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India Space And Culture
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 111-112; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i3.1127

Narayan Chetry
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 109-110; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i3.1123

Mukesh Singh, Giyasuddin Siddique
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 86-99; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.1073

Abstract:
Migration brings about changes in the cultural traits of both migrants and the receiving society. This becomes even more crucial, especially for India, which is characterised by rich cultural diversity and substantial inter-state migration. Cultural integration is the strategy of cultural exchange wherein one community incorporates changes without sacrificing its own culture and thus, pave the way for a more stable and harmonious society. Migration in Asansol dates back to the early 19th Century when the newly set up coal mining and the subsequent industrial development generated the demand for labour. Migrants brought with them a distinct culture which had to be reconstructed in the new cultural setup. This study is an attempt to understand the phenomena of cultural and psychological integration of the migrants in Asansol. A descriptive method has been employed to comprehend the migrants’ adaptation and the consequent socio-cultural changes. A sample of 370 individuals has been taken to explore the migrant’s outlook toward integration with the larger society. Emphasis has been laid upon the way the migrants reconstruct themselves, appraise their perception, and adopt the dominant cultural traits. The study reveals that the migrants have immensely influenced the culture of the region under investigation.
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 1-6; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i3.1125

Vinay Sankar
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 18-26; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i3.1117

Abstract:
The recently enacted Farm Laws in India has led to widespread and vigorous protests across the country. It has been hailed as a watershed moment by the neoliberal market analysts and is compared to the 1991 economic reforms, based on the notions of liberalisation, privatisation, and globalisation. A critical review of these laws and amendments needs to be situated in the larger narrative of commodification, wherein certain essential goods and services are appropriated and standardised and traded at market-determined prices. The present review intends to place these new laws in the broader policies and ‘projects’ of neoliberalisation of nature. A critical look at these laws shows that they have profound implications for social justice and environmental sustainability. It seeks to cross-question the food question and the peasant question by revisiting the ontological questions of what constitutes food and farming. It considers the new debate and the old vision of ‘food as commons’, and find that the new laws are, in fact, a continuation of attempts by neoliberal markets and states to commodify food and farming activities. Nevertheless, such attempts, for various reasons, face active resistance in the form of countermovements by the peasantry and enter the arena of political economy. The review argues that the present peasant resistance should be considered as part of the larger environmental justice movements.
Narendiran S, Bhuvaneswari R
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 27-35; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.740

Abstract:
Debates on intuition about transformed humankind in the future have led to the conception of transhumanism. It is a new philosophical movement to express the ideology that humanism will evolve by employing science and technology. Supporters of transhumanism believe that scientific aid in the evolution of humans will take them beyond the bounds of physical and mental limitations; eventually, it will make them immortals. The influence of transhumanism in literature has given birth to seminal works of art, particularly science fiction. Anil Menon’s The Beast with Nine Billion Feet is one such novel which sprang out the moral issues due to the rapid growth of science and technology affecting social, cultural, and political scenarios in India. The story is about genetic engineering and its impact on the socio-political problems. In addition to unfolding the threats and opportunities of transhumanism, the novel also touches on the issues of young adults like acquiring autonomy and finding their true identity. This study attempts to bring out the trepidation and chaos resultant of the period of transition and the multiple challenges and threats to the human race.
Archita Bhattacharyya
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 100-108; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.936

Abstract:
Out of the several modern Indo-Aryan languages that evolved in the eastern part of India, Assamese and Bengali are the two most prominent ones. Though both these two languages reached their respective present existence after passing through different phases of development, yet their roots are the same. Therefore, between both languages, there are many similarities even though both have evolved in distinctly different geographical areas, and there exist distinct differences between them. The differences not only create the distinction between them but also express their individuality too. In both, languages, pronoun and pronominal have occupied an important role in the discussion of morphology. Along with pronoun, the use of various pronominal which have evolved from the same root has flourished in both the languages. In this regard, both similarities and differences could be noticed in these two languages. Therefore, to identify the co-relation as well as the linguistic characteristics of both the languages, the comparative analysis is the only way out. In this study, an attempt is made to focus on how the pronominal of both languages are used to identify the similarities and differences between the two languages.
Saumya Mishra, Subhash Anand
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 58-70; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.906

Abstract:
A large number of students migrate every year to the University of Delhi to pursue higher studies. Most of these students find accommodation within the vicinity of the university, that is North Campus of the university. Change in their daily diets, induced by the migration, therefore, becomes a critical aspect of determining their physical and mental well-being. The paper aims to examine the changes in their dietary diversity after migration. The principal focus is to analyse the comparative qualitative differences in the diet of the students before and after migration to the University of Delhi. The focus group for the research work comprises randomly selected migrant students from different parts of India, presently living in the North Campus of Delhi. For the primary survey, 100 respondents have been selected from four localities within the North Campus (Vijay Nagar, Malka Ganj, Kamla Nagar, and Guru Tegh Bahadur Nagar) to get first-hand information and opinions. Both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques have been applied to identify the relationship between socio-economic and demographic features of the respondents, and the changes in their dietary diversity have been examined. The findings demonstrate an alarming trend being prevalent across all the four localities—in the consumption of nuts, dry & fresh fruits, and vegetables along with the simultaneous trend of a significant increase in fast-food consumption. The extent of the change varied significantly across the four localities. The highest decline in dietary diversity was observed in Vijay Nagar, whereas Kamla Nagar experienced the least changes in dietary diversity.
Cai Cai, Bharat Dahiya
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 7-17; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.1000

