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Indira Das, Sujit Deka
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 106-119; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.665

Abstract:
Flood causes extreme loss of infrastructure and human life; besides it also propagates the condition of poverty and unceasing marginalisation of the affected region from development. This study elucidates how flood contributes to the socio-economic conditions of the rural people living in the Southern part of the Kamrup district of Assam. It focusses on flood hazard zoning and flood vulnerability analyses that are delineated based on the data collected from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Near Real-Time (NRT) Global Flood Mapping Product Portal. Flood hazard zoning of the study area is done using Multi-Criteria evaluation method based on rainfall distribution, slope, drainage density, population density, soil type, elevation, flow accumulation, roads, and embankment utilising Cartosat DEM and IRS P6 LISS III data. The zones are identified as actively flooded, chronically flooded, and occasionally flooded zones, which affects 39.4 per cent, 12.9 per cent and 26.1 per cent population respectively covering 1189.2 sq. km, that is, 56.5 per cent area of the study region. The flood vulnerability assessment of the study area is done at village and ward level adapting geospatial assessment in a GIS environment. The findings of the research are generated through observations, key informant interviews with the rural population surveying 1420 number of households. It reveals that 200 villages are affected by floods every year that constitutes 76.6 per cent households and 78.4 per cent of the population of the study area.
Bigi Thomas,
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 22-32; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.898

Abstract:
At a time when there is an unprecedented surge in reported cases of abuses against children in its all forms in India and the legal, social as well as educational system continue to fail in either protecting them or empowering them to face their challenges, it is essential to equip them to learn life skills because such initiatives provide the children with a variety of alternative and creative ways of solving problems of everyday life. In this study, the authors attempt to assess the changes witnessed among rural primary school children after three months of life skill education. Improvement in their communication, participation, perception, values, behaviour, and academic performance was included in the assessment areas. Activity-based participatory learning techniques like games, role plays, drama, drawing, and reflections were included in the modules of life skills, which were used in teaching them in a non-threatening atmosphere. The experiential learning method, which gives opportunities to the subjects to have a first-hand encounter with the phenomenon under consideration instead of simply imagining the situation or merely looking into the prospect of doing something about it, helped children to have a clear understanding about these life skills and its applicability in real-life situations. Reflective sessions after hearing, observing, and practicing each skill, enabled children to think loudly about their performances and understanding about each session. Children could learn a lot from others’ viewpoints, observations, and ideas too. Detailed narration with specific activities as well as games practiced, of each module of life skill education taught to children is included in this study. Results proved that there is an improvement in life skills among children in the areas of communication, participation, perceptions, and values after having life skill education.
India Space And Culture
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 151-152; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.1171

Arulmalar Ramaraj, Catherine Selvaraj, Sanghavi Venkata Varadan
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 120-133; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.1078

Abstract:
Globalisation, urbanisation, human neglect, socio-economic conditions, discontinuity, weather and climate have been identified from literature studies as the root causes hindering the vernacular architecture. The objective of this article is to explore such causes and impacts on vernacular architecture. For this purpose, ‘Kavunji’a village near Kodaikanal, Tamilnadu is identified. Due to the geographical location and the landform, the vernacular architecture in this village is recently undergoing modifications and extensions. To comprehend the salient characteristics of vernacular architecture, six typologies were identified. The thrust of this paper is to explore the reasons that contributed to modifications and additions in dwelling units and effects on the people’s attitude towards the maintenance of the built environment and form at regular intervals is declining rapidly as it requires tremendous efforts, fiscal resources, energy, and time. As a result, people are utilising modern materials to modify and extend the existing dwelling units, completely ignoring the essence of the context. The authors have identified syntactic analysis as a potential tool to comprehend the changes in the spatial relationship. With this as the focus, dwelling units limited to two-storeys with and without modifications were identified for an in-depth study. The semi-public space thinnai at the main entrance from the street is converted into a bathing space. Besides, additions of rooms occur only on the rear side of the dwelling unit. From this study, the authors reinstate that syntactic analysis effectively explores and interprets the efficiency of the spatial layout in dwelling units that have undergone modifications and additions.
Shovan Ghosh, Sucharita Pramanick
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 89-105; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.1112

Abstract:
The popularity of computer-mediated communication and cyber technology has created many new vices in society that obstruct the development of adolescents. One such vice is cyberbullying, which is an insidious and covert form of bullying. The present paper opts to scrutinise cyberbullying's psychological effects on the victim teenagers of minority communities of a cosmopolitan city. Confirmatory factor analysis, for testing the Psychological Effect of Cyberbullying Scale (PECS) comprising 24 direct item pool, was employed to unfold Mild Psychological Effect Scale (MPES) and Intense Psychological Effect Scale (IPES). Cross validating the initial factor structure was conducted with the help of developing standardised coefficient for the two factor model for PECS. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient values are above 0.09 for the items of both the Mild Psychological Effect Scale (MPES) and Intense Psychological Effect Scale (IPES). Based on purposive sampling, the study found that all the items taken for conducting the survey are highly co-related to the psychological impact of the victim teens of the minority community of the cosmopolitan city. So the PECS developed for measuring the effect has significance. Study results also indicate that the PECS can serve as a valuable tool for measuring the mental impact of cyberbullying among teenagers.
Ravi S. Singh, Sarah Ahmad
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 7-21; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.1102

Abstract:
Pilgrimage is a spiritual journey during which pilgrims have a religious experience and feel connected to the faith's spiritual legacy. The sacred sites are the spiritual home for pilgrims which they have read and heard about but never visited or experienced before. With little attention paid to the Islamic pilgrimage, especially by geographers, this review paper is an attempt to provide an overview of the subject matter and seek to put forward possible future research directions. This paper provides a systematic description of pilgrimage in Islam by reviewing the literature on the subject, analysing the definitions, characteristics, processes, classification and authorisation of pilgrimage in general followed by an overview of Islamic pilgrimage, that is, Ziyarat by defining key terms, discussing the typology and exploring the neglected dimensions in Islamic pilgrimage studies. The study has brought the relics and saints venerated in the Muslim world into focus, which are the essential causes for the origin and continuation of the Ziyarat tradition. It also points out the different occasions and reasons for performing popular pilgrimage in Islam. And lastly, it discusses the future research dimensions of Islamic pilgrimage.
Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Kaushalendra Pratap Singh, Leeyir Ete
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 48-59; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.924

