of maize in the field or during processing, storage and commercialization of grains, also attacking processed food. The population control of S. zeamais uses a restrict panel of synthetic insecticides which are associated with environmental contamination, selection of resistant individuals and toxicity to non-target organisms, including humans and other animals. This scenario has stimulated the search for new insecticides and plant metabolites stand out because of their high degree of biodegradability and more selective toxicity. This work provides a review of the effect of plant compounds on S. zeamais to encourage the use of these ingredients in more ecofriendly strategies for pest control. Plant insecticides can exert their toxicity by ingestion, contact and/or fumigation resulting in damage to the development, survival and reproductive potential of S. zeamais, or may present food deterrent activity, which protects the substrates from the attack by the insects. The data reviewed contribute to consolidate the use of natural products in control of S. zeamais.
W. Vinu, Aranga. Panbilnathan
Advances in Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i530310

Abstract:
Many researchers during several decades have proved that sleep is a key factor for enhancing performance in sports. Henceforth, this study is to investigate the impact of a mobile phone on changes in athletes sleep behaviour because of COVID-19 lockdown in India. For which, the survey conducted among 550 sports persons representing various Universities (300 male/250 female) across various states of India using simple random sampling technique, and Sleep Quality Assessment (PSQ: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) was used to find out the level of sleep disturbance in athletes. The composed data were analysed using a percentile. The results of this study showed that the mobile phone usage during COVID-19 lockdown in India out of 550 athletes’ data was collected in which 6.4 ⸓ of athletes with a score of 4 in the scale were not distracted due to COVID-19 lock down they underwent regular sleeping schedule there was no change in their circadian rhythm, 40.4 ⸓ of athletes with a score of 6 which means there was a high level of distraction in sleep due to COVID-19 lock down and 23⸓ of the athletes suffered a very high level of sleep destruction during COVID-19 lock down. Which showed a changed sleep behaviour of sports persons. Conclusion and Recommendations: Lack of exercise during COVID-19 lockdown changed the sleep behaviour in athletes. Which made an addiction towards mobile phone usage. This study concludes that regular exercise enhances sleep and also keeps athletes from over usage of mobile phones.
, Akunne Ijeoma Apakama, Miriam-Benigna Chika Amobi, Emeka Akujuobi Chianakwalam, Chuka Michael Okosa, Ejike Ekene Igboegwu, George Uchenna Eleje
Published: 22 September 2021
Advances in Research pp 38-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i430309

Abstract:
Visual impairment greatly affects one’s quality of life. The number of persons with visual impairment and blindness in the world is on the increase. Eye screening allows for early detection of sight-threatening diseases and timely intervention could be sight-saving. Aim: To determine the practice of eye checks and identify the factors that affect periodic eye checks among medical doctors in south-east Nigeria. Methodology: This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted among practicing medical doctors in private and public hospitals in Anambra State Nigeria, using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Information obtained from the participants included the sociodemographics data, type and duration of practice, presence of any medical and/or ocular condition, family history of eye diseases, history of use of spectacles, practice of eye check and interval of eye check, factors affecting the practice of eye check, and ways of promoting regular eye check. Data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23. Statistical significance was set at p˂0.05. Results: One hundred and eighty-seven practicing medical doctors were interviewed. There were 123 (65.8%) males and 64 (34.2%) females. Their ages ranged from 24 to 80 years, with a mean age of 44.81 ± 12.73 years. The mean duration of professional practice was 18.16 ± 11.9 years. Majority, 124 (66.3%) works in government-owned hospitals. Among the study participants, 93(49.7%) doctors had been diagnosed with different ocular diseases; 99(52.9%) had a family history of ocular problems; 94(50.3%) had used prescription lenses; and 51(27.3%) had medical conditions. One hundred and twelve (59.9%) had undergone at least eye examinations once, of which 54(48.2%) had their last eye examination over 5 years ago. The prevalence of eye check was 59.9% (95%CI: 52.9 – 66.9%). Eye checks were significantly associated with medical practice of over 20 years (P=0.030), working in a private practice (P=0.001), having eye diseases such as cataract (P=0.006), refractive error (P˂0.001), presbyopia (P˂0.001), and use of prescription spectacles (P˂0.001). ‘Belief of not having eye problems’ and ‘No time’ which accounted for 58.7% and 24.0% respectively were the commonest reasons for not regularly having eye examinations. Conclusion: Poor attitude to periodic eye examinations was seen in medical doctors in south east Nigeria.
, Rita Lariba Alenyorige, Inusah Abdul-Wahab, Felicia Maltiba Asaana, Grace Adinga, ,
Advances in Research pp 26-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i430308

Abstract:
Background: Against the background of the worldwide harm caused by breast cancer, as well as the benefits of early detection through simple techniques such as breast self-examination, this study investigated the knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among, midwifery undergraduate students of the University for Development Studies, Tamale-Ghana. Methods: The study is an institutional-based descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted among second-year female students at the Midwifery Department of the University for Development Studies. The data was collected through a pre-tested structured paper based-questionnaire. The data were analyzed descriptively and presented in frequencies, percentages, tables and figure. Results: The study recruited 100 participants with an age range between 20 and 39 years with the majority within 20-24 years. The overall knowledge score was 73.0%, a majority of the participants indicated practising breast self-examination (81.0%), but with a low practice score of (49.0%). The study found significant associations between practices of breast self-examination, age (p= 0.022) and marital status (p=0.001) of study participants. Conclusion: The study found high knowledge of breast self-examination with the majority of study participants saying that they practise breast self-examination. However, the overall practices score of breast-self-examination was relatively low. Additional efforts by the directorate of health services at universities including our study setting are needed to increase knowledge and practices of breast self-examination among students, irrespective of their programme of study.
, Olufunso O. Abosede
Advances in Research pp 16-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i430307

Abstract:
Background: This study investigated the effect of games teaching approach on students’ academic performance in IUPAC inorganic nomenclature in Senior Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. Quasi-experimental design, specifically pre-test post-test control groups was adopted. The sample comprised 93 Senior Secondary 2 and 3 chemistry students Methods: The instrument was IUPAC Inorganic Nomenclature Performance Test validated by two Science Education Lecturers and one expert in Measurement and Evolution. The reliability coefficient of 0.87 of the instrument was determined by test-retest method. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions and hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance using Analysis of Variance. Results: There was a significant difference in the performance of students taught IUPAC inorganic nomenclature with games approach and those with lecture method. Students taught with games approach performed significantly better in the performance test than those taught with lecture method. There was no significant gender based difference in performance, however, significant difference based on class level was obtained. It was recommended among others that, chemistry teachers should incorporate suitable educational games in teaching chemistry and also motivate students towards learning of chemistry.
Abu Noman Faruq Ahmmed, Al-Amin Islam, Fatema Begum,
Advances in Research pp 7-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i430306

