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Manu Seyfzadeh
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 05, pp 187-223; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2017.54012

Abstract:
After the step pyramids of the Third Dynasty and before the true pyramids of the Fourth Dynasty, seven mysterious minor step pyramids were built by King Sneferu1 and a predecessor. None of them were tombs. Clues as to why they were built emerged from analyzing their orientation to objects in the sky worshiped by the ancient Egyptians and hinted at a renewed preoccupation with measuring time and the flow of the Nile. The first of the seven was built on the Island of Elephantine, Egypt. Its orientation suggests that an aspect of the star Sirius was being enshrined. This paper proposes that this aspect pertained to the different timings of its annual invisibility period observable from either the capital at Memphis in Lower Egypt or from Upper Egypt at Elephantine. I argue that these periods, measured in days, were converted to dimensions in cubits, and consequently these numbers and the resulting geometric relationships between them became important. The evidence presented shows that this original design principle of expressing astronomic periods as dimensions was then expanded to encode the relationship between the period of invisibility of Sirius and the sidereal orbital period of the Moon within the exterior of several of the most prominent pyramids of Egypt including the Great Pyramid. The geometry of this relationship and even the method of the expansion itself can be understood from a religious context plausibly prevailing during the peak of the Pyramid Age.
Cheng Xue, Yingzhi Xu
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 05, pp 178-186; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2017.53011

Abstract:
The jade dagger-axe is a significant ritual artifact in prehistoric China and therefore has been the subject of much discussion among archaeologists and historians. The authors compare the jade dagger-axe and the axe in terms of the morphological features, the means of hafting, and the use in burial ritual. It appears that the shape of the jade dagger-axe is the result of improving the axe. The means of hafting the jade dagger-axe is generally identical to that of the axe. The ritualization of the jade dagger-axe follows that of the axe. Therefore, the jade dagger-axe may have originated from the axe.
Manu Seyfzadeh, ,
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 05, pp 163-177; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2017.53010

Abstract:
To date, no unequivocal textual reference to the Great Sphinx has been identified prior to Egypt’s New Kingdom. Here, we present evidence that the monument we now know as the Great Sphinx was called Mehit and that this name was part of an exclusive title held only by the highest officials of the royal Egyptian court going back to at least early dynastic times, i.e. prior to the time of the Great Sphinx’s generally presumed construction during the 4th Dynasty. Furthermore, the symbolic origins of this title precede the 4th Dynasty by at least five centuries, going back to the very cradle of writing during the earliest dynastic era of the early Nile civilization. Based on this philological evidence corroborating geological and archeo-astronomical evidence previously published, we conclude that a lion-like stone monument existed on the Giza Plateau long before the Great Sphinx is generally believed to have been made and that early dynastic Egyptians referred to it in writing.
G. T. Tomezzoli, S. Colliou
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 05, pp 142-162; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2017.53009

Abstract:
In previous articles different German radar bases have been considered. The preservation states of their components and their organization have been analyzed. This article further deepens the theme of the German radar surveillance during the WW II on the Atlantic Wall by taking into consideration the German radar camp of Saint-Pabu (Finistère-FR) and its defence Stützpunkte Re 03, Re 04. Its history, the preservation state of its components, its organization and how said components have been integrated in a modern urban contest are described.
Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 05, pp 116-141; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2017.53008

Abstract:
In previous articles dedicated to various German military structures of the Atlantic Wall in West Brittany, the preservation state and the organization of their components have been analyzed. The components have generally been found in a good preservation state without damages due to combats or bombardments. This is not the case of the components of the German coastal artillery battery HKB1274/StP C342 described in this article. The article shows also the organization of the battery, how it integrated pre-existing French military structures and how a massive allied air bombardment affected it.
Hugo G. Nami, María T. Civalero
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 05, pp 101-115; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2017.53007

Abstract:
The early Holocene archaeological record in Northwest Santa Cruz province in southern Argentina is remarkable in its richness. Among the lithic remains, most notable is a stemless triangular projectile point dating to ~8.5 - 10 uncalibrated kya. As part of a long term program directed to explore and understand diverse aspects of lithic technologies from Patagonia, this paper reports new observations on a set of notable unifacial tools existing in the assemblage accompanying them. Based on archaeological and experimental data we hypothesize they were produced from thick flake-blanks with one face totally or partially covered by flake scars sometimes reaching the longitudinal symmetry axis. This fact suggests that before being finished, it was reduced by detaching flakes from the edge to its center. This recent technological discovery allowed deepened on a new regional issue related with early Holocene unifacial tools that emerge as a peculiar style of covering unifacial flaking with subtle production differences to other similar implements. Together with the triangular points, this particular way of preforming the tool before and/or during the final shaping might be another distinctive manufacturing technique used by early Holocene hunter-gatherers in the area.
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 129-139; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.34012

Abstract:
Bronze was imported to Scandinavia from the East Mediterranean. This trading started about 1750 BC. At just the same time amber from the Baltic started to appear in Mycenaean and Minoan graves. This gives evidence of active trading between the Mediterranean and Scandinavia. The sudden appearance of picture of large ships cut into bedrock surfaces and blocks at about the same time suggests that this trading took place via visitors arriving by ships. The size of the ships seems to preclude a stepwise transfer via the river systems between the Black Sea and the Baltic, but rather a travel over the Atlantic Sea. This calls for sea-worthy ships and knowledge in geography. In the Bronze Age, only the Mycenaean, Minoan and Phoenician cultures had such ships and such skill. Reaching this far north by 1750 BC in ships following the Atlantic coast of Europe implies that those people may as well have reached much further to the south and the west than previously assumed.
William E. Brooks
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 05, pp 95-99; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2017.52006