Abstract:
This article reviews the 25-year progress made in implementing the ‘Beijing Platform for Action’ and the challenges that remain towards achieving gender equality in the Asia-Pacific region. Adopted in 1995 at the Fourth World Conference on Women, the ‘Beijing Platform for Action’ has been hailed as the most progressive policy blueprint for gender equality and women’s empowerment. In November 2019, over 600 participants from 54 countries, comprising representatives from Governments, international organisations and civil society organisations attended the Asia-Pacific Ministerial Conference on the Beijing+25 Review in Bangkok. The delegations reviewed the “achievements, challenges and priority areas for realizing gender equality and women’s empowerment” (UNESCAP, 2019a:1) in Asia-Pacific. For 25 years, since the adoption of the ‘Beijing Platform for Action’, Asia-Pacific has witnessed significant progress in girls’ education and women’s health. Unprecedented progress has been made in and reducing maternal deaths and enhancing women’s representation in national parliaments and local governments in several countries. However, there are some enduring challenges, including women’s economic empowerment and political participation, and violence against women. Whilst women play a pivotal role in protecting the environment and natural resources, they have been underrepresented in environment-related decision making and negotiations. Accordingly, the key actions outlined by the ‘Asia-Pacific Declaration on Advancing Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment: Beijing+25 Review’ cover a wide range of issues, from women’s economic empowerment, political participation, to women’s full and effective participation in environment conservation, climate action and peace building process.
Debmita Nandi, Sumana Sarkar
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 71-85; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i3.886

Abstract:
Seasonal migration is a common livelihood strategy among marginal and landless people of the western part of West Bengal. The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) and Census data have failed to provide information on seasonal migration and livelihoods at the micro-level. The present study focuses on the nature, characteristics and factors of seasonal migration with its importance as a livelihood strategy among women agricultural labourers (WALs) in Soul Ponamara mouza of Hirbandh block at the micro-level. The study is based on primary data collection using a purposive sampling method and a semi-structured questionnaire, personal interview and focus group discussion. This study reveals that seasonal migration from Soul Ponamara to the adjacent agriculturally prosperous districts viz. Purba Bardhaman and Hooghly (4 to 6 times in a year) is a common livelihood strategy among WALs in the study area, and its proportion is almost equal to when compared to male migrants. The small size of agricultural land holding, existing monoculture system, lack of irrigation facilities, a limited job opportunity in the Soul Ponamara mouza and its surrounding area (Amjhuri, Bijardihi, Chaka Doba, Moshiara, Bamni and Rangametia) provoke women labourers to move out in searching of works. In contrast, high wage and massive demand for skilled and semi-skilled agricultural labourers during sowing and harvesting season in the destination area, that is, paddy and potato fields of Purba Bardhaman and Hooghly districts acted as a magnet to absorb these immigrants into the workforce. This study concludes that seasonal migration opted for employment and income generation is the primary livelihood strategy adopted by the rural WALs of this mouza to cope up with the existing poverty and food insecurity.
Prasanta Kumar Nayak
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 36-47; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.998

Abstract:
As the world moves faster towards a homogenised culture, the logic of keeping heterogeneous properties of culture seems asynchronous. The liberalisation, privatisation, and globalisation (LPG) model of growth and development of states throw challenges to the indigenous cultures and traditions for a state like India where diverse traditional moorings, cultural systems, religious practices, and ethnic variations stand core to its integrity. In the rat-race for development, indigenous cultures and traditions of a state are enmeshed within ‘accept the global go and lose insularity’ or ‘decline it to stay homogeneous’. In a homogeneous societal culture, the underlying values and beliefs are squarely believed, shared, and practised compared to many different values and beliefs professed by diverse population groups in the case of a heterogeneous one. Arunachal Pradesh with twenty-six major tribes and numerous sub-tribes at its credit stands incredible for its ethnicity, tribal indigenous identities, and cultural homogeneity. As is the number, so is the variation with indigeneity and nuances of culture practised by the tribes. The cultural diversity of the people differs from tribe to tribe even if they reside within the same geographical area. The district West Kameng is abode to six different tribes—Akas, Buguns, Mijis, Monpas, Sajalongs, and Sherdukpens living in close proximity with each other. However, their traditional culture with regards to their religious practices, dress, customs, rituals, languages, dialects, fairs, and festivals is starkly heterogeneous. Most remarkable is the criterion that heterogeneity hardly aberrates homogeneity within themselves. The focus of the present study is to highlight such a homogeneity-heterogeneity aspect of the culture of West Kameng.
Borys Savchuk, Oksana Kondur, Galyna Rozlutska, Olena Kohanovska, Marianna Matishak, Halyna Bilavych
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 48-57; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.1016

Abstract:
The article presents the results of research work on the formation of cognitive flexibility (CF) as an essential competence of the future teachers’ multicultural personality. It has been shown that various branches of knowledge (psychology, philosophy, clinical medicine, pedagogy, and others) contribute to the scientific and theoretical substantiation of CF, which is included in the TOP-10 most requested competencies in the XXI century. Based on the analysis of the essence and nature of the future teachers’ multicultural personality, the hypothesis that the competence of CF should become a vital component of personal development was put forward. To test this hypothesis, a pedagogical experiment was organised, which covered 33 future teachers studying "Educational, Pedagogical Sciences" at the Precarpathian National University (Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine). The experiment was conducted in four stages: on the first preparatory stage, a defined program of experimental activities was made; on the second statement stage, the diagnosis of future teachers’ CF levels was set on the basis of the developed prognostic tools (the Questionnaire Cognitive flexibility was created to define the main features of CF as a component of multicultural competence of the future teacher, tests); on the third formative stage the approbation of our methodology for the formation of CF was carried out, which had no analogues in modern education and pedagogy (this was implemented on the basis of our own special course "Cognitive flexibility and multicultural competence of the future teacher", which was held as a training seminar); on the fourth control stage the results of the experiment were determined. They showed that the indicators of CF formation of future teachers at a high level increased from 9.1% to 41.5% (4.7 times), at the medium level they decreased from 63.6% to 53% (1.2 times). At the low level, they changed from 27% to 5.5% (4.9 times) according to four defined criteria (cognitive abilities, adaptive abilities, flexibility of thinking, and emotional flexibility). This proves the effectiveness of the authors’ methodology for the formation of CF as a basic competence of the multicultural personality of the future teacher. It can be widely used in the training of specialists in various specialities.
Tiken Das, Pradyut Guha
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 5-13; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.885