Abstract:
Aims: To identify the causal organisms of anthracnose disease of Aloe vera in Bangladesh and to manage this disease in field condition. Study Design: The experiment was designed by Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Place and Duration of Study: The field experiments were conducted in Natore, Bangladesh and the laboratory experiments were carried out at the Department of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January, 2017 to December, 2018. Methodology: The causal organism Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated by tissue plating method and identified based on morphological and cultural characteristics and that was confirmed by pathogenicity test. Infested farmer’s fields were selected in rainy season under natural epiphytic condition to evaluate the efficacy of eleven treatments. Results: Among the treatments, Bordeaux mixture gave best result against this disease. Moreover, Tilt 250 EC and Folicur 25 EC and Garlic bulb extract showed better effect against the disease than the other treatments. Lime also has moderate effect against anthracnose disease of A. vera. In 2017, after 4th spray, the lowest incidence was recorded in Bordeaux mixture (58.33%) which was statistically identical with Folicur (64.58%), Tilt (64.58%) and Garlic bulb extract (66.67%). Similarly, the lowest disease severity was found in Bordeaux mixture (3.55) followed by Folicur (5.67%), Tilt (6.67%) and Garlic bulb extract (7.67%). Similar result also found in 2018. After 4th spray, the lowest incidence was recorded in Bordeaux mixture (38.58%) which was statistically identical with Lime (41.66%) and Garlic bulb extract (45.83%). Similarly, the lowest disease severity was found in Bordeaux mixture (0.20%) followed by Lime (0.25%) and Garlic bulb extract (0.36%). Conclusion: Garlic bulb extract could be used as eco-friendly approach. Moreover, use of Bordeaux mixture is better than the traditional use of lime. From chemical pesticides, Tilt 250 EC and Folicur 25 EC could be used for controlling the disease as the last option.
Advances in Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i430305

Abstract:
After more than one year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the disaster predicted in Africa by experts has not occurred. The present review aimed to discuss factors which may have played an important role in this low incidence. The analysis of data provided by the WHO database and the ECDC (European Center for Disease Prevention and Control) was made. Using explicit reasoning and existing data, the most significant factors were listed and discussed. We found that Africa had the lowest percentage of COVID-19 cases per population (0.33%) and various factors such as rapid reactions, effective preventive measures, demographics, the impact of previous epidemics, genetic and immunity factors may have played an important role in this low incidence of the pandemic in Africa. It appears that Africa is globally less affected. Most of the factors discussed may have played an important role, but the genetic hypothesis and the potential undercount of cases, less studied to date, should be investigated.
, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi
Advances in Research pp 51-64; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i330304

Abstract:
Background: The research was designed to model the exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) by habitual users of RFR-enabled devices and to observe possible aberrations in tissues that are attributable to exposures. The RFR exposure regimen modelled cases of continuous, and intermittent exposures in human conditions, using Wistar rats. The primary objective of the study was to study intrauterine and postnatal exposure to RFR and study its effects on specific brain structural and functional attributes. Materials and Methods: Experimental Wistar rats were housed in facilities that enabled exposure to specific type of RFR source (the 4G RFR-emitting internet router) and for specific durations which included 21 days of pregnancy and 35 post-natal days, marking the point of puberty. Following exposure, animals were sacrificed to excise brain tissues for histological analysis using the haematoxylin and eosin technique, histochemical analysis using the Nissl technique, and immunohistochemical techniques including the IBA 1 and Caspase 3 techniques for inflammation and potential apoptosis. Representative histological and histochemical photomicrographs were analysed using principles of qualitative histology and histochemistry. Results and Conclusion: Findings from the current research showed that RFR-exposure did not produce teratogenic or neurodegenerative effects within the hippocampus. This was evident from the study of the hippocampus’ histoarchitectural organisation, morphologies of the cells as well as their spatial distribution. Functional integrity of cells in the different regions of the hippocampal formation, namely the CA 1-4 areas as well as the dentate gyrus also showed that Nissl substance expression, which is a marker of neuron functional integrity, was relatively normally expressed across the experimental animals. This experimental modelling of human habitual exposure to RFR showed no evidence of prenatal teratogenic effects or postnatally induced extensive neurodegeneration up until puberty. However, it would be very important to indicate that RFR-exposure enhanced apoptotic potentials via the Caspase-3 pathway. The implications of this effect on later life mental health and neurological attributes will require further investigation
Kennedy A. Osakwe, Rachael E. Osakwe
Advances in Research pp 42-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i330303

Abstract:
Introduction: This research explored the Effects of Casualization on the Welfare of Workers using a de-identified multinational oil company in Nigeria as a representative case. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to examine the effects of casualization of workers, associated irregularity of work, and deprivation of workers’ right. Methodology: A close-ended questionnaire was used to collect primary data. Out of 150 copies of the questionnaire administered, 122 were dully filled, returned and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results & Discussion: Three hypotheses were proposed and analysed using multiple regression of ordinary least square (OLS) statistical method and tested at 0.05 level of significance for the hypotheses. The result showed that there were significant negative effects of casualization of workers for a short-term contract work, irregularity of casualization of work, and deprivation of workers right to negotiate. Conclusion: Hallmarks of casualization of labour include short term contract work; irregularity of work; and deprivation of workers’ right to negotiate adversely affects the welfare packages of workers. These practices have inherent occupational health implication on workers. Recommendations: Casualization of labour as seen in this study is a despicable model that should be discontinued. However, if it must be practiced, the human resources, industrial relations, labour union and occupational health experts in such organizations should repackage such contracts to include allowances, job security, negotiation rights, dignity, benefits and welfare clauses as in permanent full time employment.
I. O. Akpalaba, F. F. Blackie, R. U. E. Akpalaba
Advances in Research pp 30-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i330302

Abstract:
Introduction: Geriatrics and widows are neglected in the society. Geriatrics are seen as unproductive. Widows, on the other hand, are humiliated traditionally by their husbands’ family members and community. They face surmounting problems which shadow their urge to seek medical attention. Aim: To determine the burden of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) and medical diseases in Geriatrics and Widows through identification of common ENT and medical conditions in them. Methods: This was a 7months prospective study from September, 2017 to April, 2018. The study centers were Dagomo foundation home for the elderly in Benin City and St. Benedict Catholic Church, Obiaja in Edo central. Total population sampling technique was used. All the elderly and widows who gave consent to the study constituted the sample size. Health talk was given; history taking, Ear, Nose, Throat and general body examinations were done. Data on the disease burden identified were recorded. Those that needed further evaluation and management were referred accordingly. Data was statistically analyzed with SPSS Version 20. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: 50 geriatrics and 67 widows participated. Age ranged 60 – 90 years (mean age of 69.50±7.78years) and 36 – 85years (mean age of 59.61±9.36) for Geriatrics and widows respectively. Geriatrics were 13 males and 37 females while widows were 67. Seventeen (17) different ENT diseases were identified in Geriatrics while 7 ENT conditions and 12 medical conditions were identified in the widows. Predominant ENT diseases were Otitis Media with Effusion (34.9%), Left Cerumen Auris and Otomycosis in similar proportion (20.9%) in Geriatrics. Right Cerumen Auris predominated in widows (65.6%) followed by Left Cerumen auris (50.0%) and Otitis Externa (28.1%). Osteoarthritis was the commonest medical condition (90.6%) in widows. Tests of association were not statistically significant. Conclusion: There is significant burden of Ear, Nose, Throat and medical diseases in the Geriatrics and widows. Recommendations: Government should plan specialist healthcare measures to improve the quality of life of geriatrics and widows. Government should ensure an educational policy to develop age-appropriate training protocols for children and young adults on the challenges associated with aging.
J. A. Chukwumati, O. J. Kamalu
Advances in Research pp 18-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i330301