Abstract:
A horn spoon is a modern gold prospector’s field assay tool that is used to determine the amount of gold in an alluvial or crushed gold ore sample. The modern horn spoon is ∼16 cm long, concave, flared at one end, and is made from a black ox-horn. The rough, black interior of the horn spoon holds and shows the gold “colors” or chispitas. Four Pre-Columbian ceramic spoons recovered from the El Brujo archaeological site in northern Perú are similar in length, concave form, flared lip, and most importantly, have post-firing, black-painted interiors. The similarities in size, form, shape and especially the interior color indicate that these ceramic spoons are consistent with use as ancient gold assay tools.
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 05, pp 79-94; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2017.52005

Abstract:
In this paper, we present a brief synthesis of the record of Fell or Fishtail points found in northeast Argentina, including the first two records for Misiones province. To date, 11 pieces have been identified in the region, which demonstrate techno-morphological similarities with specimens recovered in different areas of South America, which are linked to Paleoamerican groups of the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. Although these points are still scarce in this area, this is probably due to the lack of research and issues related to archaeological visibility. These new records increase the density of findings of these early hunter-gatherers on the South American Atlantic slope.
Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 05, pp 61-78; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2017.52004

Abstract:
The reading of literature concerning the Atlantic Wall and of the previously published articles may have conveyed the concept that the German military structures of the Atlantic Wall were formed by Regelbauten (rule-built con-structions) (Rs). This concept is not totally wrong, but leads to neglect the im-portant role played by the verstärktenfeldmäΒigen Bauwerke (strengthened field constructions) (Vfs) normally included in said structures. The present article, concerning the visit of the site of the WW II German heavy artillery battery of Cleus Foz (Finistère-FR) and the discussion of its organization, show that the Vfs in this battery represented the majority of its bunkers, and in this way indicate how said concept should be corrected.
William E. Brooks, , Zeynep Cansu
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 05, pp 42-59; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2017.51003

Abstract:
In the ancient world gold was mined mainly from alluvial occurrences using gravity methods combined with the use of mercury (amalgamation), a method that is still used today in small-scale alluvial gold mines worldwide. Cyanide, which was first used in the 1880s, is used in large-scale hardrock mines to recover gold, silver, copper, and other metals from porphyry and disseminated ore deposits. Therefore, amalgamation must be considered, or specifically in the case of Sardis, reconsidered as the technology for ancient alluvial gold mining. Evidence that includes: the availability of cinnabar, the ore of mercury; an ancient mercury retort; ancient use of cinnabar as a pigment and mercury for gilding and amalgamation; the very fine-grained alluvial gold at Sardis; and the composition of the end-product gold, a Byzantine coin. These all indicate that amalgamation must be considered as the mining technology that supplied gold to Sardis’ ancient refineries and craftsmen.
Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 05, pp 22-41; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2017.51002

Abstract:
In a previous article (Tomezzoli, 2016), the issue of the German radar surveillance around the Aber Wrach in Brittany has been identified. Purpose of this article is to provide replies to said issue presenting the radar bases of Keringar Vihan, Kervingam-Kerdené and Vougo-Kerizoc. If the visits on the sites permitted to determine precisely the actual preservation state of these radar bases, the memories of the witnesses have enriched this information by identifying non-evident or completely disappeared structures, adding anecdotal and historical information and confirming the recites of archival documents. It is therefore evident that this successful dual procedure should be intensified and extended to all the future studies concerning the Atlantic Wall and, in general, to all the contemporary military structures, as long as surviving primary witnesses will be available. A megalithic stone circle discovered on the site of the radar base of Kervingam-Kerdené is presented.
Gérard Lucotte, Thierry Thomasset
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 05, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2017.51001

Abstract:
As a contribution to the scientific knowledge of the Turin Shroud, we have studied by SEM-EDX a small hair fragment (14 × 9 μ) contained in a blood stain located in the Face between the two eyebrows. SEM study of this fragment shows the typical human scale hair pattern. EDX analysis of the fragment indicates that it is mainly made of organic matter, plus a little sulphur peak. The hair fragment was at both cut extremities with a razor blade formed of copper. Comparisons with present hairs of different sorts show that the hair fragment is a shaven down-hair. High-resolution SEM analysis of the pattern of residual melanosomes on the hair surface explains the blond-red colour of this hair observed in optical microscopy.
Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli, Louis L. Pottier
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 04, pp 125-142; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2016.44010

Abstract:
The Festung (Fortress) Saint-Malo was defended by about 500 German military structures constructed, in the period December 1941-June 1944, under the direction of the Organisation Todt. They diversify from simple tobrucks (Vf 58, Vf 61) up to the great bunkers of the Cité d’Alet. This article is a survey presenting some of them on the East side of the Festung, deemed of interest. Many of them remain visible and accessible and witness the confidence of the Germans in static military offensive and defensive structures. The Kullak artillery battery, the Pointe de la Varde support point, the Bastion de Saint Ideuc base, the Hôpital des Rosais base have lost their military value and because of their obsolescence with respect to the modern military doctrines based on a rapid first strike and precision bombing, they will never recover a military one. Their bunkers remain silent witnesses of a recent tragic period in the life of Saint-Malo. On the contrary, the bunkers of the Les Ormeaux artillery battery and the cisterns of the Ville Besnard logistic base are well integrated in the urban context and support the actual exigencies of Saint-Malo.
Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 04, pp 170-199; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2016.44012

Abstract:
In order to prevent a possible allied landing on the Grève de Goulven, the Organization Todt prepared for the Wehrmacht (German Army), in the frame of the Atlantikwall, many military structures crewed in a close defence line formed by Wn,s. close around the Grève and in a far defence line formed by St.P.s for directing and supporting the fire of the Wn.s. Purpose of this article is to identify said military structures and investigate their preservation state. The lack of an allied landing in the Grève and the prompt retreat, on 6-8 August 1944, of the German troops inside the Festung Brest, upon the arrival of the US Army, provided a unique occasion to visit German military structure practically intact, and had a unique occasion for investigating these structures, their preservation state and the interaction of the today’s population with them.
Soraya Estavi, Zahra Asghari, Ali Aarab, Reza Rezaloo, Aliye Amirinejad
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 04, pp 119-124; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2016.43009

