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Results in Journal Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences: 162

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Mariya Serezhkina
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-3-270-276

Abstract:
The research featured the causes of drug traffic in prisons. The hypothesis is that this crime would be impossible without the participation of employees of the Federal Penitentiary Service. The paper introduces an analysis of statistical data on drug trafficking in Russian prisons. The statistics showed that the level of drug trafficking in prisons remains stable for the last five years, despite the ongoing anti-drug policy of the state, which confirms the abovementioned hypothesis. The study highlighted the role of an employee of the Federal Penitentiary Service in various types of criminal activities related to drug trafficking in prisons. The author analyzed the legal practice of qualifying the actions of prison employees in the field of drug trafficking during their official duties and proposed to introduce uniformity in the qualification of these actions. The paper contains a comparative analysis of a Criminal Investigation Department employee engaged in drug trafficking and a citizen involved in the same crime outside the Criminal Investigation Department. The composition of crimes related to drug trafficking needs an additional qualifying feature for employees of the Federal Penitentiary Service.
Elena El'Gart, Elena Holodceva, Veronika Kameneva, Anna Sergeeva
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-3-238-243

Abstract:
The article introduces a methodological approach to teaching English as a second language (ESL) to schoolchildren with general speech underdevelopment and identifies the main interlingual influences. The research featured various means that optimize the English language acquisition by schoolchildren with general speech underdevelopment. The research objective was to identify and substantiate the optimal methodological tools that take into account interlanguage influences. The study revealed the causes of the poor native grammar skills in this group of schoolchildren. A longitudinal study of interlingual influences made it possible to define several methodological tools that are able to improve the process of ESL acquisition by schoolchildren with general speech underdevelopment. These tools take into account the native vocabulary skills in children of this category. The authors propose to create additional adapted ESL syllabuses for schoolchildren with general speech underdevelopment. Such programs should be based on the peculiarities of the native vocabulary and grammar development in this category of children.
Ekaterina Abakumova
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-3-244-250

Abstract:
This study is an attempt to draw a theoretical and legal understanding of law enforcement practice to reduce the penalty in court. The research was based on the comparative legal, statistical, historical, and general scientific methods of cognition (system method, analysis and synthesis, logic, etc.). The author analyzed doctrinal ideas regarding the legal nature of penalty. The study revealed controversial conceptual and theoretical issues related to this legal institution that are of fundamental importance for its practical implementation. A retrospective analysis of the law enforcement practice under Article 333 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation demonstrated a need for a wider recognition of the penalty function, not only in civil law, but also in tax relations.
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-3-201-211

Abstract:
The article introduces the phenomenon of pedagogical convergence. It appeared as a result of global changes that convergent technologies triggered in science, technology, economy, society, and culture. The research objective was to identify the basic principles and conditions for the formation and implementation of pedagogical convergence in domestic and foreign higher education. The authors analyzed domestic and foreign approach to convergence in pedagogical theory and practice, as well as developed an interdisciplinary methodology for studying this phenomenon. Pedagogical convergence outstrips the needs of society in training highly qualified specialists able to deal with technological convergence in all aspects of human activity. Therefore, higher education institutions need to teach their students to develop, borrow, and adapt convergent technologies. This study contributes to the development of pedagogical science in terms of theoretical comprehension of the phenomenon of pedagogical convergence. The new methodology can help to train university graduates who are familiar with the latest achievements of global science and are able to borrow new convergent technologies and adapt them for the needs of their professional activity.
Ol'ga Grigor'Eva, Larisa Nikiforova, Aleksandra Cherkashina
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-3-191-200

Abstract:
The research featured senior preschoolers with phonetic-phonemic speech underdevelopment. The authors described the peculiarities of speech development in such children and analyzed related publications. As a rule, impaired sound pronunciation includes low tempo and weak voluntary regulation. The study featured substitutions, distortion, or absence of various sounds. The authors tested a set of measures aimed at correcting speech disorders in senior preschool children with phonetic-phonemic speech underdevelopment. The experiment revealed a combination of incorrect pronunciation with sounds that were partially consistent in a certain context. Cognitive parameters included difficulties in memorizing verbal information and poor auditory memory. The subjects failed active speech tests and could not remember oral information. The article also introduces data on the specifics of speech therapy of phonemic hearing.
Vladislav Radov
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-3-259-269

Abstract:
Causation is the most difficult legal issue. For every theory of causation, there is a case that breaks it. Meanwhile, doctrinal disputes are aggravated by the increasingly complicated contradictions of judicial practice in civil and criminal cases. Attorneys tend to give the matter of causal link between the behavior of the offender and the resulting consequences to experts, thereby shifting their responsibility for resolving the legal issue (corpus delicti). Researchers still refuse to use the achievements of postclassic philosophy in legal causation. Even modern publications often feature out-of-date examples and arguments that postulate necessity and objectivity of legal causality. The author used the postclassical theory of law to illustrate the structure of the causal relationship for legal responsibility. The present article covers various issues of terminology, discrepancies, causality and guilt, casuistry and its formalities, common sense, etc. Based on the latest domestic and foreign research in civil and criminal law, the key thesis reads as follows: "a causal relationship is a legal construct".
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-3-229-237

Abstract:
Origami is a means of geometric modeling and self-organization formation in young children. As a part of preschool education, it serves as propaedeutics of basic geometry. One of the tasks of modern education is to improve the social status of mathematics because of its ability to encourage self-development in children. The research was based on the synergetic paradigm which defines a young child as an open nonlinear system capable of self-development. The article gives a theoretical and conceptual justification of origami as a means of self-organization development through the nonlinear educational environment that introduces preschoolers to mathematical culture. Origami proved to be able to enrich preschool education as this activity concentrates the educational resources of the structure-forming environment.
Eduard Skibitsky,
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-3-221-228