Abstract:
Bio-geographically, Arunachal Pradesh is the wealthiest province of the entire Himalayas. The picturesque terra firma full of natural beauty and rich cultural opulence, in its entirety, falls under the eastern Himalayan landscape. This north eastern territory of the country was previously called “Terra Incognita” till the beginning of the 20th Century, and hitherto remains one of the least studied states in India today. The state’s socio-economic development is currently in a transitional phase with variations across different districts. Considering the quality of social capital available, there is a dire need to emphasise proper resource flow and foster an understanding of the importance of the existent social capital. It may be noted that entrepreneurs are powerful instruments of development and economic change. So, panacea in the long term is the promotion of social innovation and entrepreneurship, which will give momentum to the State’s developmental agenda and address the state’s social issues. Indeed requires a motivating ecosystem which prioritises essential skills and innovation and adopts a fresh, sustainable view of resources and technology. Therefore, the present paper explores the prospects of social innovation and entrepreneurship in the state with particular reference to contemporary social concerns adopting a practice-based approach.
Ni Kadek Surpi, Ni Nyoman Ayu Nikki Avalokitesvari, I Made Gami Sandi Untara,
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 60-77; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.991

Abstract:
This study aims to discuss the divine symbols and attributes used as a medium of worship in the Dieng Plateau. The research was phased in according to Wallace's empirical cycle and was conducted in the Dieng Plateau, Central Java, Indonesia, a spiritual centre in ancient Java. The discovery of the Śiva Triśirah statue in the Dieng Temple Complex reveals new things in the past Hindu Nusantara Theology construction. Several divine symbols and attributes are served as a medium of worship at the Temple Complex in the Dieng Plateau. The concept of Deity in the Dieng Plateau is Śivaistic in character with the worship of Lord Śiva Triśirah, that is, Śiva with three faces and four hands, as the Supreme Deity. However, some divine symbols and attributes also serve as a medium of worship and connected to divinity. In Hinduism, the sacred symbols and attributes of God are inseparable. Divine attributes generally define God. In the discussion of theology, God is described with various excellent attributes. The central divine attributes found are as follows: Omnipotence, Creatorship, Omniscience, Eternity and Omnipresence, Personhood, Goodness⁄ Perfection, Non-Physicality, Necessary, Existence, Simplicity, Immutability, and Impassibility. These divine attributes are depicted in various forms of sacred symbols found in the Dieng Plateau.
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 1-6; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.1175

Abstract:
This brief communication in the form of the editorial attempts to draw out the parallels between two grisly incidents in two parts of the world. However, the vertiginous ferocity of the incidents jostled outrage across the nations— Sarah Everard’s kidnap and murder on 03 March 2021 and barbarity on Nirbhaya through gang-rape and subsequent murder in December 2012. Both the cases unveil an underlying culture of misogyny. The question remains how do we tackle misogyny. Perhaps, deployment of Ubuntu through community engagement is a way forward to magnify respect for women via-à-vis respect for humanity.
Sudarshina Sinha
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 134-146; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.1067

Abstract:
The novel Corona virus has been declared a pandemic due to its high transmissibility rate, influencing human life to its heights. It has affected the psychological and mental health of all people, including the functioning of various sectors. This study is based on a micro-level survey that discusses the pandemic's effect on 600 students pursuing education in secondary and higher secondary levels in Kolkata. The school students’ effect was analysed based on four parameters— school, home, a shift in the medium of education from offline to online, and the effect on the students’ future plans, aims, and ambition. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire, which was comprised of structured and semi-structured questions circulated online among the respondents. The respondents were asked to initially rank the indicators and the variables they considered the most critical cause affecting their studies. The respondents were then asked to rate the indicators on a five-point Likert scale to judge the degree of impact of the variables on the respondents.
Qinghua Yu, Yukari Nagai
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 78-88; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.966

Abstract:
This research explores the design of products based on users’ emotional requirements and how students can be stimulated to generate novel ideas in design education. In order to achieve these aims, multiple methods were taught to students during an online course. In the first step, the students utilised interviews, questionnaires, and mixed perspectives to design hill censers according to the users’ emotional requirements. In the second step, the researcher conducted a qualitative thematic analysis to study the students’ collected survey reports. The analytic results were then shared with students to help them quickly obtain better novel design ideas. And then, an emotional design appraisal model was built in the third step. The two main findings are as follows: first, creation in light of the stakeholder’s perspective enabled the students to come up with better design ideas quickly. Second, the ‘design method’ and ‘emotional experience’ themes obtained by the thematic analysis were found to be vital for the designers/students. Notably, the ‘design method’ theme can help students generate novel design ideas, and the students can learn the users’ needs from the ‘emotional experience’ theme.
Poonam Gandhi, Chaitanya Ravi, Prasad Pathak, Smriti Jalihal
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 33-47; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.1072

Abstract:
The process of urbanisation has dramatically increased in India in recent years. The Government of India launched Smart City Mission in 2015 which was intended to transform 100 cities into smart cities. The focus of our research is one such city in India on its path to smartification. Pune’s smart city mission focuses on techno-infrastructural development to increase mobility and digital connectivity. Social-cultural and historical indicators are not considered an integral part of this development. Given this, does the smart city mission of Pune privilege the techno-infrastructural development of a city over its social and cultural development? In this paper, we identify museums and heritage sites in Pune as signifiers of a city's culture and analyse metro development plans through GIS to understand whether the museums' current geography mentioned above and heritage sites require alignment with Pune’s planned smart city mission. The research shows that the quest to ‘upgrade’ and ‘modernise’ is not adequately aligned with the role of key historic-cultural institutions such as museums and heritage sites. The case of Pune city shows that, without careful and inclusive development plan, a full roll-out of the smart city project will exclude a large number of historical and cultural spaces such as museums and heritage sites from emerging as an integral part of smart cities across the country and render them peripheral to modern urban life.
Published: 26 March 2021
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 147-150; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i4.1177