Abstract:
Due to the coronavirus-induced lockdown, most economic activities have come to a standstill. It assumes that lockdown with social distancing measures may lower the spread of infected cases, as it will be over-optimistic to expect the complete burnout of the virus. The present study attempts to access the loss of the country’s economy in the wake of the coronavirus-induced 50-day lockdown (40-day lockdown + 10-day preoperative period). The data on Net State Value Added (NSVA) at base price 2011-2012 by economic activity was collected from the Reserve Bank of India for five consecutive financial years. This study assumes 10-day for restoring back to the production capacity, although each sector has its own dynamics and different cycles. The autoregressive process was used for forecasting the growth rate of Gross Value Added. The study found that across Indian states, the amount of loss was most extensive in the state of Maharashtra, as against Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Besides the manufacturing sector, the enormous burden of loss was reflected in the real estate sector, followed by ownership of dwellings and professional services. The highest per capita loss of the NSVA was found in the state of Goa, as against Delhi. The study argued that all the affected sectors likely to register negative growth in the subsequent two quarters.
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 221-221; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1076

Soumen Ghosh, Biswaranjan Mistri
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 140-154; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.747

Abstract:
Agriculture is the main economic activity in Sundarban to sustain the basic livelihood of rural people. In recent decades, the nature of agriculture mainly cropping patterns, crop productivity, and agricultural land use is gradually changing because of various natural as well as anthropogenic factors. The frequent occurrence of climatic extremes over the Bay of Bengal has been directly or indirectly affected the agricultural system of the delta. In the wake of the 2009 cyclone Aila, the crop production in Gosaba rapidly declined due to high salinity and low pH in the soil. Most of the agricultural land remains a seasonal fallow due to the shortage of freshwater during the dry season. The direction of the surface slope has been altered by the unsystematic construction of embankment and haphazard construction of closure in river channels. The saucer-shaped appearance of the island causes massive drainage congestion induced waterlogging problem in the agricultural field. Waterlogging causes crop damage and low productivity. Farmers continue to face substantial monetary loss and entrapping in poverty. To overcome these issues, climate-resilient cropping strategy, proper maintenance of the drainage system, and adaptation of modern land reshaping techniques for diversified agriculture systems are urgently needed for the profound agro-based economic future of the delta.
Norvy Paul, Elsa Mary Jacob, Sheena Rajan Philip
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 47-61; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1061

Abstract:
Kerala, a state with high development indices distinguished with its Kerala Model of Development (UN, 1975), is also affected by recent Pandemic COVID'19 as other states and nations worldwide. The existing socio-economic analysis of the State reveals that the land reforms, promotion of education, and early introduction of participatory governance through Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) have contributed to the State's socio-economic and political advancement. These factors played a significant role in the fight against the pandemic. This study is an attempt to answer what are the future economic and health challenges as the State, Kerala Model of Development, is faced with COVID'19? The specific objectives further guide this— to study the economic challenges ahead of the State as the tertiary sector is faced with challenges to contribute to the economy and attempted to study the possible ways to address health issues in the State. The researchers conducted an in-depth interview among 10 social scientists and economists of Kerala using purposive sampling to obtain primary data, which has been supported by secondary resources. The researchers did a thematic analysis of the primary data collected, further corroborated by secondary data. The study reveals that the State's current scenario during the pandemic, the grass-root empowerment in all spheres of life clubbed with administrative guidance, resulted in well-equipped public health care service delivery. The fall in the tertiary sector's income has decisively affected the State's economy, especially in agriculture, health, IT, tourism, labour, and foreign remittance. The State's economic and social equilibrium will face challenges in addressing issues in the post-COVID era. Even though the State suffered some increased Covid-19 cases recently, after expatriates' return, the dimensions mentioned above assisted the State in its fight against COVID'19. To address the challenges to the Kerala Model of Development, especially the post-COVID-19 requirements of the State demands interrogation, introspection, and integration of the current policies that majorly depend on the tertiary sector and initiate policies, plans, and programmes to strike a balance between all sectors, especially providing impetus to the primary sector so that a failure in one sector can be compensated by the other.
Vishnu Achutha Menon
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 211-214; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.1012

Abstract:
Kannur is a beautiful coastal district of Kerala, which made its way to the national headlines for its brutal political murders. The state has the highest social development parameters when compared to other states but despite this, what makes Kannur standout in terms of political happenings is a matter to be discussed.
Venkat Rao Pulla
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 1-4; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1081

Irtifa Mukhter, Richa Chowdhary
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 25-35; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1068

Abstract:
On March 2020 most of the educational institutes in India stopped face to face contact with students as a result of countrywide lockdown which was imposed due to COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of the lockdown has affected the students and cast a shadow on the entire education system. Restrictions have led many universities and colleges to opt for online learning to curtail the spread of Coronavirus. To overcome lockdown, online education became the primary pathway amidst technological challenges. Teachers had possibly more to do than the students and those teachers who were technologically confronted had their limits tested. The students, on the other hand, had myriad challenges to face. The current study draws on the experiences of teachers and students to the introduction of the online learning method during the pandemic. Qualitative research methods were utilised to answer the research questions. The study recruited students in the age of 18-25 and teachers in the age of 35-60 years through social media platforms. Informed consent was obtained, and thereafter the respondents were interviewed via telephone (NAPSWI, 2015). The study additionally utilised and analysed open discussion content of the National Association of Professional Social Workers in India (NAPSWI) webinars relevant to online teaching and their experiences.
Mahfuza Rahman
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 218-220; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1070

Vinay Sankar
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 129-139; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.774