Abstract:
In a field study conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Rivers State University PortHarcourt, Nigeria, to examine the ability of vetiver and guinea grasses amended with organic manures in remediation of crude oil polluted soil; soil polluted with Bonny light crude oil at 0 and 2% v/w was subjected to a remediation processes using vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) amended with organic manures for a period of twelve months. Two weeks after pollution, poultry and rabbit manures were applied at 0, 10, 20 and 30 tons per hectare respectively. Vetiver and guinea grasses were planted two weeks later. It was fitted in factorial split plots randomized block design. Results of the study revealed that remediation of the soil with grasses degraded the Total hydrocarbon content (THC) to 23 and 21.2% for vetiver and guinea grass respectively, while the quantity of heavy metals removed from the soil were 28.4% and 25.9% for iron, 37.3 and 32.8% for zinc, 35.8 and 30.8% for lead (Pb) and 23.1 and 38.5% cadmium for vetiver and guinea grass respectively. Amendment of the soil with 30 tons’ /ha organic manures increased the quantity of THC degraded to 70.6% and 67.9% for vetiver and guinea grass respectively while the concentration/quantity of heavy metals removed from the soil increased to 58.4 and 54.7% for Fe, 66.9 and 65.1% for Zn, 69.4 and 66.6% for Pb and 80.8 and 71.2%, in Cd for vetiver and guinea grass respectively. The quantity and concentration of THC and heavy metals degraded in the soil was higher in vetiver than guinea grass plots and in vetiver amended with poultry manure than in guinea grass amended with rabbit manure. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference in uptake of THC and heavy metals in plant tissues between vetiver and guinea grass. Vetiver accumulated more of the contaminants in their tissues than guinea grass. Amendment of the soil with organic manures reduced the uptake of the contaminants (THC and heavy metals) from the plant tissues. Generally, both grasses have the capability to remediate crude oil contaminated soil. Augmentation of the two grasses with organic manures enhanced their capability.
Advances in Research pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i330299

Abstract:
This paper investigate the variability of Total Electron Content TEC over a terrestrial point within equatorial anomaly region using the NovAtel GSV 4000B GPS-SCINDA system at Akure (7.3°N, 5.2°E), Nigeria. This system is capable of tracking up to 14 GPS satellites simultaneously. Total Electron Content (TEC) over equatorial region using a real time data collected via a GPS-SCINDA facility were analyzed to study the ionospheric variations in terms of Total Electron Content (TEC) for the period of three years. Diurnal variations and Monthly mean variations of Total Electron Content within the equatorial anomaly region were examined. The diurnal variation of TEC showed pre-dawn minimum for a short period of time, followed by a steep early morning increase and then reached maximum value between 14:00 UT and 16:00 UT. The influence of solar activity on VTEC was investigated by taking the correlation coefficients between VTEC, F10.7cm radio flux index and sunspot numbers. The range of solar flux variation during the period of observation is very limited; there is high positive correlation (Correlation Coefficient 0.61) between daytime peak TEC and the solar F10.7 flux.
Advances in Research pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i330300

Abstract:
Small and medium sized companies (SMEs) should be drivers for national economies, also providing opportunities for socio-economic participation and mobility. But SMEs, more than bigger companies, have experienced difficulties during Covid-19 due to less customer demand for goods and services, limited resources and problems with digitalization. All these facts require rapid change in SME strategies. Based on literature research and on work with SMEs undertaken by the author during European projects, the goal of this communication paper is to illustrate some difficulties experienced by SMEs due to COVID-19 and problems they have with digitalization and skill gaps, as well as measures which could help them. First, the impact of Covid-19 on SMEs and the role of digitalization in their recovery and further developments are presented. Second, certain structures required within SMEs and necessary skills and competences are described in this context. Proposals are then made for reskilling processes within workplace learning and other learning approaches to improve the skills and competences necessary for SME recovery processes. Lifelong learning (LLL) plays an important role in addressing the skills gap between what students have traditionally learned in formal education and the needs of employers and the labor market. LLL should be more connected with other forms of training/learning, digitally supported, interdisciplinary and practically oriented in order to contribute towards achieving the new skills and competences necessary during and after the COVID-19 pandemic and to promote digitalization as a driver to success. The paper also presents examples of the work of the Study Group Lifelong Learning of the IAT, coordinated by the author, and conclusions.
, Titus Iloduba Eze
Advances in Research pp 50-62; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i230298

Abstract:
The study ascertained the effects of project and demonstration teaching methods on male and female students’ achievement and retention in basic electricity in technical colleges. Quasi-experimental design; precisely, pre-test, post-test and delayed post-test for non-randomized and unequal groups were used. Four research questions guided the study and four hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Four technical colleges in Ebonyi State, each technical college offering basic electricity, were used. The population of the study comprised of 141 Technical College year II (TC II) students (85 males & 58 females). The project method instructional strategy group had 62 male and 13 female students whereas; the demonstration method instructional strategy group had 20 male and 46 female students. The instruments used in the study were Demonstration Method Instructional Manual (DMIM), Basic Electricity Achievement Test (BEAT) and Project Method Instructional Manual (PMIM), which were validated by three experts. The instrument (BEAT) was administered twice to twenty (20) TC11 students in Enugu State and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation was used to obtain a reliability index of 0.89. Data collected for the study were analyzed using mean with standard deviation for research questions, while hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The study found that both the project and demonstration teaching methods improved male and female students’ performances in basic electricity. However, male and female students taught basic electricity using project teaching method had better academic performance and retention in basic electricity, indicating that project teaching method was more effective on male and female students’ achievement and retention in basic electricity than demonstration teaching method. The researchers therefore recommended project teaching method as a teaching strategy that could reduce the gender disparity in male and female students' achievement and retention.
, Farah Ahmad, Syed Hasan Danish, Nisha Zahid, Noor Israr, Sidra Farooq
Advances in Research pp 45-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i230297

Abstract:
Each country of the world has its own health care system to follow, Pakistan has followed the healthcare system designed by British rulers since 1947. Primary healthcare, Secondary Healthcare and tertiary healthcare are the major parts of the defined healthcare system that are been practiced across the country. Pakistan has always participated and encouraged health promotion and delivery participating in Millennium Development Goal (MDG) program, encouraging public private partnership, investing in improvement of human resources and skills, introducing Basic Health Units (BHUs) and Rural Health centers. Though investment and inputs are set at achieving health for all but many weaknesses have slowed down the process of development. Poor governance and monitory policy, political influence and budget allocation issues have made it difficult to provide health on equal basis. The current review is aimed to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of healthcare system of Pakistan.
Rachel Nambafu, Sauda Swaleh,
Advances in Research pp 36-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i230296

Abstract:
Levels of vitamins in selected indigenous vegetables in Butula, western Kenya were determined and foods containing high levels of vitamin A and E were used to make food formulation. The bioavailability of these vitamins in food formulation was estimated using algorithm procedure. Determination of β-carotene and α-tocopherol content was done using HPLC procedure. Fresh blanched vegetables contained high levels of β-carotene; 4000 − 9700 µg/100g and α-tocopherol levels; 3000 − 7350 µg/100g. Solar dried vegetables contained β-carotene levels ranging from 572 − 854 µg/g and α-tocopherol levels ranging from 281 to 673 µg/g dry weights. Solar dried vegetables contained significantly lower (P<0.05) amounts of β-carotene and α-tocopherol as compared with fresh vegetables. The mean serum retinol α-tocopherol and β-carotene levels were 0.937, 0.144 and 17.787µmol/l respectively. Bioavailability estimated using algorithm indicated a +2.17 change in serum β-carotene and +7.776 changes in serum α-tocopherol, a positive indication that consumption of indigenous vegetables can meet the recommended dietary allowances of vitamins A (750 µg retinol equivalent/day) and E (8 mg/day). The bioavailable vitamins are capable of boosting the immune system and therefore delay early use of ARV’S.
, G. C. Nnadi
Advances in Research pp 28-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i230295