Abstract:
The newly-discovered petroglyphs (at Tang-e Birzal) have located at a mountainous area, in 26 kilometers away from the northeastern point of Kohgiluye va Buier Ahmad Province, in pursuant of a nomadic trek road, and near Mondan village at Sarfaryab district of Charam town. These reliefs were found by a field consideration in 2013, but they have not introduced yet. These reliefs and drawings in this site (Tang-e Birzal) are divided into two categories: Geometric and Animal. The geometric reliefs and drawings have smallest number. These samples are like symbolic and meaningless signs and a personal name that has been possibly craved in the recent years. The animal reliefs and drawings like mountain goat have been created in the different sizes. These reliefs have been shallowly craved on the two lime rocks with the 5 meters away from each other. But some of these drawings have deeply carved at the first complex. These samples bring some questions to mind about their creators and their era and what kind goal has been behind them? A comparison between the petroglyphs’ chronicle accrued to the Tang-e Birzal and other samples in the various points of Iran shows that some of these petroglyphs are related to the 2nd Iron Era (based on their carving type and morphology) and that some other samples are associated to the history period. This paper is aimed to consider the complex 1 and 2, their structural style, artistic motifs, pictures and their related era.
Gérard Lucotte
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 04, pp 103-117; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2016.42008

Abstract:
Aim: We have studied the only found three skin debris (P1, P2 and P3) deposited on the Face area of our sample of the Turin Shroud. Methods: P1, P2 and P3 were explored by optical microscopy, by SEM and by EDX analysis. Results: All P1, P2 and P3 are true skin debris, as observed in optic and electronic microscopy; their elementary compositions show organic matter, plus a sulphur peak that corresponds to keratin. P1, P2 and P3 are constituted of layers of corneocytes; in P3, which is certainly a human skin debris, we can observe both the epidermis and some residual dermis.
Rodney Hale, Andrew Collins
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 04, pp 87-102; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2016.42007

Abstract:
There have been many books and articles written with the purpose of trying to express an underlying master plan for the major pyramids of the Giza plateau. In this paper, a simple yet accurate geometrical layout, which also includes the Sphinx monument, is demonstrated with the aid of a well-known and widely used computer program. Furthermore, the positions of stars may be added to the same program, enabling the correlation of star positions to pyramids during the time frame of their construction to be determined with accuracy and simplicity.
Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 04, pp 69-86; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2016.42006

Abstract:
The investigation of the organization, evolution and preservation state of the Neubiberg airfield near Munich (Bavaria-Germany), now at seventy years after the conclusion of the World War II, reveals that its preservation state is good but menaced by the installation of sport facilities and the possible further expansion of the areas of the municipalities of Neubiberg, Unterhaching and of the Federal Army University. On 1991 at the end of the military operations, the airfield has not resumed its original role of sport airfield that is the reason of its construction. This would have ensured its operative survival and the survival of a landing place for aircrafts in distress.
Salah Hussein A. Al-Houdalieh
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 04, pp 48-67; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2016.41005

Abstract:
Khirbet et-Tireh was inhabited during the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Early Islamic periods, and was later used as agricultural land throughout the Ottoman-Turkish period and down to modern times. The ancient settlement has been determined to cover a total area of approximately 30,000 square meters. However, 75 percent of its historic fortified space has been destroyed over the past few decades by the construction of roads, a school, a gas station and several residential structures on its northern part. The surviving architectural remains at the Khirbet include a system of fortifications, a Byzantine monastery, two Byzantine-era churches, a rock-cut reservoir, a cistern, water channels, a rock-cut olive press, several burial caves, a street (or a wide pathway corridor), and several dry-stone terrace walls. The unearthed part of the eastern church complex measures 28.8 m long along its east-west axis and a maximum of 25.5 m wide in its north-south dimension. It follows a basilical plan and consists of five main parts: four south side rooms, an atrium, a narthex, a main hall, and three northeast side rooms. The entire area of the church was once paved with mosaic carpets consisting of geometric and figurative designs, with the richly colored tesserae encompassing various shades of white, black, grey, yellow, orange, pink, wine red, green and blue. Furthermore, remains of two plaster layers were uncovered on the interior faces of the majority of the walls of the church complex. After the final consolidation and conservation of the mosaic pavements of the church, as a protective measure we are covering the mosaics with a permeable, plastic-mesh geotextile, topped by a layer of sieved soil 0.25 m thick.
Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 04, pp 37-47; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2016.41004

Abstract:
In general, history, structure and life in the German military bases in France during the period of the Occupation are not well known because of the past military secrecy and the present lack of surviving witnesses and relevant documentation. However, in the case of the German base at Mûrs-Erigné, much information is now available through the researches of Mr. Suquet and my ascertainment on the terrain of the preservation state of its vestiges following the memory duty proposed by Mr. Suquet.
Shimoda Ichita, Haraguchi Tsuyoshi, Chiba Tatsuro, Shimoda Mariko
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 04, pp 22-36; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2016.41003

Abstract:
Numerical topographic data acquired through airborne laser scanning (LiDAR) performed at the Angkor Archaeological Park in Cambodia in April 2012 has revealed a large number of heretofore obscured water channels and ponds (Evans et al., 2013). Using this data, a high-resolution red relief image map (RRIM) was created of areas inside and outside the moated royal capital of Angkor Thom built during the latter half of the 12th century. The land around Angkor Thom is extensively covered by tropical jungle which has relatively well preserved the original urban structures and middle/post-Angkorian period modifications and renovations by escaping human-induced surface alteration except for the tourism-related infrastructure and renovations from the 20th century onward. The RRIM provided a new visualization method of localizing, minute topographical changes in regions with large undulations over a wide area. It has proved to be effective in mapping, on a single wide-area map, the numerous buried remains that exist as comparable height differences or minute undulations measuring less than 1 meter in height, and provides a unique aerial view of their widespread distribution. Based on the RRIM map, past archaeological studies were referenced to reconstruct the layout of the water channel network system. Past studies revealed that a large number of ponds had been dug inside Angkor Thom. The RRIM expanded the investigation and revealed the existence of many ponds outside the royal capital indicating that a residential community had flourished outside the moat-surrounded capital city. This paper was discussed the functional aspects of the water channel network and ponds that utilized the gentle gradient of the natural land to overcome the climatic induced environmental changes that were characterized by an extreme divide between the rainy and dry seasons.
William E. Brooks, Mario Bermúdez Restrepo, Angela M. Cadena
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 04, pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2016.41002