Abstract:
Sacred groves or sacred natural sites (SNS) are defined areas of land and bodies of water with considerable socio-cultural and ecological value. This study attempts to analyse SNS using the framework of commons or common-pool resources and understand the implications regarding the access to and ecological sustainability of these sacred spaces. A set of ten groves from an inventory of sacred groves reported by the Institute of Foresters Kerala were chosen using purposive sampling to cover various types of custodianship and communities in the district of Thrissur. This district houses the most famous sacred grove in Kerala and is known for consecrating sacred groves and expunging spirits. A field survey employing an observation schedule and semi-structured interviews were undertaken focusing on the biophysical, socio-cultural, and institutional aspects of the SNS. Understanding the relationship between grove ecosystems and stakeholder communities was the objective of the study. The management of SNS in the study sites does not show much evidence of collective action. There is a tendency of SNS to become 'club goods' over a period of time. Regardless of types of custodianship, SNS exhibit properties of common-pool resources from an ecological point of view. Even when customarily managed along caste lines, access was not physically restricted. Recent constructions of concrete boundaries around SNS, conversion of groves to temples, and increasing intensity and frequency of rituals have changed the socio-cultural and ecological character of these spaces. The study shows that the perspective of the commons is inadequate to capture the underlying power dynamics of institutions of SNS. Understanding the transformation of SNS from being 'open' and inclusive to closed and elitist temple spaces need a different language of political ecology.
Mehedi Hasan Mandal, Anup Kumar Dey, Arindam Roy, Giyasuddin Siddique
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 155-167; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.742

Abstract:
The ecological set up of the deltaic Bengal has immensely been benefitted by the ecosystem services extended by the freshwater wetlands. Along with the diverse ecological benefits, those floodplain wetlands serve the adjacent agrarian community through the provision of free goods and services. The present study has attempted to identify the ecological resources provided by the Chariganga and Arpara Beel and its impact on the livelihood patterns of the rural inhabitants. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques have been used for the study. Ecosystem Service Index (ESI) has been computed to quantify the values of ecosystem services in each category for the dry and wet periods. Nearly 33 ecosystem services are identified which have significantly influenced the socio-economic lifestyle of the inhabitants of three adjacent villages like Arpara, Gotpara, and Sultanpur but not homogeneously in terms of space, time, and status of stakeholders. The computed ESI values reveal that the maximum index value in each category of ecosystem services has been recorded at Chariganga Wetland in both dry and wet seasons. Moreover, the fluctuation of ESI between the two seasons is least at Chariganga Wetland (0.03) compared to Arpara Wetland (0.28). Spatio-temporal variation in availability of resources has conspicuously altered the yearlong utilisation pattern of wetlands’ resources and put a noticeable imprint upon the diverse economic activities and cultural practices of the beneficiaries. The seasonal transformation of a large segment of the studied wetlands in wet and dry months has noticeably influenced the livelihood strategies of the natives. As a consequence, dynamism in utilisation pattern and contrasted societal views concerning the wetland-people interdependency has come into existence.
Rana P.B. Singh
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 215-217; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1071

Hemant Patidar, Satheesh Chothodi
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 4-24; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1008

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic, from its beginning in India on 30 January 2020, has caused over 3.7 million cases of illness and claimed over 66 thousand deaths as of 1 September2020. The large metropolitan cities have been the major hotspots of COVID-19 pandemic. The peculiar urbanisation patterns are crucial in spreading COVID-19 in India. This study attempts to highlight how urbanisation patterns increase the vulnerability of COVID-19 spread in India. The higher density, urban sprawl and associated intra-urban commuting, large slum population, inadequate water, sanitation and housing conditions along with homelessness are found to catalyse the vulnerability of COVID-19 spread in urban areas. The existing public health infrastructure in the country is found to be inadequate with respect to the increasing demand. Efforts to contain the spread are being made; nonetheless, the rapid increase in the cases of illness and deaths from COVID-19 has inflated the challenges for administration and citizens. Rapid enhancement in health infrastructure and health personnel must be made along with strict adherence to the measures of quarantine, social distancing and hygiene for the citizens are of utmost response to the decrease the spread.
Kairat Bodaukhan, Aruzhan Jussibaliyeva, Raushan Mussina, Darima Zhenskhan, Zhanerke Kochiigit, Indira Amerkhanova
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 194-206; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.802

Abstract:
Migration data is a useful tool for creating a single internal economic space that is harmoniously integrated with the global economy by helping to create conditions for the growth of economic and business activity of economic entities. Migration processes, primarily labour migration, are among the significant factors affecting the socio-economic situation both in the country as a whole and in its regions. This study discusses the following issues: state regulation of migration processes; statistical analysis and interpretation of data on internal migration from labour-surplus to labour-deficient regions. In order to achieve the objectives, the study uses statistical data on the inter-regional migration in the country; World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) indicators of social welfare; International Labour Organization’s (ILO’s) unemployment assessment; the dynamics of demographic processes in society. Following the findings, the study presents recommendations on the regulation of internal migration from southern to northern regions of Kazakhstan. Thus, the research results can be implemented when developing regulatory legal acts, migration management programmes, etc. The findings of this study can be used as a basis for assessing the dynamics of the social well-being of migrants in Central Asia.
Syeda Sultana, Payel Saha, Madhushree Das
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 207-210; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1077

Abstract:
Pulla, V., Bhattacharyya, R., & Bhatt, S. (eds). Discrimination, Challenge and Response-People of North East India, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, 203 pp., ISBN 978-3-030-46250-5, eBook:£87.50; Hardcover: £109.99
Elsa Mary Jacob, Arya Chandran L, Abraham Francis
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 36-46; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1046

Abstract:
Nipah virus, the consecutive 2018 and 2019 floods, the internal social, economic, and political struggles have had a significant impact on the lives of people in Kerala, India. While the state of Kerala was trying to get back to some form of stability, Covid-19 slams into, in an unprecedented way, drastically disrupting the lives of many. It has shaken the interconnectedness and interdependence of families and placed communities in a state of fear, anxiety, and uncertainty. This article is about the vulnerabilities, experiences, voices, and untold stories of courage and resilience among people in Kerala. Authors present a reflective analysis of the multidimensional impact of Covid-19 on the ordinary lives of the people of Kerala. The deleterious impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the entire humanity reckons the attention of governments, economists, educators, social scientists, medical and allied professionals, including social workers, to make concerted efforts to preserve and promote human well-being. Taking into consideration the structural inequalities in society, the present paper utilises a critical social work theoretical lens to analyse how it has impacted the well-being of people, especially the marginalised and vulnerable communities in Kerala.
Nurzamal Hoque, Ratul Mahanta
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 117-128; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.841