Abstract:
Aims: The study determined, the causes of stress among final year students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The study further determined coping strategies used in managing stress among final year students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Study Design: Descriptive survey research design Place and Duration of Study: Final year students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria, between 2019/2020. Methodology:Stratified disproportionate random sampling was used to select 360 final year student’s 2019/2020. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled causes of stress and coping strategies questionnaire. Cronbach alpha formula which yielded correlation coefficient of 0.70. Out of 360 copies of the questionnaire administered, 351 were correctly filled and returned giving a percentage return rate of 0.98. Data collected was analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The criterion mean was set at 2.50 and above as agree and below 2.49 as disagree. Results: results presented in Table 1 reports that out of 11 causes of stress listed, respondents rated all the items agreed with mean score ranging from 2.74 to 3.77. Similarly, the grand mean score of 3.16 indicates that final year students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria agreed that the items listed are causes of stress among students. The standard deviation is heterogenous, this implies that the respondents’ scores are widely apart from the mean rating scores. The study further revealed that that out of 11 items listed on coping strategies used in managing stress, the respondents agreed that items 12, 15, 16, 17. 20 and 21 are coping strategies for managing stress while they disagreed on five items as coping strategies used in managing stress. The grand mean score of 2.56 indicates that final year students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria agreed that majority of the items listed are coping strategies used in managing stress. From the standard deviations scores recorded, there is homogeneity in respondents’ ratings. Conclusion: In conclusion, stress exist and is caused by so many factors such as academic pressure, social problem, family stress, financial burden, management skills, uncomfortable classroom, adjustment to new environment among others. It is also concluded that students adopt and employ various coping strategies in managing stress. These strategies range from going for sporting activities when stressed, listening to music, and hanging out with friends and relatives for extra social activities.
, M. D. Oladipupo, I. K. Suleiman, O. L. Jane
Advances in Research pp 12-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i230294

Abstract:
The design of a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) sensor coil for a GARField NMR system was examined. The target design has a diameter about mm and length mm tuned to frequency of MHz at 50 Ω total impedance. Nine different sets of coils were built with different numbers of turns (3, 5, and 7) and different thickness of wire to vary the wire resistance. The report was to examine based on the design parameters the best resonant circuit for a GARField MRI system. The acquired tuning characteristics from these resonant circuits were interpreted using MATLAB scripts and Excel spreadsheet to compare each coil with already existing theory of resonators. This was achieved by matching each resonant circuit using a match and tuning capacitor to the required frequency (22-23.4 MHz) and to 50 Ω total impedance at resonance. It was found that there is no easy method to estimate the inductance of the coil of wire. The result for the experimental inductance was found to be 0.5 µF and resistance of 0.4 Ω for a medium coil of wire with 5 numbers of turns, diameter of 0.45 and length of 0.7 mm. The initial attempt to fit the experimental data to that of the theory failed due to the absence of stray capacitance in the theory. However, when stray capacitor with value ranging between pF was incorporated in parallel with the tank circuit, it was found that both the experiment and theory fit as expected. Three coils were tested in the NMR laboratory using a GARField spectrometer to examine the best coil that will be suitable for NMR experiment. Coils were compared on the basis of signal to noise ratio (SNR) and P90 pulse length. It was found that medium coil of wire with 3 number of turns has the biggest SNR of 177 which is good for NMR procedures. On the other hand, coil with 5 numbers of turns has the shortest P90 pulse length of 2.0 µs which is good for spatial resolution. At all rate, this research have shown how theories are verified through experiment.
W. I. A. Okuyade, T. M. Abbey, M. E. Abbey
Advances in Research pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i230293

Abstract:
Green plants are the major tappers of the energy from the sun. The collected solar energy in the form of light is used to activate the chemical reaction occurring in matured leaves between carbon dioxide and water, leading to the synthesis of sugar (chemical energy). Two main transport processes are involved in the transport of mineral salt water from the soil through the roots, via the trunk and branches to the leaves where photosynthetic activity occurs, and the translocation of sugar from the leaves to where they are needed and possibly, stored. The xylem vessels bear the absorbed mineral salt water while the phloem vessels bear the manufactured sugar. In this study, neglecting the effects of occlusion and clogging of the phloem channels, we investigate the transport of sugars in the merging phloem vessels using the hydrodynamic approach. The model is designed using the Boussinesq approximation and solved semi-analytically using the regular perturbation series expansion solutions and Mathematica 11.2 computational software. Expressions for the concentration, temperature, and velocity are obtained and presented quantitatively and graphically. The results show among others, that increase in the merging angle causes a reduction in the concentration, temperature, and velocity profiles. However, there exists fluctuations in the concentration and temperature structures.
Advances in Research pp 100-110; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i130292

Abstract:
The present study is designed to use FactSage version 7.3 to simulate and predict the ionic speciation of lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in surface water sampled from Woji creek in Rivers State, Nigeria. Along the 3 km stretch (stations 1 to 5) of Woji creek, in-situ records were taken for temperature, pH and electrode potential (Eh); surface water samples to be assessed for Pb and Ni were collected in sterile bottles. Along the creek, surface water Eh is in the order: station 2 > station 4 > station 5 > station 3 = station 1, with mean value of Eh as 140 ± 20 mV. Surface water pH was close to neutral, and in line with: station 4 > station 2 > station 5 > station 1 > station 3; with 6.81 ± 0.13 as the mean value of pH. The trend of temperature values was recorded as: station 1 > station 2 = station 3 = station 4 > station 5; with the mean value deduced to be 25.6 ± 0.4. Mean concentration of Pb and Ni across the creek were 0.92 ± 0.27 mg/l and 0.46 ± 0.23 mg/l respectively. Pb species exists predominantly in the forms: Pb6(OH)84+(aq) (45%), Pb4(OH)44+(aq) (45%). Other forms of Pb present in the surface water are PbO(s) (5%), PbO2(s) (4%) and Pb2+(aq) (1%). NiO(s) had the highest proportion of Ni in the surface water (67%), followed by Ni(OH)2(s) (30%) and Ni2+(aq) (3%). The predicted metallic species could possibly be sorbet to particulates; thereby increase their chances of bioavailability and subsequent ingestion by fishes and other aquatic organisms. This will in turn influence their bioaccumulation via food chain and increase the tendency of risk impact on man and aquatic ecosystem.
, C. A. Nwankwo
Advances in Research pp 92-99; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i130291