Abstract:
The alluvial environment of the Supía-Marmato mining district, in the Rio Medio Cauca region, Colombia, provided coarse and fine-grained gold that was used for prehispanic gold work and also fine-grained, gold-bearing sediments that were used for ceramic production. Three ceramic fragments, identified as Marrón Inciso—Quimbaya Clasico, were submitted for geochemical analysis in order to determine their elemental composition—the ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) data indicated: 2 - 8 ppm Ag; 91 - 367 ppm Au; 1 ppm Hg; 9 - 73 ppm Pt; 10 - 47 ppm Ni; 11 - 60 ppm Pb; and one sample contained 34,800 ppm Cu. The Rio Medio Cauca is a broad north-south zone that runs from Cauca Dept., in the south, to Medellin, Antioquia Dept., in the north. This region also hosts numerous mineral occurrences and mines such as Marmato (Au-Ag) and La Colosa (Au-Cu). We conclude that this is the first study to define and establish a link between the metal content of prehispanic ceramics and Au, Ag, Cu, and Pt occurrences in Colombia.
Vincenzo Orofino, Paolo Bernardini
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 04, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2016.41001

Abstract:
Since long time various qualitative speculations have been proposed about the link between the three major Giza pyramids and the stars. In particular, according to a popular and controversial hypothesis (the so-called Orion Correlation Theory), a perfect coincidence would exist between the mutual positions of the three stars of the Orion Belt and those of the main Giza pyramids. In the present paper, this apparent coincidence has been subjected to some statistical verifications, in order to assess the probability that the correlation between stars and pyramids, both in relative position and in luminosity/height, can be merely due to the case. These statistical analyses have been performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and have been coupled with previous astronomical/astrophysical tests of the presumed correlation, finding that the coincidence does not seem to be fortuitous and that it is compatible with the naked-eye astrometry and photometry of the Orion Belt stars. On the contrary, unlike what stated by another popular and controversial theory (the so-called Cygnus-Giza Correlation), we have found no coincidence between the mutual positions of the three pyramids and those of the three stars of the short arm of the asterism of Northern Cross, in the Cygnus constellation.
, Daiki Niikuma, Ryota Watanabe
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 179-207; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.34015

Abstract:
To elucidate regional differences in the chemical composition of cuneiform clay tablets originating from Iraq and Turkey, chemical analysis was conducted using portable X-ray fluorescence analyzers. The analysis included clay tablets from the 21 areas of Ur, Larsa, Lagash, Uruk, Umma, Adab, Drehem, Nippur, Kish, Borsippa, Dilbat, Babylon, Sippar, Nusi, Nimrud, Nineveh, Tell Brak, Tell Halaf, Boghazkoy, Kultepe, and Alalakh, currently stored in the Yale Babylonian Collection at Yale University and the British Museum. Multivariate statistics such as principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, and cluster analysis were applied to the chemical analysis results. Based on the chemical compositions for Ca, K, and Fe, the clay tablets were classified into four groups corresponding to the upper stream area of the Tigris and Euphrates River, the lower stream area of the Tigris and Euphrates River, the northern and central areas in Turkey, and the southern area in Turkey. This grouping was determined mainly by a difference in Ca content dictated by the local geology.
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 158-178; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.34014

Abstract:
We studied by SEM-EDX analysis the pollens on the Face of the Turin Shroud. A total of ten pollen grains were found; they were photographed, characterised and analysed. Three of them (pollens p6, p7 and p10) belong to Ceratonia siliqua, the carob tree; one of them (pollen p1) belongs to Balanites aegyptiaca (the palm tree of the desert), and another one (pollen p9) belongs to Cercis siliquastrum (the Judean tree). These three plants have their geographical distributions in the Near-East; that is indicative of a Palestinian origin of the Turin Shroud. Two pollen grains (p3 and p4) belong to Myosotis ramosissima. Probably myositis flowers were deposited later on the Turin Shroud, as reverence for this venerable and symbolic object.
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 140-157; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.34013

Abstract:
Tam Hang rock shelter was excavated in 1934 by the French geologist Jacques Fromaget who discovered 13 skeletons and a lot of stone tools. But after the second War World, the lithic assemblages were lost. Then the site was forgotten since 2003, when the department of archaeology of the Lao Ministry of Culture relocated it and made with a French team a new prospection. In 2007 and after seven campaigns of excavations, a lot of archaeological materials had been found in two new areas opened at Tam Hang South and Tam Hang Central. More than 9000 specimens of stone have been found. This article proposes to give a new approach of the whole stratigraphy with C14 dating. It also makes a characterization of the lithic assemblage which belongs to the Hoabinhian techno-complex.
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 114-127; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.33011

Abstract:
A research program directed to deepening the knowledge and understanding of Paleo-American “fishtail” points is being carried out. In pursuit this goal, lithic remains from Cerro Largo department, northeastern Uruguay is examined. One of the samples comes from Paso Centurión, a surface site that has yielded the greatest number of fishtail points in Uruguay. There, and at the Paso Taborda site, several exemplars were reworked as scraping tools, constituting a peculiar case of stone tool recycling and reclaiming by post-Pleistocene hunter-gatherers. The examined collection shed new light on regional lithic assemblages, stone tool behavior and the early colonization of southeastern South America. Additionally, the study of other Uruguayan fishtails show the use of edge-to-edge and overshot flaking, technical features shared with Paleoindian fishtailed points from North and Central America. Similarities with other Paleoindian points from both hemispheres of the New World in relation to the SouthAmerican fishtail origins are discussed.
, Nuno O. Martins, Nuno Ribeiro, Anabela Joaquinito
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 104-113; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.33010