Abstract:
While the gender gaps in elementary education in India have almost been eliminated, we obtain somewhat different picture when adjusting the gaps to the appropriate school-age children (6-14 years) and the number of the child population. We calculate gender gaps in enrolment, transition rate (from primary to upper primary level), achievement in the examination, and test scores in different subjects in the post Right to Education Act period and obtain that girls are ahead of the boys in almost all aspects. The age-adjusted gender gap in enrolment has improved, implying that over time girls are more likely to enrol in schools within the appropriate school-age. Also, fewer girls are expected to remain out of schools compared to boys within the appropriate school-age. Perhaps, this progress in enrolment has resulted in better performances of girls in transition rate, achievement in examinations and test scores in individual subjects. The rising girls’ performance on different indicators of elementary education indicates the potential impacts of female share on future labour market.
Brajaballav Kar, Sugato Tripathy
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 183-193; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.690

Abstract:
Odisha’s economy is predominantly agriculture driven. Exports from the mining industries remained a significant source of foreign exchange. However, over a period, aquaculture exports have also emerged as a lucrative possibility. It is a perfectly suitable sector considering the long coastline, rivers and water bodies, and labour intensive nature of the industry. From an individual or community level of operation, aquaculture developed the characteristics of the industry in the early 1970s. This descriptive research paper investigates the history of the aquaculture industry in Odisha over the past 50 years. The aquaculture industry in Odisha started two decades later than Kerala (another southern state of India), in the form of an experiential learning and opportunity-seeking process by the early players. The subsequent dominance of local players, consolidation, and expansion of the export market proves the natural resource advantage of the State. The study emphasises the contribution of the sector to the state economy. The adoption of healthy consumption habits, large untapped Indian market, value and values-addition in the product, and evolving traceability requirements for exports are some of the significant challenges facing the industry. Despite being an important sector for the State, this sector has not received due attention from academic research. Technology adoption practices, productivity improvement, internal competitions, development of industry structure, and role of policy could be some areas for future research.
Fauzia Farmin Sayeda, Barnali Sarma
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 168-182; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.768

Abstract:
The study is an attempt to analyse the socio-economic consequences of Sino-Indian war of 1962 on the ethnic communities of North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA), the present state of Arunachal Pradesh, geospatially located in North-East India. A careful analysis of the pre-independent history of the region suggests that both Ahoms and British rulers followed a policy of non-interference in the region as it was predominantly a tribal area. After independence, the Indian Government also followed the policy of minimal governance. The vital issues of infrastructure were also not given much emphasis until the war of 1962. As the Government realised the strategic importance of the state, a significant change in government policy can be witnessed. Apart from initiating development in infrastructure of the state, efforts were also made to nationalise the frontier. The present research aims to document the socio-economic changes brought by the war, using a critical analysis of a wide range of sources.
Muhammad Jafar, Aisha Shoukat
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 62-73; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1059

Abstract:
Healthcare workers are one of the most affected communities at the global level during the pandemic of COVID-19, and Pakistan is no exception. Pakistan allocates merely less than 1% of its GDP for the healthcare sector, that is why, in most of the cases, healthcare workers are bound to serve without adopting standard safety measures while dealing with patients. The need for proper Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) has been felt more than ever during the occurrence of COVID-19 due to its quick transferability from an infected person to a healthy one. Until now, some 62 healthcare workers, including 42 doctors, have lost their lives and 5,367 have contracted coronavirus. Healthcare workers already serving without PPEs went under serious life threat after the coronavirus pandemic, and this fear has adversely affected their role as frontline warriors against COVID-19. In the given scenario, healthcare workers have not only to be worried about their own lives but also their families back at home. The current study aims at investigating variables such fears of healthcare workers about contracting coronavirus, its adverse effects on their performance, and resultantly the provision of compromised healthcare services to patients. This is mainly a qualitative study, whereas primary data were collected through telephonic interviews of 30 healthcare workers (15 doctors and 15 nurses) currently performing their duties in healthcare centres. Sources of secondary data include online journal articles, daily newspapers, government reports, and official websites. The findings of the study show that lack of proper safety kits and training of preparedness and safety has put the lives of healthcare workers at high risk and they are unable to perform their duties in the proper/appropriate way owing to their exposure to the risk of contracting coronavirus. The healthcare workers are conflicted about serving and saving the patients or securing their own lives.
Esita Sur
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 84-95; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.845

Abstract:
Muslim women’s engagement with Islam through Haji Ali Movement in Mumbai highlights an interesting as well as conflicting encounters between Islam, feminism, and women’s rights. It not only disturbs the quintessential images of them but also opens up an array of possibilities to comprehend that Muslim women can develop their own critique of religion and cultural practices from within. The study argues that the Muslim women’s Haji Ali movement or the mosque movement offers a surprising trade-off between Islam, feminism, and women’s rights by challenging the long-established idea that these are mutually exclusive entities and the distance cannot be bridged. Therefore, the study not only tries to find out the origin, nature, and unique characteristics of the movement but also the new ways of exploring the dialogue between Muslim women’s religious subjectivity, rights, and feminism in India.
Venkat Rao Pulla, Bharath Bhushan Mamidi
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 74-83; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1080

Abstract:
We share two observations based on what we have seen in India. First, that the hegemonic politics in India ushered in institutional and structural inequalities in their wake and second, that the political leadership continued to be aspirational irrespective of ideologies desiring to scale up in the hierarchy of global economic and political power. These two observations pertain to the contemporary history of five decades of development in India. As a result of the above two observations, we make a further two observations that for the Aām Aādmi (the common man), the political parties that sit in the government and their respective ideologies do not matter. And for the state and the political elites, the negative consequences such as marginalisation, exclusion and desperation of the common folks that emanate from the models chosen for development do not matter. It is in such contexts, social activists argue for a legitimate space for the vying intersects of poverty, caste, class, occupations, habitats amidst such motivated globalisation. They also continue to raise difficult conversations around patriarchy, religious hierarchy, bonded labour, and the girl child. One such social activist that was concerned about all the above issues was Swami Agnivesh. He was not antigovernment, anti-democracy, anti-institutional, anti-hierarchy, anti-religious. He sought to restore a new and deeper meaning of freedom (democracy), a new meaning of hierarchy, social care, and even a new definition of spirituality that is social. He was a man who never stopped dreaming of humanising India. In this article, we reminisce about our association with Swami Agnivesh and attempt to espouse his thought based on our hearing, reading, and reflection. Briefly, we present his life, achievements, and social activism, and more importantly, we attempt to interpret his conception of social spirituality and the ‘power of love’.
Usha Rana
Published: 5 August 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 96-105; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.798