Abstract:
Aims: The study determined the relationship between levels of stress and adjustment patterns of retired civil servants, the relationship between levels of stress and adjustment patterns of male retired civil servants, as well as the relationship between levels of stress and adjustment patterns of female retired civil servants in Anambra state, Nigeria. Study Design: The research design was a correlation survey. Place and Duration of Study: Anambra state secretariat office, March 2010 to February 2020. Methodology: The multistage sampling procedure was used to select a sample size of 513 retired civil servants from a population of 1500 retired civil servants in Anambra state (220 male and 252 female) (Source: Anambra state secretariat office, personal/accounts department, 2019). Levels of stress (LOS) and adjustment patterns questionnaires (APQ) were used to collect data which was administered through direct delivery approach. The validity of the questionnaires was carried out by three experts. The reliability coefficient for the levels of stress questionnaire (LSQ) was 0.78, while the reliability coefficient for adjustment pattern questionnaire was 0.85. Research questions 1, 2 and 3 were answered using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r). The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test of correlation. Results: Findings from the study revealed among others that; the relationship between levels of stress and adjustment patterns of retired civil servants is high and positive (r=0.661/n=472), while the relationship between levels of stress and adjustment patterns based on gender of retired civil servants is positively high for male (r=0.703/n=220), and moderately positive for female retired civil servants (r=0.577/n=252). Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that male and female retired civil servants should be encouraged to engage in meaningful activities that will reduce their stress levels. Also, the federal government should look into disbursement of funds and the payment of retired civil servants, the prioritizing of retirees’ payment of pension and gratuities can promote this process. Through this, retired civil servants will meet up financial obligations of their families, and in turn reduce the level of stress they undergo. Conclusion: There is a high positive correlation between levels of stress and their adjustment patterns, it was also found that a high positive correlation between levels of stress and adjustment patterns of male and female retired civil servants in Anambra state. Furthermore, a statistically significant relationship was found between levels of stress and adjustment patterns of retired civil servants.
Lamin S. Darboe,
Advances in Research pp 81-91; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i130289

Abstract:
Commercial production of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai) is increasing in The Gambia, but tephritid fruit flies present a huge challenge to its production. To avoid severe losses, watermelon growers often resort to indiscriminate use of pesticides to manage the pest. Field studies were conducted at two sites (Faraba and Site 3) in the West Coast Region of The Gambia to evaluate two environmentally friendly options (Success Appat (GF-120) and Cocoa Butter Cream) for management of fruit flies on the crop. Dimethoate insecticide, the farmers’ preferred choice, was used as a chemical check and untreated control plots were also maintained. The field plots were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and the treatments were replicated three times. The results of the study showed that, even though three species of fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Dacus vertebratus Bezzi and Zeugodacus cucurbitae Coquillett were collected at both study sites, only D. vertebratus infested watermelon fruits. Both Success Appat (GF-120) and Cocoa Butter Cream reduced watermelon fruit infestation and, generally, provided comparable protection as the check (Dimethoate) to watermelon fruits against fruit flies and therefore would be suitable replacements.
, Christopher Yarkwah, Peter Anayitime
Advances in Research pp 66-80; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i130288

Abstract:
The study focused on use of Constructivism learning approaches to assess formative assessment practices of Mathematics tutors in selected Colleges of Education in Ashanti and Bono Region in Ghana. The study adopted Convergent Parallel research design to guide the study. A sample of 56 Mathematics tutors was sampled through census study. Questionnaire, interview guide and observation checklist were used to collect data from the participants. The study revealed that tutors ensured students participation in the lesson by students asking questions for clarification, writing notes for future reference, taking part in class exercises and participation in group work. It was concluded that the study has brought to the light that tutors ensured students participation in mathematics class using different methods or approaches. This may due to tutors attend professional development to improve their teaching strategies as well as mathematics is concerned.
Advances in Research pp 38-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i130286

Abstract:
This study discusses on the condition assessment of the profile and non-structural factors of the buildings in the University of Eastern Philippines was undertaken to determine the level of functionality of the building as perceived by the end users, to find out the serviceability of the buildings structure, and to assess the profile and non-structural factors of the buildings in the University of Eastern Philippines. The study utilized ocular/visual inspection, data and documents review, applying the instrument made by Coronilli [1], survey questionnaire as perceived by the end users, and the American Concrete Institute (ACI) guidelines on the condition of the selected buildings in the University of Eastern Philippines-Main Campus. Cracking of concrete are classified into structural and non-structural cracks. Non-structural cracking was observed in the buildings inspected and the College of Nursing is the most critical building in terms of cracks of the building. Furthermore, College of Science obtained 3.07 was perceived as most functional building according to the end users. The school buildings which are in need of repair is the College of Nursing buildings.
, Tomola M. Obamuyi, Olalekan A. Jesuleye
Advances in Research pp 49-65; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i130287

Abstract:
Universities are recognised as important sources of knowledge for critical innovative performance of industries through commercialisation of their Research and Development (R&D) outputs otherwise called Academic entrepreneurship. This paper examines the approaches and extent of Academic entrepreneurship of the Federal Universities of Technology in pursuit of sustainable development in Nigeria. The study adopted survey technique with population of all the lecturers in the Universities. A sample size of 528 researchers/lecturers were drawn from the rank of Senior Lecturer to Professor in 16 relevant Departments of the Federal Universities of Technology, Akure (FUTA), Owerri (FUTO) and Minna (FUTM) with a response rate of 67.07%. Descriptive statistics such as percentage and mean; and regression analysis as inferential statistics were employed for data analysis. The result of analysis revealed that a multiple of R&D outputs generated by the reseachers are academic publications (100.0%), copyrights (12.2%), industrial designs (11.40%), patents registered in Nigeria (4.60%), patents registered outside Nigeria (1.6%). Only 20.95% of the researchers claimed to have commercialised their R&D outputs through outright sales of R&D outputs (76.67%), sales of patents (18.33%); and joint venture with industries (8.33%). The regression analysis of data revealed that the academic entrepreneurial and innovative performance of the researchers were influenced by access to research fund (β=36.49, p ≤ 0.01), R&D and innovation incentives (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05), government policy implementations (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05), infrastructure and research facilities (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05), business technical support services (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.01), industrial patronages (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05), industrial partnerships and collaborations (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05) entrepreneurial drive of the researchers (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05), field of research (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05); and business advisory services (β = 36.67, p ≤ 0.05). All the variables contributed 29.74% (R2 = 0.2974) to the academic entrepreneurial and innovative behaviours of the researchers. The study also showed that the contributions of the academic entrepreneurship to sustainable development are improved product/process quality (67.32%), utilisation of local raw material (61.97%), eco-innovation (60.73%), product diversification (54.81%), research-industry partnership (49.05%), increased production capacity (47.22%); and generation of new employment (44.18%). The paper concluded that, there is a marginal improvement in the academic entrepreneurship for sustainable development in Nigeria. However, the need for policy intervention to encourage greater and adequate R&D funding support by government and private organisations is required.
Jeranice Silva Barbosa, , , Flávia Alves Martins, Elusca Helena Muniz, José Augusto Leoncio Gomide, Cláudio Vieira da Silva, , ,
Advances in Research pp 28-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i130285