Vinay Sankar
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 18-26; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i3.1117

Abstract:
The recently enacted Farm Laws in India has led to widespread and vigorous protests across the country. It has been hailed as a watershed moment by the neoliberal market analysts and is compared to the 1991 economic reforms, based on the notions of liberalisation, privatisation, and globalisation. A critical review of these laws and amendments needs to be situated in the larger narrative of commodification, wherein certain essential goods and services are appropriated and standardised and traded at market-determined prices. The present review intends to place these new laws in the broader policies and ‘projects’ of neoliberalisation of nature. A critical look at these laws shows that they have profound implications for social justice and environmental sustainability. It seeks to cross-question the food question and the peasant question by revisiting the ontological questions of what constitutes food and farming. It considers the new debate and the old vision of ‘food as commons’, and find that the new laws are, in fact, a continuation of attempts by neoliberal markets and states to commodify food and farming activities. Nevertheless, such attempts, for various reasons, face active resistance in the form of countermovements by the peasantry and enter the arena of political economy. The review argues that the present peasant resistance should be considered as part of the larger environmental justice movements.
India Space And Culture
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 111-112; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i3.1127

Narayan Chetry
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 109-110; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i3.1123

Mukesh Singh, Giyasuddin Siddique
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 86-99; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.1073

Abstract:
Migration brings about changes in the cultural traits of both migrants and the receiving society. This becomes even more crucial, especially for India, which is characterised by rich cultural diversity and substantial inter-state migration. Cultural integration is the strategy of cultural exchange wherein one community incorporates changes without sacrificing its own culture and thus, pave the way for a more stable and harmonious society. Migration in Asansol dates back to the early 19th Century when the newly set up coal mining and the subsequent industrial development generated the demand for labour. Migrants brought with them a distinct culture which had to be reconstructed in the new cultural setup. This study is an attempt to understand the phenomena of cultural and psychological integration of the migrants in Asansol. A descriptive method has been employed to comprehend the migrants’ adaptation and the consequent socio-cultural changes. A sample of 370 individuals has been taken to explore the migrant’s outlook toward integration with the larger society. Emphasis has been laid upon the way the migrants reconstruct themselves, appraise their perception, and adopt the dominant cultural traits. The study reveals that the migrants have immensely influenced the culture of the region under investigation.
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 1-6; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i3.1125

Narendiran S, Bhuvaneswari R
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 27-35; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.740

Abstract:
Debates on intuition about transformed humankind in the future have led to the conception of transhumanism. It is a new philosophical movement to express the ideology that humanism will evolve by employing science and technology. Supporters of transhumanism believe that scientific aid in the evolution of humans will take them beyond the bounds of physical and mental limitations; eventually, it will make them immortals. The influence of transhumanism in literature has given birth to seminal works of art, particularly science fiction. Anil Menon’s The Beast with Nine Billion Feet is one such novel which sprang out the moral issues due to the rapid growth of science and technology affecting social, cultural, and political scenarios in India. The story is about genetic engineering and its impact on the socio-political problems. In addition to unfolding the threats and opportunities of transhumanism, the novel also touches on the issues of young adults like acquiring autonomy and finding their true identity. This study attempts to bring out the trepidation and chaos resultant of the period of transition and the multiple challenges and threats to the human race.
Archita Bhattacharyya
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 100-108; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.936

Abstract:
Out of the several modern Indo-Aryan languages that evolved in the eastern part of India, Assamese and Bengali are the two most prominent ones. Though both these two languages reached their respective present existence after passing through different phases of development, yet their roots are the same. Therefore, between both languages, there are many similarities even though both have evolved in distinctly different geographical areas, and there exist distinct differences between them. The differences not only create the distinction between them but also express their individuality too. In both, languages, pronoun and pronominal have occupied an important role in the discussion of morphology. Along with pronoun, the use of various pronominal which have evolved from the same root has flourished in both the languages. In this regard, both similarities and differences could be noticed in these two languages. Therefore, to identify the co-relation as well as the linguistic characteristics of both the languages, the comparative analysis is the only way out. In this study, an attempt is made to focus on how the pronominal of both languages are used to identify the similarities and differences between the two languages.
Saumya Mishra, Subhash Anand
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 58-70; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.906

Abstract:
A large number of students migrate every year to the University of Delhi to pursue higher studies. Most of these students find accommodation within the vicinity of the university, that is North Campus of the university. Change in their daily diets, induced by the migration, therefore, becomes a critical aspect of determining their physical and mental well-being. The paper aims to examine the changes in their dietary diversity after migration. The principal focus is to analyse the comparative qualitative differences in the diet of the students before and after migration to the University of Delhi. The focus group for the research work comprises randomly selected migrant students from different parts of India, presently living in the North Campus of Delhi. For the primary survey, 100 respondents have been selected from four localities within the North Campus (Vijay Nagar, Malka Ganj, Kamla Nagar, and Guru Tegh Bahadur Nagar) to get first-hand information and opinions. Both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques have been applied to identify the relationship between socio-economic and demographic features of the respondents, and the changes in their dietary diversity have been examined. The findings demonstrate an alarming trend being prevalent across all the four localities—in the consumption of nuts, dry & fresh fruits, and vegetables along with the simultaneous trend of a significant increase in fast-food consumption. The extent of the change varied significantly across the four localities. The highest decline in dietary diversity was observed in Vijay Nagar, whereas Kamla Nagar experienced the least changes in dietary diversity.
Cai Cai,
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 7-17; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.1000