Abstract:
Italian philosopher Antonio Gramsci first coined the term “hegemony” and also elaborated on cultural hegemony. It is a common perception that cultural powers and organisations are hegemonic-centred, resulting in a network of invisible powers. Hegemonic power processes are an integral part of daily social and cultural practices that help to perpetuate power relations. The repercussions of hegemony can be seen in various aspects of society, such as caste, class, ethnicity, occupation, gender, tradition, etc. This paper enlightens on the gendered hegemonic cultural practice of prostitution (sex work) as a traditional institution in the Bedia community. The intensive fieldwork in Habla hamlet, a sub-village of Luhari village (village assembly) of the Bedia community in Sagar district in Madhya Pradesh, India, was conducted to reveal the hegemonic practices in the community. Forty people aged between 50 to 60 years have been interviewed for this study. Twenty females and twenty males were selected for data collection, and observations had been made in the hamlet to understand hegemony through social institutions. Moreover, we have found that the male members are alert to the preservation of the purity and chastity of their wives but compelled their sisters and daughters, with the support of social institutions, to remain unmarried and take up prostitution (sex work). In particular, Bedias' hegemonic traditional cultural behaviour plays an essential role in the continuation of discrimination against Bedia women. Additionally, we explore the mechanism of this hegemonic power through the role of gender, patriarchy, false consciousness, emotions, power of common sense, ideology, and history, which have been responsible for the victimisation of Bedia women for a long time.
Alla Guslyakova, Nina Guslyakova, Nailya Valeeva, Irina Vashunina, Maria Rudneva, Julia Zakirova
Published: 1 August 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 106-116; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.692

Abstract:
This study focuses on the notion of power as a way of conceptualisation, representation and functioning in the Russian and English-speaking media discourse and its role in the life of the younger generation of the third millennium. Power and its language have always remained an actual research question of interdisciplinary scientific analysis. However, studying young people’s linguistic and paralinguistic perception of power in the era of digitalisation becomes extremely important due to an empowering role young adults have started playing in modern society employing new media and their discursive communication there. The study regards the theoretical background of the phenomenon of power, based on A. Gramsci’s hegemonic approach. The authors of the research suggest that the media discourse is a hegemonic form of power that maintains its position through the elaboration of a particular worldview, which makes a significant impact on young individuals, the so-called net-generation. The study relies on free-associative and graphic experiments to analyse and perceive “power” concept and its influence on young individuals’ consciousness. Results indicate that both Russian and English-speaking media discourse represents “power” through the prism of anthroponyms as well as toponyms. Besides, the findings of the free-associative experiment, conducted among young adults, demonstrated the dominance of the lexical units belonging to the same grammatical class of words as the stimulus word “power”. Furthermore, a graphic experiment revealed young people’s emotional evaluations of power in media discourse communication. As such, the results suggest that “power” is a natural, complex and multifaceted linguacultural and social phenomenon realised through a variety of linguistic and paralinguistic means, and it produces a dualistic effect on young people’s consciousness through their interaction in the media discourse space.
Bandita Deka
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 208-217; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.748

Abstract:
The current social and political processes of Assam in terms of demographic aspect and frontier area policies cannot be seen to be a development in isolation from British colonial policies. The entire system is linked to a historical process of ownership and inheritance. The British entry into the North-Eastern region of India, at the end of the Anglo-Burmese war, marked the beginning of colonial penetration with the consequence of unanticipated transformation of socio-economic and demographic profile in the region. The profound commercial significance of Assam explored by British colonialism led to the development of the Brahmaputra valley into a new economic space. Accordingly, the colonialists consolidated political interventions through the construction of frontier policies that created a divide between ‘Hills’ and ‘Plains’. The policies of social and cultural subjugation, followed by the colonialists, brought the neighbouring hill tribes under colonial control, and the entire region was being turned into a politico-economic jurisdiction of colonial subjects. Such policies envisaged by the British with a commercial motive, however, anguished the ethnic strife- the existing social landscape, the economic space and the political set-up of the region. The current problem of foreigners’ issue and the frontier issue is, in fact, the continuation of the colonial traditions. An understanding of the colonial pattern of exploitation of resources through social and political control would provide an apprehension of the past causes and present effect relationship. Hence, this study attempts to understand the implications of the colonial era political developments in Assam considering its economic potentiality that has given a whole new dimension to the entire regional set-up.
Mayuri Bora
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 198-207; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.799

Abstract:
Colonialism has its impact on Indian politics and society even after the colonialism. Pre-colonial Assam was able to maintain its independent status till 1826. After incorporating into the company’s holdings, colonialists gradually extended their controls to the hill areas surrounding the Assam and Bengal plains. Subsequent to annexing the hills, the areas were designated as “tribal” areas and continued to be ruled as a distinct administrative regime. However, the strategy of divide and rule system had fundamentally changed the practices of both hills and the plains. For segregating the hills from the plains, a line was drawn, known as Inner line of 1873. The gradual separation and sharpening of identity had led to the formation of ‘Bordoloi Sub-committee to render autonomy to the hill people. However, the recommendation made by the ‘Bordoloi Sub-committee’ were not able to fulfil the aspirations of the hill tribes, and they started demanding for more autonomy in the form of statehood, backed by insurgent activities, which paved the way for the reorganisation of Assam. And in the present juncture, the Plain tribes of Assam have been demanding for re-reorganisation of Assam. Hence, this study specifies the colonial subjectivity and subjugation and its consequences to new equations of contemporary politics.
Shatabdi Saha, Rupak Goswami
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 111-142; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.601