Abstract:
Aims: Recombinant proteins rP2 has demonstrated biological activity in inflammation by acting on the recruitment of leukocytes and by inducing phagocytosis, also modulating the processes of angiogenesis and fibrogenesis in different experimental models. In this study we evaluated the effects of the recombinant protein rP21 from Trypanosama cruzi in cutaneous wounds. Study Design: The wounds were induced on the back of mice and treated with rP21 at 1 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL concentration, for 3 and 7 days. Study Location and Duration: Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Animal Breeding Network and Rodents of the Federal University of Uberlândia, between February 2015 and February 2016. Methodology: The contraction time of wound, inflammatory cell activities (neutrophils and macrophages), angiogenesis and local collagen density were evaluated. Sample: Wound induction was performed on 64 male BALB / c mice approximately 9 weeks old. Results: Wounds treated with rP21 showed less closure time, in addition to exhibiting greater neutrophil activity in the initial phasis, which was reduced simultaneously with the increased macrophage activity. The rP21 also performed pro-angiogenic and pro-fibrogenic activity in this study model. Conclusion: These results demonstrate for the first time the biological potential of rP21 in accelerating skin tissue repair.
Advances in Research pp 21-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i130282

Abstract:
Due to COVID-19 and following social distancing many face-to-face business as well as educational activities have been replaced by digital ones. Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG4) to achieve quality education for all and lifelong learning will stagnate. But the radical changes within education due COVID-19 also open the way for new forms of lifelong learning by using e-learning platforms - digital lifelong learning. This paper is based on literature review as well as work of the author within the Study Group Lifelong Learning and projects. It presents first critical skills required in the next years for reskilling and methods and pedagogies that should be included into education and training. Secondly the necessity and advantages of digital lifelong learning during and after COVID-19 pandemic and how Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4) will be supported are shortly described. Thirdly how digital lifelong learning methods can be used in entrepreneurship education and some lifelong skills developed within projects worked by the author as well as used methods are discussed. Some conclusions and recommendations are given i.e., entreprene urship educators should be better trained and critical in their methods and educational agencies should foster digital frameworks for entrepreneurship education. Research studies are necessary to know how entrepreneurship educators have embedded digital lifelong learning into their lessons, including positive and negative experiences, and if exists a correlation between a country level of COVID-19, country economic situation, digitalization and digital lifelong learning/entrepreneurship education.
Rachel Nambafu, Sauda Swaleh,
Advances in Research pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i130281

Abstract:
The study involved the determination of β-carotene and α-tocopherol content in selected fresh and dry vegetables (amaranthus, cowpea leaves, nightshade, slender leaf, pumpkin leaves and frying spider) using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) procedure. Fresh blanched vegetables contained high levels of β-carotene; 4000-9700µg/100g and α-tocopherol levels; 3000-7360µg/100g (WW). The solar dried vegetables contained β- carotene levels ranging from 572 to 854µg g-1 dry weight (DW) and α-tocopherol levels ranging from 281 to 673µg g-1 (DW). Solar dried vegetables contained significantly lower (P<0.05) amounts of β-carotene and α-tocopherol which were moderately bioavailable when mixed in good proportion to meet Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of vitamins A and E; which are 750µg retinol equivalent/day and 8mg/day respectively. The results will provide nutritional information on the indigenous vegetables grown in Butula in Busia County.
, Claudine Mawe Noussi, Louise Ndongo Ebongue, Joseph Dika Manga
Published: 23 February 2021
Advances in Research pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2021/v22i130279

Abstract:
This study focuses on the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of a porous material based on a mixture of powder (Volcanic ash /Aluminum Beverage Cans) and a solution of phosphoric acid. Volcanic ash (VA) use was collected in one of the quarries of Mandjo (Cameroon coastal region), crushed, then characterized by XRF, DRX, FTIR and named MaJ. The various polymers obtained are called MaJ0, MaJ2.5, MaJ5, MaJ7.5 and MaJ10 according to the mass content of the additions of the powder from the aluminum beverage cans (ABCs). The physical and mechanical properties of the synthetic products were evaluated by determining the apparent porosity, bulk density, water absorption and compressive strength. The results of this study show that the partial replacement of the powder of VA by that of ABC leads to a reduction in the compressive strength (5.9 - 0.8 MPa) and bulk density (2.56 – 1.32 g/cm3) of the polymers obtained. On the other hand, apparent porosity, water absorption and pore formation within the polymers increases with addition of the powder from the beverage cans. All of these results allow us to agree that the ABCs powder can be used as a blowing agent during the synthesis of phosphate inorganic polymers.
, Evans Ababio
Published: 31 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 91-101; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130273

Abstract:
The drive to win elections by political candidates has resulted in the employment of marketing tools such as celebrity advertising. Celebrities have been engaged in endorsing various political candidates. The current study sought to investigate the influence of celebrity advertisement on young voters’ choice of political candidates in Ghana. The study employed the quantitative technique through regression statistics to establish the influence. A sample of about 400 students (respondents) was drawn for the study. The results showed that there was weak positive but significant influence of celebrity advertisement on young voters’ choice of political candidates. This indicates that political parties that engage celebrities in advertising for their candidates and brands stand the chance of winning over young voters to vote for their candidates. It is recommended that celebrity advertising should be designed in such a way that it could improve the capacity of creating long lasting impact in the minds of young voters, influencing young voters to better recognize political candidates at voting points as well as influencing recalling of political candidates during national elections. Policies makers should put measures in place to regulate the contents and type of adverts that can be run by celebrities for political parties since most of these adverts are directed to and consumed by young voters.
, M. A. Sodunke, T. T. Abatan, O. O. Alagbe
Published: 31 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 46-52; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230283

Abstract:
The developed system consists of a solenoid valve and water pump which are directly linked to a microcontroller (ATMEGA-328PU) unit through a transistor -network based relay switching unit. A soil moisture sensor linked to the soil senses the dryness and wetness of the soil. The microcontroller and soil moisture sensor utilizes a 5V power supply unit given through a regulated supply via a regulator called LM7805.A 12V power supply units activates the normally open units of the relay linked to the solenoid valve and the pump. Whenever the dryness of the soil is sensed, the microcontroller decodes and sends an instruction to the solenoid valve to open and the water pump to start driving the water which is sprinkled through the sprinkler. The performance of the system has been evaluated and the response time is fast.
, Balasubramanian Rudrasamy
Published: 31 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 41-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230280

Abstract:
Aim: The maize is widely grown all parts of the world and it is consumed by all people. This paper studies the impact of climate variability on yield of maize crop in Tamil Nadu using Panel regression analysis. Study Design: Rainfall (max and min), Temperature (max and min) and yield details were collected from the Indian Meteorological Department and crop production reports respectively used for analysis. Place and Duration: Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology: Panel data model was used to estimate crop production functions. Results and Conclusion: The study focused on the impact of climate variability on yield of maize crop in Tamil Nadu using Panel regression analysis. The high rainfall leads to The effect of NEM rainfall on maize yield is dependent on the level of NEM temperature and vice-versa. This is probably because of the fact that in most of the districts in Tamil Nadu, maize is grown as a rainfed crop in north-east monsoon season with lower temperature and hence increase in temperature together with good amount of rainfall would lead to higher yield of maize.
, Manju Mehta, Binoo Sehgal
Published: 31 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 53-61; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230284