Abstract:
This article reviews the 25-year progress made in implementing the ‘Beijing Platform for Action’ and the challenges that remain towards achieving gender equality in the Asia-Pacific region. Adopted in 1995 at the Fourth World Conference on Women, the ‘Beijing Platform for Action’ has been hailed as the most progressive policy blueprint for gender equality and women’s empowerment. In November 2019, over 600 participants from 54 countries, comprising representatives from Governments, international organisations and civil society organisations attended the Asia-Pacific Ministerial Conference on the Beijing+25 Review in Bangkok. The delegations reviewed the “achievements, challenges and priority areas for realizing gender equality and women’s empowerment” (UNESCAP, 2019a:1) in Asia-Pacific. For 25 years, since the adoption of the ‘Beijing Platform for Action’, Asia-Pacific has witnessed significant progress in girls’ education and women’s health. Unprecedented progress has been made in and reducing maternal deaths and enhancing women’s representation in national parliaments and local governments in several countries. However, there are some enduring challenges, including women’s economic empowerment and political participation, and violence against women. Whilst women play a pivotal role in protecting the environment and natural resources, they have been underrepresented in environment-related decision making and negotiations. Accordingly, the key actions outlined by the ‘Asia-Pacific Declaration on Advancing Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment: Beijing+25 Review’ cover a wide range of issues, from women’s economic empowerment, political participation, to women’s full and effective participation in environment conservation, climate action and peace building process.
Debmita Nandi, Sumana Sarkar
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 71-85; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i3.886

Abstract:
Seasonal migration is a common livelihood strategy among marginal and landless people of the western part of West Bengal. The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) and Census data have failed to provide information on seasonal migration and livelihoods at the micro-level. The present study focuses on the nature, characteristics and factors of seasonal migration with its importance as a livelihood strategy among women agricultural labourers (WALs) in Soul Ponamara mouza of Hirbandh block at the micro-level. The study is based on primary data collection using a purposive sampling method and a semi-structured questionnaire, personal interview and focus group discussion. This study reveals that seasonal migration from Soul Ponamara to the adjacent agriculturally prosperous districts viz. Purba Bardhaman and Hooghly (4 to 6 times in a year) is a common livelihood strategy among WALs in the study area, and its proportion is almost equal to when compared to male migrants. The small size of agricultural land holding, existing monoculture system, lack of irrigation facilities, a limited job opportunity in the Soul Ponamara mouza and its surrounding area (Amjhuri, Bijardihi, Chaka Doba, Moshiara, Bamni and Rangametia) provoke women labourers to move out in searching of works. In contrast, high wage and massive demand for skilled and semi-skilled agricultural labourers during sowing and harvesting season in the destination area, that is, paddy and potato fields of Purba Bardhaman and Hooghly districts acted as a magnet to absorb these immigrants into the workforce. This study concludes that seasonal migration opted for employment and income generation is the primary livelihood strategy adopted by the rural WALs of this mouza to cope up with the existing poverty and food insecurity.
Prasanta Kumar Nayak
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 36-47; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.998

Abstract:
As the world moves faster towards a homogenised culture, the logic of keeping heterogeneous properties of culture seems asynchronous. The liberalisation, privatisation, and globalisation (LPG) model of growth and development of states throw challenges to the indigenous cultures and traditions for a state like India where diverse traditional moorings, cultural systems, religious practices, and ethnic variations stand core to its integrity. In the rat-race for development, indigenous cultures and traditions of a state are enmeshed within ‘accept the global go and lose insularity’ or ‘decline it to stay homogeneous’. In a homogeneous societal culture, the underlying values and beliefs are squarely believed, shared, and practised compared to many different values and beliefs professed by diverse population groups in the case of a heterogeneous one. Arunachal Pradesh with twenty-six major tribes and numerous sub-tribes at its credit stands incredible for its ethnicity, tribal indigenous identities, and cultural homogeneity. As is the number, so is the variation with indigeneity and nuances of culture practised by the tribes. The cultural diversity of the people differs from tribe to tribe even if they reside within the same geographical area. The district West Kameng is abode to six different tribes—Akas, Buguns, Mijis, Monpas, Sajalongs, and Sherdukpens living in close proximity with each other. However, their traditional culture with regards to their religious practices, dress, customs, rituals, languages, dialects, fairs, and festivals is starkly heterogeneous. Most remarkable is the criterion that heterogeneity hardly aberrates homogeneity within themselves. The focus of the present study is to highlight such a homogeneity-heterogeneity aspect of the culture of West Kameng.
Borys Savchuk, Oksana Kondur, Galyna Rozlutska, Olena Kohanovska, Marianna Matishak, Halyna Bilavych
Published: 29 November 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 48-57; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.1016

Abstract:
The article presents the results of research work on the formation of cognitive flexibility (CF) as an essential competence of the future teachers’ multicultural personality. It has been shown that various branches of knowledge (psychology, philosophy, clinical medicine, pedagogy, and others) contribute to the scientific and theoretical substantiation of CF, which is included in the TOP-10 most requested competencies in the XXI century. Based on the analysis of the essence and nature of the future teachers’ multicultural personality, the hypothesis that the competence of CF should become a vital component of personal development was put forward. To test this hypothesis, a pedagogical experiment was organised, which covered 33 future teachers studying "Educational, Pedagogical Sciences" at the Precarpathian National University (Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine). The experiment was conducted in four stages: on the first preparatory stage, a defined program of experimental activities was made; on the second statement stage, the diagnosis of future teachers’ CF levels was set on the basis of the developed prognostic tools (the Questionnaire Cognitive flexibility was created to define the main features of CF as a component of multicultural competence of the future teacher, tests); on the third formative stage the approbation of our methodology for the formation of CF was carried out, which had no analogues in modern education and pedagogy (this was implemented on the basis of our own special course "Cognitive flexibility and multicultural competence of the future teacher", which was held as a training seminar); on the fourth control stage the results of the experiment were determined. They showed that the indicators of CF formation of future teachers at a high level increased from 9.1% to 41.5% (4.7 times), at the medium level they decreased from 63.6% to 53% (1.2 times). At the low level, they changed from 27% to 5.5% (4.9 times) according to four defined criteria (cognitive abilities, adaptive abilities, flexibility of thinking, and emotional flexibility). This proves the effectiveness of the authors’ methodology for the formation of CF as a basic competence of the multicultural personality of the future teacher. It can be widely used in the training of specialists in various specialities.
Venkat Rao Pulla
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 1-4; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1081

Irtifa Mukhter, Richa Chowdhary
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 25-35; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1068