Abstract:
Economic liberalisation has created opportunities for semi-skilled labours within and outside India. This study investigates the male out-migration from the Sundarbans region of India with special reference to the choice of their destinations. Following a mixed-method approach, we collected data through a questionnaire survey, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, key-informant interviews, and Participatory Rural Appraisal. Analyses revealed that migrants tended to travel to diverse inland and even to overseas destinations on a fixed condition, facilitated by pre-existing support networks. The decision on choosing a destination is regulated by several micro-level determinants such as migration chronology, education, and acquired skill, life cycle stage of the migrants, the expected amount of remittance, the reason for migration, and nature of the job at the destination. The destinations abroad are often preceded by migration to inland destinations leading to higher acquired skill and savings. Joint families, having the ability to support international travel and access to support networks, were more prone to reach international destinations.
Rajat Bhattacharjee, Santosh Kumar Mahapatra
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 154-163; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.645

Abstract:
The commodity derivative market in India has gained an important place in the last few decades. However, the entry of ‘tea futures’ in the derivative market is yet to come. Tea is a substitute for coffee and has a good market worldwide. India’s contribution to world production of tea is significant, but the presence of tea futures in Indian derivative market is yet to be seen whereas coffee, being a similar commodity, has a good place in the derivatives market. This study makes an attempt to examine the feasibility of tea futures in India by studying two leading conditions for tea in comparison with coffee. The study examines the market conditions by studying the export potentiality that signifies the demand and supply; and price volatility of tea price. The observations and analysis find favourable grounds for the introduction of tea futures in the commodity derivative market to extend the benefits to various groups like tea growers and manufacturers.
Olusiji Lasekan
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 164-176; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.623

Abstract:
Copious research works have attempted to assess language dominance among bilinguals. However, very little empirical research has been conducted to determine the concept among multilingual by using interpersonal relationships communication domains such as families, friendships, and acquaintances. This is crucial because the choice of language use between two interlocutors in any domain depends on the level of social relation that exists between them. Therefore, this current study aims to determine language dominance for oral and written communication at different domains of interpersonal relationships such as family, friends, and acquaintance. Each domain size was used as a proxy to measure language dominance among different groups of multilingual living in the Southern part of India. As part of this study, a structured sociolinguistics questionnaire that probes the use of the Facebook Friend Lists feature was adopted to determine each domain size and language use in each domain. The questionnaire was administered among forty-three multilingual postgraduate students. The result showed that the dominant language for oral and written communication in the entire geographical setting is the first language (L1) and English, respectively. This suggests that the interpersonal relationship communication approach is practical to determine language dominance in a community.
Saeb K. El Lala, Ola M. Abusukkar
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 177-186; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.705

Abstract:
The study investigates the problems of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from the perspective of ASD specialists and adolescent’s families. It comprises of 228 ASD specialists and 294 families of ASD adolescents. The sample represents all areas of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (henceforth – KSA): north, south, east, west and centre. Variables of the study are adolescents’ gender, age, residential area, as well as the qualification of ASD specialists and family members. To accomplish the study, the researchers designed a questionnaire that includes variables regarding six significant problems: Educational, Recreational, Economic, Health, Psychological, and Social. The results reveal that families rate the economic problems higher than average, while the recreational ones – lower; specialists rate economic problems higher than average and educational ones – the lowest. As for gender variable, specialists and families note the differences in favour of females; for age variable, specialists and families note that 15-18 years old ASD adolescents have more problems. The results show that qualification of specialists as well as family members is of significant relevance in relation to ASD adolescents. Both specialists and family members are mostly from the central regions.
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 244-245; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.921

Meghna Borah, Arup Kumar Hazarika, Unmilan Kalita
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 78-90; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.699

Abstract:
For the survival of all forms of life, procreation is essential. However, natural procreation is not always scientifically possible. As such, the practice of surrogacy and the use of Assisted Reproductive Techniques have become more widely recognised and accepted in societies all over the world. However, various complex and controversial issues are bounded in such practices. The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2019 introduced by Government of India makes an attempt to eradicate some of those issues associated with surrogacy. Nevertheless, the legislation seems to be in derogation to the Constitution of India and universal human rights. This study is designed to substantiate in detail the right to be a surrogate in light of the constitutional mandate along with an evaluation of the eligibility criteria to be a surrogate and its consequences with regard to the existing legal framework. Besides, the economic perspective of exploitation of surrogates via banning of commercial surrogacy has been briefly discussed. The discussion under this study is expected to put forward an essential perspective to the right to be a surrogate in relation to a woman’s right to life and personal liberty. Further, prohibiting commercial surrogacy may push practicing surrogates towards other economically unrewarding, poorly regulated and potentially hazardous forms of employment or even make them subject to human trafficking. Therefore, recognition of the right to be a surrogate vis-à-vis the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2019, would help in avoiding blatant miscarriage of universal justice while upholding the supremacy of the Constitution of India.
Venkat Rao Pulla, Tulshi Kumar Das, Bala Raju Nikku
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 40-58; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.773

Abstract:
An argument about indigenous social work education often surfaces in South Asian schools of social work. In this study, central concerns around the indigenous argument, together with a review of the pervasive influence of the western model of social work in Asia is undertaken. The three author- research team, utilised a methodology that featured a desk review and an analysis of communications with select South Asian scholars and academics that were respondents for the study. Additionally, the authors present their personal reflections, that prudently address their positionality and reflexivity. The primary finding in this research paper is that the legacy of Western-influenced social work education is thriving within the region, despite criticism from different quarters about its effectiveness. The secondary finding is the admittance by respondent academics in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India and Nepal that relevant to their societal context, limited adaptations have been introduced and are working in their respective countries. The current research provided an opportunity to research participants to view and summarily reject claims by certain bogies that western influence in social work is solely responsible for lack of cultural appropriation within the curriculum in South Asia. The study suggests that there is a lot that can take place by way of adaptation without sacrificing the cultural elements while rearranging the social work curriculum within the region. The authors strongly advocate a blended approach as a suitable course of moderation in the re-construction attempts of social work futures in South Asia.
Dimpy Das, Barnali Sarma
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 91-100; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.621