Abstract:
We present here evidence of pre-Portuguese presence in the Azores Islands, Portugal, found near the site of Grota do Medo (Posto Santo), discovered by Rodrigues (2013) in Terceira Island, Azores. This evidence was dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, and indicates the presence of human activity in Terceira Island before or during the XIth century. The evidence consisted in a man-made rock basin, which was found in a site that contains also striking similarities with many other aspects from ancient cultures, including other man-made rock basins, arrangements of large stones which resemble megalithic constructions, and inscriptions in stones which resemble ancient petroglyphs. Although the dating of this evidence is highly suggestive of the presence of human activity in the Azores Islands long before the arrival of the Portuguese navigators of the XVth century, there is no clear evidence which enables us to identify which specific culture may have existed in the Azores before the Portuguese arrival.
, , Romina Silvestre
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 85-103; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.33009

Abstract:
The projectile points known as Fishtail or Fell represent a specific design associated with the earliest hunter-gatherers of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in South America. Brazil was traditionally considered as a marginal area of their distribution because in the past there were only a small number of findings known, often inadequately documented. In this paper we present a general and unified overview of the Brazilian record, including previously unpublished metric, technological and stylistic features. Also, we report on new findings of fishtail points in order to expand the amount of information currently available. Some issues related to these records are also evaluated by comparing them with data from the Uruguayan plains and the Argentinean pampas. The general picture that emerges after this analysis shows a growing record of fishtail projectile points in southern Brazil, demonstrating a significant presence of these early paleo-South American populations.
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 72-84; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.32008

Abstract:
Archaeointensity data have been obtained successfully using the Thellier-Coe protocol from twelve potsherds recovered from the vicinity of the “Piramide del Sol”, Teotihuacan, Mexico. In order to understand the magnetic behavior of the samples, we have conducted low-field versus temperature (k-T) experiments to determine the magnetic carriers of the pre-Columbian artefacts, as well as Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM), hysteresis loops and back-fields TESTS. The Curie temperatures indicate the presence of at least three magnetic mineral phases (238°C - 276°C, 569°C - 592°C, and 609°C - 624°C). The predominant Curie temperatures for these samples are typical of Ti-poor magnetite. The results of the magnetic grain size analyses indicate that if the magnetic mineral in a sample is only magnetite, the distribution on the modified Day et al. (1977) diagram yields specimens in the Single (SD), Pseudo (PSD) and Superparamagnetic (SP) domain ranges. The successfully absolute paleointensity determinations in this study using the Thellier-Coe protocol have yielded an average paleointensity of 38.871 +/- 1.833 m-Teslas (N = 12), and a virtual geomagnetic dipole moment of 8.682 +/- 0.402 × 1022 A/m2 which is slightly lower than the present field strength and which corresponds to an age interval between 500 and 430 AD. Thus, our results correlate well with the recently published CALS3K.4 curve and the incipient archaeointensity reference curve for the Mesoamerican paleo-field results. Therefore, the age of the artefacts would correlate well with absolute the early classic Teotihuacan cultural period.
, Calvin J. Heusser
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 62-71; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.32007

Abstract:
This article reports the results of the palynological analysis obtained from one of the archaeological profiles exposed at Cueva del Medio, a Paleoindian site located at the southern tip of South America (Ultima Esperanza, Chile). The earliest occupation is located over a sand layer which follows the natural slope of the sedimentological matrix of the cave. The findings of this level are significant, as they demonstrate a clear Paleoindian context, linking humans with extinct fauna. Based on the palynological analysis and previous results obtained in the region, the environmental setting of Cueva del Medio is described. Paleoindian occupations of the cave, estimated to date from approximately 11 - 10 kya, may have taken place at about the time of initial, albeit ephemeral, Nothofagus expansion. Climate becoming more mesic was evidently transitory, and possibly favored some development of arboreal communities. Summer drought for a time afterward, in turn, was less favorable to the spread of trees, as inferred by the successive prevalence of steppe.
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 51-61; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.32006

Abstract:
The oldest cave art known is of prehistoric origin, dating back to approximately 40,000 years ago in both Asia and Europe. The megalithic constructions in Western Europe and the Mediterranean Region took place mainly in the Neolithic and continued until the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age. The Azores Islands did not seem to have been occupied before the arrival of the Portuguese navigators in the XVth century. Because of that, it was not expected that megalithic structures would be found, or structures that resembled megalithic tombs and rock art in the Azores Islands, geographically located in the Center of the North Atlantic, at 1500 km west of Lisbon (Portugal) and about 1900 km southeast of Newfoundland (Canada). These findings seem to be, historically, a paradox. In a first moment, an oral presentation was made about these findings by the author at the 16th Annual Mediterranean Studies Association Congress, and after that, a field trip took place with the archeologists present at the stated Congress. The perplexity was the dominant conduct of the guests, and some hypotheses that certain archaeologists mentioned were evolved versions which had not been empirically corroborated. Afterwards, new findings were registered at Grota do Medo site, helping to make clear that larger stones had been used to construct structures or monuments. The rock art surrounding the megalithic constructions in the Azores also has similarities with those found in Europe. If these findings belong to the Bronze Age or Iron Age, it can reopen new scientific questions about ancient mid-Atlantic crossings. The present article tries to establish ties among the megalith constructions found in the Azores with those known in Europe.
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 02, pp 83-89; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.23010

Abstract:
The article presents the author’s concept of information modeling of the world, based on the leading role of solar navigation (orientation in space-time by the sun). The concept was developed in the course of comprehensive research on the main patterns of use of information resources (semiotics) during the exploration of nature of geographical space by humans. The objects of the study were the monuments of ancient material culture of European Russia and Southern Siberia. The applied field research methods include survey, description, observation, work with maps and Earth remote sensing, as well as methods of mathematical, conceptual modeling and mapping. Theoretical analysis is based on the theory of reflection and systemic and chorological approach, methodological statements of historical geography by V.I. Paranin.
Alessandro De Lorenzis,
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 40-50; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.31005