Abstract:
On March 2020 most of the educational institutes in India stopped face to face contact with students as a result of countrywide lockdown which was imposed due to COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of the lockdown has affected the students and cast a shadow on the entire education system. Restrictions have led many universities and colleges to opt for online learning to curtail the spread of Coronavirus. To overcome lockdown, online education became the primary pathway amidst technological challenges. Teachers had possibly more to do than the students and those teachers who were technologically confronted had their limits tested. The students, on the other hand, had myriad challenges to face. The current study draws on the experiences of teachers and students to the introduction of the online learning method during the pandemic. Qualitative research methods were utilised to answer the research questions. The study recruited students in the age of 18-25 and teachers in the age of 35-60 years through social media platforms. Informed consent was obtained, and thereafter the respondents were interviewed via telephone (NAPSWI, 2015). The study additionally utilised and analysed open discussion content of the National Association of Professional Social Workers in India (NAPSWI) webinars relevant to online teaching and their experiences.
Mahfuza Rahman
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 218-220; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1070

Vinay Sankar
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 129-139; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.774

Abstract:
Sacred groves or sacred natural sites (SNS) are defined areas of land and bodies of water with considerable socio-cultural and ecological value. This study attempts to analyse SNS using the framework of commons or common-pool resources and understand the implications regarding the access to and ecological sustainability of these sacred spaces. A set of ten groves from an inventory of sacred groves reported by the Institute of Foresters Kerala were chosen using purposive sampling to cover various types of custodianship and communities in the district of Thrissur. This district houses the most famous sacred grove in Kerala and is known for consecrating sacred groves and expunging spirits. A field survey employing an observation schedule and semi-structured interviews were undertaken focusing on the biophysical, socio-cultural, and institutional aspects of the SNS. Understanding the relationship between grove ecosystems and stakeholder communities was the objective of the study. The management of SNS in the study sites does not show much evidence of collective action. There is a tendency of SNS to become 'club goods' over a period of time. Regardless of types of custodianship, SNS exhibit properties of common-pool resources from an ecological point of view. Even when customarily managed along caste lines, access was not physically restricted. Recent constructions of concrete boundaries around SNS, conversion of groves to temples, and increasing intensity and frequency of rituals have changed the socio-cultural and ecological character of these spaces. The study shows that the perspective of the commons is inadequate to capture the underlying power dynamics of institutions of SNS. Understanding the transformation of SNS from being 'open' and inclusive to closed and elitist temple spaces need a different language of political ecology.
Tiken Das, Pradyut Guha
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 5-13; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.885

Abstract:
Due to the coronavirus-induced lockdown, most economic activities have come to a standstill. It assumes that lockdown with social distancing measures may lower the spread of infected cases, as it will be over-optimistic to expect the complete burnout of the virus. The present study attempts to access the loss of the country’s economy in the wake of the coronavirus-induced 50-day lockdown (40-day lockdown + 10-day preoperative period). The data on Net State Value Added (NSVA) at base price 2011-2012 by economic activity was collected from the Reserve Bank of India for five consecutive financial years. This study assumes 10-day for restoring back to the production capacity, although each sector has its own dynamics and different cycles. The autoregressive process was used for forecasting the growth rate of Gross Value Added. The study found that across Indian states, the amount of loss was most extensive in the state of Maharashtra, as against Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Besides the manufacturing sector, the enormous burden of loss was reflected in the real estate sector, followed by ownership of dwellings and professional services. The highest per capita loss of the NSVA was found in the state of Goa, as against Delhi. The study argued that all the affected sectors likely to register negative growth in the subsequent two quarters.
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 221-221; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1076

Soumen Ghosh, Biswaranjan Mistri
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 140-154; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.747

Abstract:
Agriculture is the main economic activity in Sundarban to sustain the basic livelihood of rural people. In recent decades, the nature of agriculture mainly cropping patterns, crop productivity, and agricultural land use is gradually changing because of various natural as well as anthropogenic factors. The frequent occurrence of climatic extremes over the Bay of Bengal has been directly or indirectly affected the agricultural system of the delta. In the wake of the 2009 cyclone Aila, the crop production in Gosaba rapidly declined due to high salinity and low pH in the soil. Most of the agricultural land remains a seasonal fallow due to the shortage of freshwater during the dry season. The direction of the surface slope has been altered by the unsystematic construction of embankment and haphazard construction of closure in river channels. The saucer-shaped appearance of the island causes massive drainage congestion induced waterlogging problem in the agricultural field. Waterlogging causes crop damage and low productivity. Farmers continue to face substantial monetary loss and entrapping in poverty. To overcome these issues, climate-resilient cropping strategy, proper maintenance of the drainage system, and adaptation of modern land reshaping techniques for diversified agriculture systems are urgently needed for the profound agro-based economic future of the delta.
Norvy Paul, Elsa Mary Jacob, Sheena Rajan Philip
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 47-61; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1061

Abstract:
Kerala, a state with high development indices distinguished with its Kerala Model of Development (UN, 1975), is also affected by recent Pandemic COVID'19 as other states and nations worldwide. The existing socio-economic analysis of the State reveals that the land reforms, promotion of education, and early introduction of participatory governance through Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) have contributed to the State's socio-economic and political advancement. These factors played a significant role in the fight against the pandemic. This study is an attempt to answer what are the future economic and health challenges as the State, Kerala Model of Development, is faced with COVID'19? The specific objectives further guide this— to study the economic challenges ahead of the State as the tertiary sector is faced with challenges to contribute to the economy and attempted to study the possible ways to address health issues in the State. The researchers conducted an in-depth interview among 10 social scientists and economists of Kerala using purposive sampling to obtain primary data, which has been supported by secondary resources. The researchers did a thematic analysis of the primary data collected, further corroborated by secondary data. The study reveals that the State's current scenario during the pandemic, the grass-root empowerment in all spheres of life clubbed with administrative guidance, resulted in well-equipped public health care service delivery. The fall in the tertiary sector's income has decisively affected the State's economy, especially in agriculture, health, IT, tourism, labour, and foreign remittance. The State's economic and social equilibrium will face challenges in addressing issues in the post-COVID era. Even though the State suffered some increased Covid-19 cases recently, after expatriates' return, the dimensions mentioned above assisted the State in its fight against COVID'19. To address the challenges to the Kerala Model of Development, especially the post-COVID-19 requirements of the State demands interrogation, introspection, and integration of the current policies that majorly depend on the tertiary sector and initiate policies, plans, and programmes to strike a balance between all sectors, especially providing impetus to the primary sector so that a failure in one sector can be compensated by the other.
Vishnu Achutha Menon
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 211-214; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.1012