Abstract:
This paper examines the attitude of the British government towards the prisoners of Assam. Moreover, it investigates the policies adopted by the government about prison labour. Prisons in Colonial India were known as the ‘house of industries’ rather than the house of rehabilitation and the disciplinary system that existed inside the prison walls emphasised more on attaining profit by instrumenting various types of punitive labour and rigorous methods of punishment. Throughout the Colonial period, the rules for prison administration was shaped and reshaped according to the needs of the colonial state and prisoners were squeezed in the name of discipline through prison labour. In India, the idea of reformation was boastfully propagated but never fully implemented inside the prisons. Prison and prison labour in colonial India has been discussed over a period of time in various academic platforms; however, no such discussions were made on the context of prisons of Assam. Therefore, through this study, an attempt has been made to offer an overview of the recommendations of the Prison Reform Committees and its implementation about prison labour and manufactures.
Seidekhan Alibek, Saken Kosanbaev, Sarsebay Karibaev, Beknur Izenbaev, Aysha Begalievaa
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 218-224; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.659

Abstract:
This research aims to examine the ethnographic data about the Kazakh ethnic group from the European sources of the middle XIII to early XX centuries. The study uses problem-chronological and comparative-historical analyses to process data published by European travellers, merchants, soldiers and scientists. The European works contain factual inaccuracies, unverified information and speculations. Their quality has improved since the XVIII century though. The findings of European explorers allow a better understanding of the ethnogenesis of Kazakhs and their transition to statehood. Data available in these sources will help find the historical roots of contemporary ethnic and inter-ethnic problems in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. The present study allowed a look at the past life of Kazakh people and their ethnic distinction in Turkestan through the lens of European mentality.
Elena Shastina, Stephanie Jentgens, Olga Shatunova, Anatoly Borisov, Galina Bozhkova
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 234-243; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.795

Abstract:
The study examines the concept of literary pedagogy as an integral part of the educational process. The authors argue that literary pedagogy as a modern trend in human development is linked to the system of continuous education, which is implemented in formal, non-formal and informal education. A distinction should be drawn between the concepts of literary education and literary pedagogy. Literary education as a process of an individual’s incorporation into the culture by means of literature is generally provided within the framework of formal education and is based on two fundamental principles — artistic and literary-aesthetic. The authors consider literary education as an aspect of literary pedagogy. This research examines the experience of the formation and development of literary pedagogy. Particular attention is given to the issue of training specialists who would be prepared to support children’s and youth reading. Given the integrative, interdisciplinary character of the reading skill, the research presents strong evidence in favour of literary pedagogy which is developing as a branch of pedagogy and as a reaction to the fall of interest in reading. Furthermore, the study provides an overview of the literary pedagogy.
Sumita Roy, Gopa Samanta
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 143-153; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.431

Abstract:
Migration takes place due to various social, cultural, economic or political reasons. Previous Census reports of India show that employment-induced out-migration is a common feature of several states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and other states. In the case of Kolkata, informal labours have enormous employment opportunities in big business centres and small manufacturing units of the city. With the help of D-series Census Data of the years 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011, this study focuses on the migration pattern and the reasons for migration to Kolkata. Secondary data fails to give an idea about the migration pattern of non-Bengali informal labours in the city. Through intensive field survey, the present study tries to identify the dominance of non-Bengali single (without family) male labour migration and to explore the migration streams to the informal sectors of Kolkata. With the help of both secondary data on migration over different decades and by using the primary data, the article argues that non-Bengali migrants represent the informal labour community in Kolkata especially from undivided Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, and the pattern of migration is mainly occupation-induced single male labour migration.
Dhurjjati Sarma
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 59-67; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.861

Abstract:
Rabisankar Bal’s Bengali novel Dozakhnama: Conversations in Hell (translated into English and published in 2012) is an imaginative biography of Mirza Ghalib (1797-1869), and Saadat Hasan Manto (1912-1955) recreated through their conversations from their respective graves. The narrative is enmeshed with the respective historical periods inhabited by the two writers, the first war of Indian independence in 1857 and the Partition in 1947 respectively. It is as if Ghalib bares his heart out to Manto from his grave, while the latter in turn realises that his life too has witnessed a similar kind of socio-cultural and literary marginalisation that destiny determined for both of them. The ‘narrator’ pieces together the traces left behind by the dead themselves and thereby constructs a compelling narrative that resonates in the larger literary and cultural life of India, along with the associated marginalisation of history, politics, and linguistic identities of their times. This study undertakes a comparative examination of the ‘lives’ of both Manto and Ghalib as recreated in the novel through the textual traces left behind by the persons themselves.
Mofidul Hassan, M P Bezbaruah
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 68-77; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.701

Abstract:
Following Kuznets’ pioneering works, the growth-inequality nexus was stylised as an inverted U-shaped relation. As per that paradigm, economic inequality initially increases when a nation embarks upon a modern economic development process, but later on, declines as the development process cross a certain threshold. The paradigm roughly bears out the experience of the industrialised countries of Europe and North America from the beginning of the nineteenth century up to the mid-1970s. The inevitability of the pattern came under question when data from a broader range of countries became available by the 1970s. Then the post-globalisation experience of countries around the world virtually negated the falling part of Kuznets inverted U. Most countries which profited from globalisation in the form of upward shifts of their growth trajectories also experienced a rise rather than a decline in economic inequality. The present paper is a survey of the large and interesting literature on the changing nature of inequality before and after globalisation. The survey finds that inequality across countries has actually declined as a result of globalisation whereas inequalities within countries have almost invariably increased. Apart from usual factors such as bequest and skewed distributions of wealth, the new factors that have accentuated post-globalisation inequality are widening wage disparities, inequalities of opportunities, the onslaught of automation and rent-seeking activities of a section of the rich. The survey also notes how inequality has been moderated in some counties through effective taxes and transfer programmes. After summarising the arguments why growing economic inequality cannot be left unattended, the survey concludes with an outline of the policy choices which are being currently discussed in the academic and administrative circles.
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