Abstract:
In digital payments, payer and payee both use digital modes to send and receive money. It is also called electronic payment. The consumer perception of digital payment has a positive impact on adoption in digital payment. Digital payments refer to electronic consumer transactions, which include payments for goods and services that are made over the internet, mobile payments at point-of-sale (POS) via smartphone applications (apps), and peer-to-peer transfers between private users. The Government also wants a cashless society. It is beneficial in reducing corruption, reducing cost of printing currency and in reducing cost of cash holding. Electronic transactions history and trail can easily be traced back and this would greatly help the economy in eradication of black money and also provide better convenience to the people. The present study was conducted in two districts i.e. Hisar and Bhiwani of Haryana state with objectives: (i) to identify the level of mass media exposure (ii) to assess the buying practices of working and non-working homemakers through a cashless economy. Two wards each were randomly selected from both district headquarter. From each selected wards 50 homemakers having their own bank account were selected purposively through snowball technique. 100 working &100 non-working homemakers were selected thus, total 200 homemakers were selected. A pretested interview schedule was used to collect data. The results showed that 45.00% of working respondents and 71.00% of non-working respondents had medium level of mass media exposure. All the respondents were buying milk & milk products daily, followed by 67.5% respondents were buying fruits and vegetables daily while 42.5% respondents were using public transport services daily.
João Vitor Pereira Leite, Daniela Cristina De Cario Calaça, Pedro Augusto Silva Nogueira, Renata Graciele Zanon,
Published: 31 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 79-90; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130272

Abstract:
Aims: To evaluate the effects of hyperlipidic diet on the mouse prostate and also investigate if physical exercise is able to restore such effects. Methodology: Adult male Swiss mice were fed with a balanced (ND) or hyperlipidic diet (45% saturated fat, HD) for 16 weeks. Half were submitted to a sedentary (NDS and HDS) or exercise routine (swimming- NDE and HDE) for 8 weeks. Then, the prostate was analyzed by immunoreactions (proliferating cell nuclear antigen- PCNA, androgen receptor- AR, and estrogen receptor-ERβ), western blotting (ERK 1/2), and caspase-3 activity. Results: We found that saturated fat uptake promoted 16% weight gain, increased fat-mass and hyperglycaemia, as well as reduced testosterone levels. In addition, HD atrophied prostate secretory epithelium and stimulated cell proliferation through higher expression of AR and activation of ERK signaling. Additionally, saturated fat reduced prostatic ERβ content. Physical exercise per se promoted an anabolic effect by increasing testosterone and stimulating cell proliferation in the prostate of sedentary animals. Finally, exercise was able to restore the proliferative signals caused by the hyperlipidic diet on prostate. Conclusion: We suggest that the combination of hyperlipidic diet and sedentary lifestyle could negatively affected some prostate stimulating pathways that could trigger proliferative diseases in mice and physical exercise may be an interesting strategy to reverse such effects.
, Dimítria Dahmer Santos
Published: 31 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 67-78; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130271

Abstract:
The COVID-19 is a disease that presents a wide variety of combinations and intensities of symptoms, characteristic of a Flu Syndrome (FS), which can quickly evolve to a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the hierarchy of symptoms of FS in patients with SARS caused by COVID-19 and to develop a prediction model for potential cases based on sex and race. Binary logistic regression modeling was used in 405,419 records selected from the database of the Ministry of Health of Brazil. It was found that men were more affected by the disease, with a 15.5% higher risk than women. They also died more, with a 13.8% and 15% higher risk for all causes and for COVID-19, respectively. The chances of more than one non-white patient dying from all causes ranged from 18.4% to 38.7% and for Covid-19 it ranged from 16.7% to 64.3% according to race. Fever, muscle pain and loss of smell or taste alternate in the first three positions of the symptom hierarchy, according to sex and race. Cough was only relevant for white men and sore throat for black men. Vomiting was only relevant for black women. The best prediction model developed encompassed seven symptoms adjusted for age, sex and race, but was able to explain only 63% of the cases of COVID-19. Possibly racial diversity, and the socioeconomic inequality associated with it, make the challenge of estimating probabilities of infection by COVID-19, based on symptoms, more complicated in Brazil than in other countries.
Bárbara Raíssa Ferreira de Lima, Leydianne Leite De Siqueira Patriota, Lidiane Pereira de Albuquerque, Dalila De Brito Marques Ramos, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Emmanuel Viana Pontual, Michelle Melgarejo da Rosa,
Published: 31 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 102-112; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130274

Abstract:
Depression and anxiety disorder are the most common mental disorders worldwide and their treatments are combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. Depression treatment depends largely on a pharmacotherapy that improves the transmission of monoamines in the brain. However, the drugs available have adverse reactions and do not contemplate positively all patients, which stimulates scientific research that seeks new molecules, including from natural sources. Lectins are proteins capable of binding reversibly and non-covalently to specific sugars. For example, it has been reported the antimicrobial, antitumor, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of lectins. The ability of some lectins in modulating nociception and inflammation stimulated studies on the possible effects on processes that share some pathways and molecular agents, like depression and anxiety. Lectins isolated from plants showed antidepressant effects, which were demonstrated to be linked to activation of serotonergic, adrenergic, and dopaminergic systems as well as to inhibition of the glutamatergic system and L-arginine–NO–cGMP pathway. In view of their immunomodulatory properties, it is also suggested that lectins can ameliorate the inflammatory framework associated with depression. Anxiolytic effects were also reported and associated with modulation of GABAergic mechanisms, serotonergic system, and NO pathway. It should be taken in account that some lectins induced depressive-like behavior, associated with an neuroinflammatory action, as well anxiogenic action. Thus, it is important to use combinations of batteries for testing anxiety, depression, despair, and anhedonia behaviors in the studies with lectins. The mechanisms by which lectins exactly modulate depression or anxiety frameworks are still unclear but important windows had already been open by researchers and preclinical studies with lectins have indicated these proteins as candidates for alternative or complementary agents in therapies of depression and anxiety disorder.
Zahid Hossain, S. M. Akram Ullah,
Published: 31 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 31-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230278

Abstract:
Human rights are the essential rights to all for their proper living and proper amplification of the qualities of human personality. These common rights are recognized by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and also incorporated in the constitution of Bangladesh. But in some cases, these rights are violated in many ways. This study is an attempt to depict the causes and challenges for which the senior citizens cannot enjoy these rights properly. Its finding presents the political, administrative and economic challenges of human rights of the elderly people. Study sample of this research consisted of 60 respondents divided into three categories such as old home, general and key respondents. They were both male and female. This study has been conducted on the basis of primary and secondary sources of data collected through face to face interview and content analysis techniques. The finding revealed that a number of challenges and hostilities cumber the senior citizens in the way of their enjoying human rights with satisfaction. 48% of the senior citizens who belong to lower economic class earn their livelihood by begging. Political challenges like insufficient laws, inadequate national economy, corruption and nepotism; administrative challenges like lack of old home, lack of distinct institutions; and the poverty are responsible for this situation. This study recommends that raising moralities and consciousness, creating proper laws and their proper enforcement, establishing old homes, resistant social movement against all sorts of corruption can play an important role to prevent human rights violation of the senior citizens.
Published: 31 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230277