Abstract:
Kannur is a beautiful coastal district of Kerala, which made its way to the national headlines for its brutal political murders. The state has the highest social development parameters when compared to other states but despite this, what makes Kannur standout in terms of political happenings is a matter to be discussed.
Brajaballav Kar, Sugato Tripathy
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 183-193; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.690

Abstract:
Odisha’s economy is predominantly agriculture driven. Exports from the mining industries remained a significant source of foreign exchange. However, over a period, aquaculture exports have also emerged as a lucrative possibility. It is a perfectly suitable sector considering the long coastline, rivers and water bodies, and labour intensive nature of the industry. From an individual or community level of operation, aquaculture developed the characteristics of the industry in the early 1970s. This descriptive research paper investigates the history of the aquaculture industry in Odisha over the past 50 years. The aquaculture industry in Odisha started two decades later than Kerala (another southern state of India), in the form of an experiential learning and opportunity-seeking process by the early players. The subsequent dominance of local players, consolidation, and expansion of the export market proves the natural resource advantage of the State. The study emphasises the contribution of the sector to the state economy. The adoption of healthy consumption habits, large untapped Indian market, value and values-addition in the product, and evolving traceability requirements for exports are some of the significant challenges facing the industry. Despite being an important sector for the State, this sector has not received due attention from academic research. Technology adoption practices, productivity improvement, internal competitions, development of industry structure, and role of policy could be some areas for future research.
Mehedi Hasan Mandal, Anup Kumar Dey, Arindam Roy, Giyasuddin Siddique
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 155-167; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.742

Abstract:
The ecological set up of the deltaic Bengal has immensely been benefitted by the ecosystem services extended by the freshwater wetlands. Along with the diverse ecological benefits, those floodplain wetlands serve the adjacent agrarian community through the provision of free goods and services. The present study has attempted to identify the ecological resources provided by the Chariganga and Arpara Beel and its impact on the livelihood patterns of the rural inhabitants. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques have been used for the study. Ecosystem Service Index (ESI) has been computed to quantify the values of ecosystem services in each category for the dry and wet periods. Nearly 33 ecosystem services are identified which have significantly influenced the socio-economic lifestyle of the inhabitants of three adjacent villages like Arpara, Gotpara, and Sultanpur but not homogeneously in terms of space, time, and status of stakeholders. The computed ESI values reveal that the maximum index value in each category of ecosystem services has been recorded at Chariganga Wetland in both dry and wet seasons. Moreover, the fluctuation of ESI between the two seasons is least at Chariganga Wetland (0.03) compared to Arpara Wetland (0.28). Spatio-temporal variation in availability of resources has conspicuously altered the yearlong utilisation pattern of wetlands’ resources and put a noticeable imprint upon the diverse economic activities and cultural practices of the beneficiaries. The seasonal transformation of a large segment of the studied wetlands in wet and dry months has noticeably influenced the livelihood strategies of the natives. As a consequence, dynamism in utilisation pattern and contrasted societal views concerning the wetland-people interdependency has come into existence.
Rana P.B. Singh
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 215-217; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1071

Hemant Patidar, Satheesh Chothodi
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 4-24; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1008

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic, from its beginning in India on 30 January 2020, has caused over 3.7 million cases of illness and claimed over 66 thousand deaths as of 1 September2020. The large metropolitan cities have been the major hotspots of COVID-19 pandemic. The peculiar urbanisation patterns are crucial in spreading COVID-19 in India. This study attempts to highlight how urbanisation patterns increase the vulnerability of COVID-19 spread in India. The higher density, urban sprawl and associated intra-urban commuting, large slum population, inadequate water, sanitation and housing conditions along with homelessness are found to catalyse the vulnerability of COVID-19 spread in urban areas. The existing public health infrastructure in the country is found to be inadequate with respect to the increasing demand. Efforts to contain the spread are being made; nonetheless, the rapid increase in the cases of illness and deaths from COVID-19 has inflated the challenges for administration and citizens. Rapid enhancement in health infrastructure and health personnel must be made along with strict adherence to the measures of quarantine, social distancing and hygiene for the citizens are of utmost response to the decrease the spread.
Kairat Bodaukhan, Aruzhan Jussibaliyeva, Raushan Mussina, Darima Zhenskhan, Zhanerke Kochiigit, Indira Amerkhanova
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 194-206; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.802

Abstract:
Migration data is a useful tool for creating a single internal economic space that is harmoniously integrated with the global economy by helping to create conditions for the growth of economic and business activity of economic entities. Migration processes, primarily labour migration, are among the significant factors affecting the socio-economic situation both in the country as a whole and in its regions. This study discusses the following issues: state regulation of migration processes; statistical analysis and interpretation of data on internal migration from labour-surplus to labour-deficient regions. In order to achieve the objectives, the study uses statistical data on the inter-regional migration in the country; World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) indicators of social welfare; International Labour Organization’s (ILO’s) unemployment assessment; the dynamics of demographic processes in society. Following the findings, the study presents recommendations on the regulation of internal migration from southern to northern regions of Kazakhstan. Thus, the research results can be implemented when developing regulatory legal acts, migration management programmes, etc. The findings of this study can be used as a basis for assessing the dynamics of the social well-being of migrants in Central Asia.
Syeda Sultana, Payel Saha, Madhushree Das
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 207-210; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1077

Abstract:
Pulla, V., Bhattacharyya, R., & Bhatt, S. (eds). Discrimination, Challenge and Response-People of North East India, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, 203 pp., ISBN 978-3-030-46250-5, eBook:£87.50; Hardcover: £109.99
Elsa Mary Jacob, Arya Chandran L, Abraham Francis
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 36-46; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1046