Abstract:
Gobekli Tepe is the oldest and one of the most important among the megalithic sites in the world. Its archaeoastronomical relevance has been recently evidenced by Collins (2013), according to whom the central pillars in four of the enclosures discovered in the site are oriented toward the setting point of the star Deneb (α Cyg), as this point moves in the course of the time, due to the equinox precession and the proper motion of the star. Taking into account these effects, Collins (2013) obtained an astronomical dating for the various enclosures which agrees rather well with the one obtained by Dietrich (2011) with the technique of carbon-14. In the present paper the careful evaluation of the effects caused by atmospheric extinction has enabled us to verify that the central pillars of the studied enclosures are in fact turned to face the setting point of Deneb, but these alignments occurred in epochs, still in agreement with the ones obtained by Dietrich (2011), but different from those proposed by Collins (2013). We have also individuated, for the first time, the probable astronomic alignments of two other enclosures at Gobekli Tepe, i.e. enclosures F and A. In particular, the first one seems to be oriented towards the rising point of the Sun on the day of the Harvest Festival, a day approximately halfway between the summer solstice and the autumn equinox. The second one, instead, shows an orientation towards the rising point of the Moon at its minor standstill. The positions of both celestial bodies have been obtained by extrapolating their declination to the date of the presumed construction reported by Dietrich (2011). A short discussion about the putative cultural motivations of these alignments is also presented.
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 32-39; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.31004

Abstract:
Excavations and ground reconnaissance in December 2009 at Sumbawanga district, in southwestern Tanzania, revealed complete remains of natural draft iron smelting furnaces locally called ilungu (sing.) or malungu (pl.) standing up to 2.8 - 3.1 m tall. The aim of the study was to identify remains of indigenous African iron smelting furnaces on the landscape of Fipaland, examine the slag from the identified furnaces as very little amount of attention has been paid to furnace structures and analysis of the resultant residues. It has been usually studied in isolation of one of the order, while more attention was paid to furnace types; less has been done on slag analysis; in order to make for more reliable identification and develop a criteria for distinguishing this fast disappearing cultural heritage.
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 26-31; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.31003

Abstract:
At around 5000 years BP sea level peaked in the Persian Gulf region at a level of +0.3 m as now determined in Qatar. This coincides with the famous flooding of the ancient city of Ur, originally interpreted as due to local changes in the fluvial system. We can now propose that, in fact, it was the sea level rise that triggered the fluvial reorganization and rise in ground water level that ultimately led to “the flooding of Ur”.
, Burkart Burkart Ullrich,
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 03, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2015.31001

Abstract:
Geophysical exploration of archaeological sites has been a successful tool becoming more and more popular in the last decades. Many archaeological features can be detected with magnetic gradiometry (MGR), such as fire places, burned loam, metal artifacts, or other remnants, which produce a remanent magnetic signal detectable on the surface. However, as magnetic minerals are also present in natural settings, e.g. sedimentary and magmatic rocks and sediments derived from these host rocks, the MGR signal from archaeological artifacts is often embedded in a broader geomorphological signal, which makes separation of the different sources difficult. We provide geophysical data from two complex archaeological sites in northern Germany, which have been obtained with different methods, e.g. magnetic gradiometry (MGR), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), electro-magnetic mapping (EM), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The combination of geophysical methods maps different material properties of both the geomorphological and the archaeological sources. We then use the three-dimensional modeling tool PREDICTOR to analyze the sources for the geophysical signals, e.g. the dominant signal in Leimbach, resulting from infill of palaeo-channels in the settlement area, and fire places as well as shafts in the hill fort of Lossow. The model prediction enables us to quantify the structures in the sub-surface and therefore helps to unravel complex situations often present in archaeological excavations.
, Ryota Watanabe
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 02, pp 107-116; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.24012

Abstract:
Blackening was observed on the surfaces of Mesopotamian clay tablets from Umma, Dilbat, Larsa, Ur, Babylon, Uruk, Sippar, and Nippur produced between the Third Dynasty of Ur and the Early Achaemenid Dynasty. Portable X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed that manganese was concentrated on the blackened surfaces. Rod-shaped materials with a length of 100 - 200 nm and a width of 30 nm were observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope. Distinct peaks were not necessarily obtained by micro-X-ray diffractometer analysis, but several samples of the black material showed peaks identifiable as buserite. These results may suggest that blackening on the surfaces of the clay tablets can be ascribed to the activity of manganese-oxidizing microbe. However, the size of the rod-shaped materials is too small compared to common bacteria.
, Stephanie Walter, André Wieghardt, Tim Karberg, Torben Schreiber
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 02, pp 91-106; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.24011

Abstract:
The surveying, analysis and documentation of ancient infrastructures or settlement sites are often carried out by the additional use of geoinformatic software and tools, i.e. embedded in geoinformation systems (GIS). Since these GIS-methods are usually adjusted to the local use case, the spatial dimensions, coordinates, map projections and file formats differ significantly between individual survey sites and/or archaeological focus. Consequently, the interdisciplinary digital fusion and interactive analysis of such regional varying geodata by collaborating teams of archaeologists are often a quite cumbersome procedure. Alternatively, new web-based GIS online technologies offer a unique opportunity to quickly visualize thematic maps, location metadata and find details of archaeological objects in a standardized way, also allow the upload of individual geodata from any local client via the internet. Hence individual scientists can contribute information to the documentation and spatial relation of these objects not only by mail or data attachments (GeoArchaeology Web 1.0) but also by directly integrating their standardized geodata using an online webserver-portal (GeoArchaeology Web 2.0). The aim of this study is to assess the potential use of the open source GeoServer software and related web-applications to generate a new archaeological perspective on geospatial data with different scales, resolutions, thematic focus and information depths. Therefore, the two case studies range from a small scale, large regional scope (Sudan) to scales of local conventional excavations (Turkey). Both surveys provided various datasets (i.e. base maps, UAS aerial images, terrain models, photographs, attribute and GPS data, field observations, etc.) which were combined in an interactive web-based geoportal with global range and minimum scale limitations since the service was based on a WGS84 map projection. The embedded archaeological data follows accepted Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards which are available in every GIS. This particular archaeological data infrastructure enables not only the publication and visualization of archaeological datasets in a web-based geoportal but also the interactive geospatial interpretation and data extension of the whole available data pool “by third party users” in order to enrich and promote further scientific discussion on archaeological issues of the respective sites.
Alhussein Adham Basheer, Ahmed El-Kotb Al-Imam, Abdelnasser Mohammed Abdelmotaal, Mostafa Sarhan Toni, Sayed Omar Elkhateeb
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 02, pp 71-82; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.23009