Abstract:
Whole world is affected by Pandemic Covid-19 and it is very critical period for all of us. Due to Pandemic COVID-19, we all got fear and anxiety and result is STRESS, even we can say it is a Pandemic Stress. Impact of Stress in our body is very bad and our physical and mental condition imbalanced. So researcher finds in the paper, that Pandemic stress management in households of Raipur city (CG, India). The data was collected by online questionnaire method, from the 100 respondents of 20-65 year age group, surveyed from Raipur city. The result found by the research that mostly respondents have job stress due to Pandemic covid-19 and affect of this pandemic stress, respondents got mood swings on family members in irritable condition of lockdown period whereas mostly respondents enjoyed lockdown early period as like holiday but increased period of lockdown respondents caused stress due to no movement while and grocery related problem. Respondents got serious effect on mental and physical problem specially due to pandemic. Respondents got fear of covid virus and Headache. Respondents control their stress by spending time with family and respondents learn new things in lockdown period to get rid of from stress. Over all, we found that due to pandemic, respondents got stress by job and they also got some physical and mental problems, but most of the respondents tried to overcome their stress by spending time with family, meditation and learn new things.
, A. S. Dudhat, M. S. Shitap, D. V. Patel
Published: 31 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 16-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230276

Abstract:
The present study was carried out by using time series data of price from 1998 to 2018, to compare the price variation, to measure the price instability of major domestic groundnut markets of Saurashtra region of Gujarat state i.e. Rajkot, Junagadh, Amreli and Gondal. Data were collected from the registers maintained in the respective Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMCs). The price variation had been compared by using descriptive statistics in which Range and standard deviation indicated wide variation in the price level of all the markets as well as markets have positively skewed (γ1 > 0) and mesokurtic (β2 ~ 0) distribution. The price instability based on trend model was measured. Fitting of trend model is done by regressing the variable under consideration on chronological time period. Estimates of fitted cubic trend model for all the markets were significant. Higher instability was observed for Gondal market.
, Diksha Gautam, Indira Bishnoi
Published: 31 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 62-69; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230290

Abstract:
The print media have assumed an essential role in our students’ daily lives. Print media has demonstrated an intense effect on students/school-going children. Print media is not necessary to have negative impact to children but also has a positive value to them. This study investigates that print media helpful in the academic performance of students selected from two different (one public and one private) schools of Varanasi city using a self-structured questionnaire as a tool for obtaining data while frequencies distribution and percentages of data were conducted to know comprehensively about data. It targeted 120 students between 11 to 19 years age group and find out that the print media helpful for their academic performance and the study also recorded the student’s subject stream, access print media sources, helpful in their academic achievements, encourage students to do something new, innovative, creative and different with their academic projects and assignments and got help from the print media sources. The result of the study revealed that cent percent of the selected students’ for the study were accessed print media sources by both public and private schools students. The majority of the students from both schools were encouraged by print media to do new and innovative things with their academic projects and assignments and also the majority of the student stated that print media sources were helpful in their academic performance in most of the cases. So, it was concluded from this study that printed sources are still prefered first in compare comparison to electronic mediums. Print media sources are useful in their academics because it covers so many educational and informative issues.
, O. Gillian Igbum, O. John Igoli, Salawu R. Adenike, Afolabi A. Adewale, Enenche E. Daniel
Published: 31 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1230275

Abstract:
The present study investigated the nutritional and phytochemical properties of seeds oils and flours from Pachira aquatica seed cultivated in Nigeria. Proximate composition and phytochemical composition were determined by standard methods while mineral content of the seed flours and oil was determined using Thermo Scientific iCAP 6200 Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) and Agilent 7900 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The oil which was extracted using Soxhlet extraction method had a yield of 44.43%. The proximate composition of the flour gave carbohydrate 18.12%; moisture 9.74%; protein 19.90%; ash 4.11%; fat 44.43; fibre 3.70%; while phytochemicals showed that phenol was 4.90 mg/100 g; Tannins 0.76 mg/100g; flavonoids 0.68 mg/100 g; glycosides 17.54%; saponins 6.03% and alkaloids 10.68%. Macro-element concentrations from the seed oil and seed flour respectively were 63.55 and 10611.74 mg/Kg K; 22.38 and 628.44 mg/Kg Mg; 67.55 and 4007.86 mg/Kg P; 52.65 and 1387.00 mg/Kg Ca; 17.95 and 35.23 mg/Kg Na. Micro-elements were 4.18 mg/Kg and 24.59 mg/Kg Cu; 4.43 mg/Kg and 40.16 mg/Kg Fe; 1.50 and 9.61 mg/Kg Mn; 2.92 mg/Kg and 25.68 mg/Kg Zn; 2.74 mg/Kg and 15.40 mg/Kg Al; 0.82 ( mg/Kg103) and 2.27 ( mg/Kg103) Ni; 1.11 ( mg/Kg103) and 3.30 (mg/Kg103); 3.55 (mg/Kg103) and 17.19 (mg/Kg103) B; 0.20 (mg/Kg103) and 0.40 ( mg/Kg103) Mo; 0.01 (mg/Kg103) and 0.03 (mg/Kg103) Se. Toxic elements recorded 0.17 and 0.85 µg/Kg Cr; 0.18 and 0.23 µg/Kg Co; 0.01 and 0.01 µg/Kg As; 0.01 and 0.02 µg/Kg Cd; and 0.09 and 0.11 µg/Kg Pb for the seed oil and seed flour respectively. The investigation showed that Pachira aquatica seed is safe and nutritious for domestic purposes and industrial applications. The energy value indicates that the seed is a good alternative source of energy and could be taken when energy given food is required as it falls within the recommended energy dietary allowances especially for children. The bioactive properties of Pachira aquatica seed shows that it has medicinal potential worth exploring for pharmacological purposes.
Edin Ramić, Ensar Salkić, Besim Salkić
Published: 22 December 2020
Advances in Research pp 60-66; https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2020/v21i1130270

Abstract:
Srebrenica, this small town in the northeastern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, has been described for centuries as a picturesque place, rich in healing waters, ores, and diverse cultural heritage. Today, Srebrenica is a symbol of suffering and suffering, but also of missed opportunities for the renewal of life and economy in this area. In the work we present, we deal with potentials that can renew life in the Srebrenica area. Thanks to its unique and very abundant natural resources, Srebrenica has been inhabited since ancient times, presumably since the Illyrians. Guber mineral water was used as a medicine for the treatment of skin diseases even before the arrival of the Romans in this area. The first written traces of mineral springs near Srebrenica were made by the Turkish travel writer Evlija Čelebija in the 17th century, traveling through BiH, and the Austro-Hungarians bottled the mineral water of the Spa "Guber" and sold it throughout the monarchy ("Guber-voda"). Mineral water has been bottled and exported since 1887. In 1886, the first scientific research of mineral springs was carried out in the area of the municipality of Srebrenica, when Viennese researchers recorded the existence of 48 mineral springs. Special attention of the Austro-Hungarian researcher prof. Dr. Ernes Ludwig was attracted by water from the source of the Velikog or Crni Guber, whose analysis was an excellent combination of minerals for the treatment of anemia. In 1956, the Federal Ministry of Health of the SFRY and the Federal Institute of Medicines Commissions from Belgrade declared Crni Guber water a medicine. Thus, Crni Guber water is the only water that has been declared a medicine in the former Yugoslavia. In the pre-war period, the total annual income of Banja Guber ranged from 1,200,000 to 1,500,000 US dollars. The company operated successfully until the last war in which, due to the war, there was a complete or partial destruction of certain facilities. The aim of this paper is to determine the potential impact of Srebrenica medicinal water resources on the development of tourism, agriculture and economy. Development of health tourism, increase of accommodation capacities, integration of agricultural producers and other activities enables rural development. By increasing the number of newly employed workers, household budgets, but also the overall economic development of Srebrenica, water could renew life in this area again.
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