Abstract:
Nipah virus, the consecutive 2018 and 2019 floods, the internal social, economic, and political struggles have had a significant impact on the lives of people in Kerala, India. While the state of Kerala was trying to get back to some form of stability, Covid-19 slams into, in an unprecedented way, drastically disrupting the lives of many. It has shaken the interconnectedness and interdependence of families and placed communities in a state of fear, anxiety, and uncertainty. This article is about the vulnerabilities, experiences, voices, and untold stories of courage and resilience among people in Kerala. Authors present a reflective analysis of the multidimensional impact of Covid-19 on the ordinary lives of the people of Kerala. The deleterious impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the entire humanity reckons the attention of governments, economists, educators, social scientists, medical and allied professionals, including social workers, to make concerted efforts to preserve and promote human well-being. Taking into consideration the structural inequalities in society, the present paper utilises a critical social work theoretical lens to analyse how it has impacted the well-being of people, especially the marginalised and vulnerable communities in Kerala.
Nurzamal Hoque, Ratul Mahanta
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 117-128; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.841

Abstract:
While the gender gaps in elementary education in India have almost been eliminated, we obtain somewhat different picture when adjusting the gaps to the appropriate school-age children (6-14 years) and the number of the child population. We calculate gender gaps in enrolment, transition rate (from primary to upper primary level), achievement in the examination, and test scores in different subjects in the post Right to Education Act period and obtain that girls are ahead of the boys in almost all aspects. The age-adjusted gender gap in enrolment has improved, implying that over time girls are more likely to enrol in schools within the appropriate school-age. Also, fewer girls are expected to remain out of schools compared to boys within the appropriate school-age. Perhaps, this progress in enrolment has resulted in better performances of girls in transition rate, achievement in examinations and test scores in individual subjects. The rising girls’ performance on different indicators of elementary education indicates the potential impacts of female share on future labour market.
Fauzia Farmin Sayeda, Barnali Sarma
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 168-182; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.768

Abstract:
The study is an attempt to analyse the socio-economic consequences of Sino-Indian war of 1962 on the ethnic communities of North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA), the present state of Arunachal Pradesh, geospatially located in North-East India. A careful analysis of the pre-independent history of the region suggests that both Ahoms and British rulers followed a policy of non-interference in the region as it was predominantly a tribal area. After independence, the Indian Government also followed the policy of minimal governance. The vital issues of infrastructure were also not given much emphasis until the war of 1962. As the Government realised the strategic importance of the state, a significant change in government policy can be witnessed. Apart from initiating development in infrastructure of the state, efforts were also made to nationalise the frontier. The present research aims to document the socio-economic changes brought by the war, using a critical analysis of a wide range of sources.
Muhammad Jafar, Aisha Shoukat
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 62-73; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1059

Abstract:
Healthcare workers are one of the most affected communities at the global level during the pandemic of COVID-19, and Pakistan is no exception. Pakistan allocates merely less than 1% of its GDP for the healthcare sector, that is why, in most of the cases, healthcare workers are bound to serve without adopting standard safety measures while dealing with patients. The need for proper Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) has been felt more than ever during the occurrence of COVID-19 due to its quick transferability from an infected person to a healthy one. Until now, some 62 healthcare workers, including 42 doctors, have lost their lives and 5,367 have contracted coronavirus. Healthcare workers already serving without PPEs went under serious life threat after the coronavirus pandemic, and this fear has adversely affected their role as frontline warriors against COVID-19. In the given scenario, healthcare workers have not only to be worried about their own lives but also their families back at home. The current study aims at investigating variables such fears of healthcare workers about contracting coronavirus, its adverse effects on their performance, and resultantly the provision of compromised healthcare services to patients. This is mainly a qualitative study, whereas primary data were collected through telephonic interviews of 30 healthcare workers (15 doctors and 15 nurses) currently performing their duties in healthcare centres. Sources of secondary data include online journal articles, daily newspapers, government reports, and official websites. The findings of the study show that lack of proper safety kits and training of preparedness and safety has put the lives of healthcare workers at high risk and they are unable to perform their duties in the proper/appropriate way owing to their exposure to the risk of contracting coronavirus. The healthcare workers are conflicted about serving and saving the patients or securing their own lives.
Esita Sur
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 84-95; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.845

Abstract:
Muslim women’s engagement with Islam through Haji Ali Movement in Mumbai highlights an interesting as well as conflicting encounters between Islam, feminism, and women’s rights. It not only disturbs the quintessential images of them but also opens up an array of possibilities to comprehend that Muslim women can develop their own critique of religion and cultural practices from within. The study argues that the Muslim women’s Haji Ali movement or the mosque movement offers a surprising trade-off between Islam, feminism, and women’s rights by challenging the long-established idea that these are mutually exclusive entities and the distance cannot be bridged. Therefore, the study not only tries to find out the origin, nature, and unique characteristics of the movement but also the new ways of exploring the dialogue between Muslim women’s religious subjectivity, rights, and feminism in India.
Venkat Rao Pulla, Bharath Bhushan Mamidi
Published: 28 September 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 74-83; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i2.1080

Abstract:
We share two observations based on what we have seen in India. First, that the hegemonic politics in India ushered in institutional and structural inequalities in their wake and second, that the political leadership continued to be aspirational irrespective of ideologies desiring to scale up in the hierarchy of global economic and political power. These two observations pertain to the contemporary history of five decades of development in India. As a result of the above two observations, we make a further two observations that for the Aām Aādmi (the common man), the political parties that sit in the government and their respective ideologies do not matter. And for the state and the political elites, the negative consequences such as marginalisation, exclusion and desperation of the common folks that emanate from the models chosen for development do not matter. It is in such contexts, social activists argue for a legitimate space for the vying intersects of poverty, caste, class, occupations, habitats amidst such motivated globalisation. They also continue to raise difficult conversations around patriarchy, religious hierarchy, bonded labour, and the girl child. One such social activist that was concerned about all the above issues was Swami Agnivesh. He was not antigovernment, anti-democracy, anti-institutional, anti-hierarchy, anti-religious. He sought to restore a new and deeper meaning of freedom (democracy), a new meaning of hierarchy, social care, and even a new definition of spirituality that is social. He was a man who never stopped dreaming of humanising India. In this article, we reminisce about our association with Swami Agnivesh and attempt to espouse his thought based on our hearing, reading, and reflection. Briefly, we present his life, achievements, and social activism, and more importantly, we attempt to interpret his conception of social spirituality and the ‘power of love’.
Usha Rana
Published: 5 August 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 96-105; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.798