Abstract:
The main target of this study is to detect the ancient archaeological remains by using Helicopter Electromagnetic Method (HEM) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey at “Tell Defenneh” Area, which is located in the west bank of Suez Canal at the northeastern Desert of Egypt. It is far about 15 Km to the northeast of “Qantara Gharb” town which is a part of “Ismailia” governorate. This area is full of different archaeological features, because it is located in the ancient international trade-military road (Horus Road). This road connected ancient Egypt with its neighboring eastern countries. In additional to that, this area used to protect ancient Egypt from invaders, who came from the East. HEM has been used to detect the conductivity anomalies over the study area. These anomalies are useful to show the different and distinctive places which can be focused, on small scalar, by GPR to identify it more clearly in the study area. According to the HEM data, it was noticed that there are distinctive geometric shape with very low resistivity or very high conductivity values in the northeastern part of the study area. These data have been supported by GPR survey focused on this part. It was suggested that these anomalies may be due to old man-made mud bricks that was customary used in the building in ancient times. The subsequently archaeological excavations, which are based on these interpreted data as a guide and proof, revealed that the remains belong to the citadel of pharaoh “Psamtik I” (664-610 BC). This result confirms that the incorporated geophysical methods can be efficiently supplied in the archaeological prospection in Egypt.
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 02, pp 65-70; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.23008

Abstract:
Ongoing research performed in the central part of Uruguay added new Paleo-Southamerican finds from the Negro River basin. A number of lithic exemplars were analyzed to determine their technology and function. The examined artifacts provided a new perspective on Fisthail points. Microwear analysis showed that there is a difference in the location of microscopic polishing between the blade and stem in the examined points. Polishing in the stem’s border might be attributed to leather or a similar substance, probably the leather cord or sinew used to bind the points in the foreshaft. The surface of the stem shows a coarse micro-topography and has patches of black residues. The coarse micro-topography suggests the use of an adhesive substance covering the whole stem, while the black patches are probably the residue used to glue the points in the foreshafts. Most remarkable is the discovery of the use of edge-to-edge and overshot flaking for bifacial reduction, technical features shared with Paleoindian fishtailed points from North and Central America.
, Simona Veltri, Fabio Stranges, Pasquale Barone, Marianna Barberio, Fang Xu,
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 02, pp 58-64; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.23007

Abstract:
In this work we present a study of laser ablation (LA) restoration techniques and of thermoluminescence dating process (TL). The main aim of the work is to demonstrate that LA don’t affect the possibility to date ceramic artifacts after restoration. We ablate Neolithic ceramics in air with a first harmonic of laser YAG (1064 nm) and dating the artifacts before and after the cleanness process. We obtain a discrepancy of 200 years (3300 B.C. and 3100 B.C. before and after cleanness respectively), value which is in below limits of experimental error. Moreover, we monitor the temperature of artifacts during the LA at the point of sampling for dating. We observe that the maximum temperature reached is about 100?C, not enough to empty the metastable traps that cause the luminescence signal.
, , El-Said Al-Sayed, Ashraf Khozym, Ahmed Al-Emam, Hosni Ghazala
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 02, pp 45-57; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.23006

Abstract:
Around the Nile Delta branches, the ancient settlements had been created and left their remains to be good witness for the paleoenvironment during the Holocene time. Therefore, tracing of these remains and their associated environments are of great importance. The area of study is located in the central part of the western Nile Delta (west of Rosetta branch), around Itay El-Baroud city. It is located between Latitudes 30°50'N - 31°N and Longitudes 30°35'E - 30°45'30''E covering an area of about 380 Km2. It is mainly covered with cultivated lands and is characterized by its numerous archaeological hills such as Kom Geif. It also includes the Greek trading centre of Naukratis. The city was extinct about the beginning of the third century A.D. The archaeological site of Naukratis is now occupied by Kom Geif village. Integrated geophysical studies including magnetic and multi-frequency electromagnetic methods were conducted at Kom Geif village. The study area is divided into two main sectors sites: A (100 m × 20 m in length) and B (40 m × 40 m in length), respectively in 18 grids. Each gird is 10 m × 20 m and subdivided into a number of parallel traverses with spacing of 0.5 meter. Site A was selected to carry out a detailed electromagnetic survey in E-W direction, 20 zigzag profiles with 100 m length and 1 m interval were carried out. The station intervals along each line were 1 m. Based on the interpretation of the acquired geophysical data, seven structures of possible archaeological interest (mud bricks) have been recognized in a relatively small area at the southern end of Kom Geif Lake. Further detail geophysical studies are important to establish the nature, date, depth and state of preservation of these buried archaeological remains.
Elsayed I. Selim, , Gad Elqady,
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 02, pp 31-43; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.22005