Abstract:
Italian philosopher Antonio Gramsci first coined the term “hegemony” and also elaborated on cultural hegemony. It is a common perception that cultural powers and organisations are hegemonic-centred, resulting in a network of invisible powers. Hegemonic power processes are an integral part of daily social and cultural practices that help to perpetuate power relations. The repercussions of hegemony can be seen in various aspects of society, such as caste, class, ethnicity, occupation, gender, tradition, etc. This paper enlightens on the gendered hegemonic cultural practice of prostitution (sex work) as a traditional institution in the Bedia community. The intensive fieldwork in Habla hamlet, a sub-village of Luhari village (village assembly) of the Bedia community in Sagar district in Madhya Pradesh, India, was conducted to reveal the hegemonic practices in the community. Forty people aged between 50 to 60 years have been interviewed for this study. Twenty females and twenty males were selected for data collection, and observations had been made in the hamlet to understand hegemony through social institutions. Moreover, we have found that the male members are alert to the preservation of the purity and chastity of their wives but compelled their sisters and daughters, with the support of social institutions, to remain unmarried and take up prostitution (sex work). In particular, Bedias' hegemonic traditional cultural behaviour plays an essential role in the continuation of discrimination against Bedia women. Additionally, we explore the mechanism of this hegemonic power through the role of gender, patriarchy, false consciousness, emotions, power of common sense, ideology, and history, which have been responsible for the victimisation of Bedia women for a long time.
Alla Guslyakova, Nina Guslyakova, Nailya Valeeva, Irina Vashunina, Maria Rudneva, Julia Zakirova
Published: 1 August 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 106-116; doi:10.20896/saci.vi0.692

Abstract:
This study focuses on the notion of power as a way of conceptualisation, representation and functioning in the Russian and English-speaking media discourse and its role in the life of the younger generation of the third millennium. Power and its language have always remained an actual research question of interdisciplinary scientific analysis. However, studying young people’s linguistic and paralinguistic perception of power in the era of digitalisation becomes extremely important due to an empowering role young adults have started playing in modern society employing new media and their discursive communication there. The study regards the theoretical background of the phenomenon of power, based on A. Gramsci’s hegemonic approach. The authors of the research suggest that the media discourse is a hegemonic form of power that maintains its position through the elaboration of a particular worldview, which makes a significant impact on young individuals, the so-called net-generation. The study relies on free-associative and graphic experiments to analyse and perceive “power” concept and its influence on young individuals’ consciousness. Results indicate that both Russian and English-speaking media discourse represents “power” through the prism of anthroponyms as well as toponyms. Besides, the findings of the free-associative experiment, conducted among young adults, demonstrated the dominance of the lexical units belonging to the same grammatical class of words as the stimulus word “power”. Furthermore, a graphic experiment revealed young people’s emotional evaluations of power in media discourse communication. As such, the results suggest that “power” is a natural, complex and multifaceted linguacultural and social phenomenon realised through a variety of linguistic and paralinguistic means, and it produces a dualistic effect on young people’s consciousness through their interaction in the media discourse space.
Bandita Deka
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 208-217; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.748

Abstract:
The current social and political processes of Assam in terms of demographic aspect and frontier area policies cannot be seen to be a development in isolation from British colonial policies. The entire system is linked to a historical process of ownership and inheritance. The British entry into the North-Eastern region of India, at the end of the Anglo-Burmese war, marked the beginning of colonial penetration with the consequence of unanticipated transformation of socio-economic and demographic profile in the region. The profound commercial significance of Assam explored by British colonialism led to the development of the Brahmaputra valley into a new economic space. Accordingly, the colonialists consolidated political interventions through the construction of frontier policies that created a divide between ‘Hills’ and ‘Plains’. The policies of social and cultural subjugation, followed by the colonialists, brought the neighbouring hill tribes under colonial control, and the entire region was being turned into a politico-economic jurisdiction of colonial subjects. Such policies envisaged by the British with a commercial motive, however, anguished the ethnic strife- the existing social landscape, the economic space and the political set-up of the region. The current problem of foreigners’ issue and the frontier issue is, in fact, the continuation of the colonial traditions. An understanding of the colonial pattern of exploitation of resources through social and political control would provide an apprehension of the past causes and present effect relationship. Hence, this study attempts to understand the implications of the colonial era political developments in Assam considering its economic potentiality that has given a whole new dimension to the entire regional set-up.
Mayuri Bora
Published: 29 June 2020
Space and Culture, India, Volume 8, pp 198-207; doi:10.20896/saci.v8i1.799

Abstract:
Colonialism has its impact on Indian politics and society even after the colonialism. Pre-colonial Assam was able to maintain its independent status till 1826. After incorporating into the company’s holdings, colonialists gradually extended their controls to the hill areas surrounding the Assam and Bengal plains. Subsequent to annexing the hills, the areas were designated as “tribal” areas and continued to be ruled as a distinct administrative regime. However, the strategy of divide and rule system had fundamentally changed the practices of both hills and the plains. For segregating the hills from the plains, a line was drawn, known as Inner line of 1873. The gradual separation and sharpening of identity had led to the formation of ‘Bordoloi Sub-committee to render autonomy to the hill people. However, the recommendation made by the ‘Bordoloi Sub-committee’ were not able to fulfil the aspirations of the hill tribes, and they started demanding for more autonomy in the form of statehood, backed by insurgent activities, which paved the way for the reorganisation of Assam. And in the present juncture, the Plain tribes of Assam have been demanding for re-reorganisation of Assam. Hence, this study specifies the colonial subjectivity and subjugation and its consequences to new equations of contemporary politics.
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