Abstract:
A combined near surface geophysical survey conducted in archaeological site at the western bank of Luxor area shows that, the geophysical methods offer the possibility to characterize and reconstruct the geometry of subsurface structures without destroying the deposits, providing a way to find solutions to the questions of archaeological or engineering significance. The two dimensional electrical imaging (R2D) and the shallow seismic refraction (SSR) techniques were carried out through twelve profiles measured across the study area in NW-SE directions with 5 m profile spacing. The interpretation of the 2-D resistivity imaging shows that there are two layers which are arranged from the top to the bottom as soil layer consists of weathered clay and its thickness varies between 3.82 m and 4 m; wetted clay and mud with depth varies from 25.3 m to 26.23 m and a massive body may composed of Alabaster, limestone or granite is present within the second layer. Following, the inverted 2-D models were merged to form a quasi-3D resistivity model which was visualized as depth slices. A high resistive anomalous feature was detected in successive depth slices. Moreover, analysis of shallow seismic data shows that, P-velocity ranges from 400 - 1350 m/sec whereas S-wave ranges from 280 - 460 m/sec. The massive body with high resistivity is detected and shows also a high velocity. Following a detailed Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) a survey was carried out to image the subsurface. 200 MHz antenna frequency was used on the survey. Inspection of the 2-D GPR profile shows the presence of hyperbolic anomalous features is present at a depth nearly 4 m. Moreover, three dimensional depth slices shows also the presence of an anomalous feature which appears at depth slices ranging from 3.5 m to 5 m. Finally, the interpreted geophysical results have been verified through archaeological direct excavation started by the Egyptian supreme council of Antiquities in cooperation with the European Commission working in the restoration project of Memnon’s and the Temple of Amenhotep III. They have found a body of Pharaonic statue, the statue has been known by the archaeologists as a statue of Queen Tie, wife of Amenhotep III and mother of Pharaoh Akhenaton unification, carved in Alabaster stone, and this result confirmed that the integrated geophysical method can be effectively contributed in the archaeological prospection in Egypt.
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 02, pp 26-30; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.22004

Abstract:
Fishtail or Fell projectile points represent an excellent marker to know the presence of earliest hunter-gatherers populations living during the end of the Pleistocene and its transition to the Holocene. They are widespread in many places along Central and South America. However, there are certain areas with elusive occurrence. Adding new information on the continental and regional distributions of this paleo South American artefact, this paper reports a detailed morphological and technological study of the first fishtail point found in the Salta province, Northwestern Argentina.
Scott Stull, , Kevin Hurley
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 02, pp 13-25; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.22003

Abstract:
In the mid-eighteenth century, the Mohawk River Valley was the colonial frontier in New York, and different social, political, and cultural groups were creating their identity through action and material culture, including the built environment. Two houses, built in 1749 and 1750, are compared in relation to identity and social position of their owners. The landscape was investigated using archaeogeophysics and targeted excavation to determine how the houses and their landscapes expressed cultural identity in colonial New York. The houses and landscapes reveal how specific identities were created by the owners of the houses as part of their efforts to improve their social, political, and economic standing on the frontier while also providing a defensive structure in the face of potential French raids into the region.
Olga V. Dyakova, Archaeology And Ethnography Of The Peoples Of The Far East, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 02, pp 6-12; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.21002

Abstract:
Setting the Problem: Pohai State (698-926), being situated on the territory of the Russian Primorye, North East of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and North East of China, was created by Tungus-Manchus tribes Sumo Mokhe. Pohai was a poly-ethnic (multinational) state. Tribes Mokhe were the basic population of it. Besides, there lived Koguryo, Paleo-Asian and Chinese residents. Each ethnic community had its own social status that could be determined by archaeological material. For deciding such a task the author worked out methods for determining the structure of archaeological culture. In the Russian archaeology the term “archaeological culture” means a complex of archaeological sites situated on one and the same territory and possessed common indications of material culture (ceramics, artifacts out of metal, necropolis, dwellings, etc.). Structure of Mediaeval Archaeological Cultures: The author proposes to single out three layers in material culture: aboriginal layer contains the information about ethnic belonging; state layer characterizes handcraft production and gives a possibility to determine the state borders; epoch layer gives a possibility to date sites and single out military-trade-economic ties. The aboriginal layer is represented with artifacts being made by residents themselves. They are molded ceramics, traditional decorations, the specificity of dwelling construction, funeral rites, etc. The state layer is represented with handicraft artifacts, mainly, made by alien masters and with technology different from the aboriginal one. For example, ceramics being produced on the potter’s wheel; types of fortifications that were built by special (foreign) masters invited for it, and etc. The epochal-making layer is represented with artifacts that were spread on the very vast territory, for example, girdles (belts) of Turk type, ceramics of Tan dynasty, armament, etc. Three Tasks of the Investigation: According to such methodic principles there were set three tasks: on the archaeological material to single out the ethnic (aboriginal) structure of Pohai state; to determine state signs; to define social status Koguryo residents in Pohai. Analysis of the Material: Ceramics. The analysis of molded ceramics exposes that on Pohai sites there was present only Mokhe type of the vessels. There is no molded Koguryo ceramics there. The analysis of ceramics, being finished off on potter’s wheel, exposes handicraft traditions and the presence of kilns, i.e. potter’s wheel ceramics of Koguryo type were produced there. The analysis of potter’s grey-clay ceramics exposes handicraft traditions of Tan dynasty but the absence of centers of its production. It is indicative of trade relations. Fortifications: The appearance of stone mountain sites in Pohai is connected with fortification traditions. The appearance of valley (plain) square sites is connected with Chinese fortification traditions. Conclusions: So, the basic (aboriginal) population of Pohai was Tungus-Manchus tribes Mokhe. Koguryo residents in Pohai were used as potters—handicrafts men and fortification masters and, may be, warriors. The geography of stone fortresses shows up that they were constructed for defending marine and land roads.
Gustavo Peretti Wagner, , Rio de Janeiro, Pelotas, Brazil
Archaeological Discovery, Volume 02, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.4236/ad.2014.21001

Abstract:
For at least six thousand years, the Brazilian coast has been explored extensively by different fishing communities. This article deals with the fishing-gatherer societies as coastal communities proposing an interface between shell sites archaeology and maritime anthropology.
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