Abstract:
Higher education has to develop effective means of pedagogical communication and teaching patterns as a result of the social and economic changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Distance learning requires no face-to-face contact with the teacher. It is based on unconventional teaching patterns and uses modern means of informatization. The research objective was to develop a new system of didactic support in the context of a total distance learning format. The author analyzed the opinions of academics and students of two institutions of higher education. The research revealed some problems related to the use of traditional teaching methods in distance learning. The article introduces a new complex approach to the design of effective didactic support based on the psychological, pedagogical, and methodological features of distance learning. The paper also features various definitions of didactic support, its stages, and component, i.e. content, procedure, and motivation. The new approach was tested experimentally. It involved a rating system, which improved the motivational, emotional, and cognitive aspects of distance learning. A higher degree of formalization of information content also improved such indicators as universality, adaptability, multivariance, and multifunctionality.
Ekaterina Kovalenko, Nadezhda Tydykova
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-3-251-258

Abstract:
The research objective was to find the optimal ratio of private and public principles in the regulation of physical culture and sports relations. The authors used the method of induction to analyze the general approaches to the essence of private and public principles in the modern theory of law. At the present stage, their optimal balance is necessary. The systemic-structural method made it possible to present private and public aspects through their specific manifestations, i.e. institutions of responsibility, control, and partnership. The methods of critical analysis were used to question some of the official positions regarding the institution of public and private partnership and the strengthening of criminal liability. The comparative legal method demonstrated the similarities between the ongoing processes in the sports law abroad and in Russia. The public principles in the regulation of sports relations need to be expanded by expanding the scope of social functions of the state. Some specific cases provided a positive assessment of the increase in the private law mechanisms in terms of the relative autonomy of various sports and the development of the institution of public and private partnership. An appropriate legislative framework would guarantee the rights and legitimate interests of private investors and help the state to achieve socially significant goals. The research results can expand the scientific understanding of sports law and serve as material for lawmaking. Thus, the balance of private and public principles in the regulation of physical culture and sports relations is in the shift of the role of the state from control towards the expansion of obligations to implement its social function. However, the expanding scope of private methods, which is natural for this stage, requires restrictions.
Anna Resenchuk, Nina Tuneva
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-3-212-220

Abstract:
Hybrid learning combines face-to face and online learning, which makes it highly relevant for the current pandemic situation. As a result of global migration, Kemerovo State University welcomes more and more international students each year, hence the need for pedagogical interaction research in cultural dialogue and intercultural communication. The article describes the organizational component of this interaction, which includes a set of methods and technologies that ensure cooperation of all subjects of pedagogical interaction. The authors tested various digital tools of teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and hybrid learning methods in multinational groups of university students. Digital tools allowed students to master basic language and computer skills, as well as increased their motivation and involvement. Interactive teaching materials and automated testing improved the process of hybrid learning in groups where students studied both in classroom and from home. The technologies also helped to establish emotional contact, improved cooperation and creativity, and developed tolerance and teamwork.
Ekaterina Abakumova, Alexey Komissarov, Dmitrii Tarasov
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-2-148-154

Abstract:
The article examines the concept and development of legal relations in the field of the protection of honor, dignity, and business reputation in foreign legislation, where they are part of the legal institution of defamation. The research involved the formal-legal and comparative-legal techniques based on the principles of historicism and objectivity. The article features a retrospective summary of theoretical, normative, and practical approaches to the conceptual application of the institute of defamation in the countries of the Anglo-Saxon and continental law. The Anglo-American defamation law is formed both within the general and statutory framework. Special legislative acts of the United Kingdom define the conditions (criteria) for classifying these legal relations as essentially defamatory. The peculiarities of the continental defamation law can be attributed to its mainly criminal-legal regulatory component, rather than civil or administrative law. The comparative legal review of the foreign experience of legal support for the protection of honor, dignity, and business reputation proved relevant and practically significant.
Tat'yana Filippova
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-2-182-190

Abstract:
The last will issues are always relevant, since they are associated with the desire and ability of a citizen to provide financially for their heirs. The current legislation takes into account the will of the testator and reflects, to some extent, the changes that occur in society. The present article features the current inheritance law of the Russian Federation, which, as it appears, do not reflect the special legal status of an individual entrepreneur. The authors analyzed statistical data confirming the place of individual entrepreneurs in the modern economy. The legislation on inheritance underestimates this fact, which leads to a violation of people’s rights and negative consequences in the business sphere. The research objective was to consider the issues of inheritance after the death of an individual entrepreneur, taking into account the preservation of the business, the stability of civil circulation, and the interests of the testator. The authors examined the existing approaches to the legal status of an individual entrepreneur and various cases of controversial conclusion about the property inheritance. They also assessed the effectiveness of legal regulation of inheriting the property of an individual entrepreneur and developed options for preserving the business, including a trust management agreement for inherited property. However, the notarial practice in this regard remains quite inconsistent. The paper contains several proposals for improving the current inheritance law.
Alexandra Pilyushenko
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-2-141-147

Abstract:
The article addresses the problem of social health as a basic factor of positive sociocultural environment in the context of globalization. The research objective was to define the content of social health as a balance of such categories as social immunity and social pressure. The study relied on the methodology of philosophical analysis, dialectical method, and system approach. The phenomenon of social health was described as part of the system of dynamic and multidimensional social relations. The article featured the role of sociocultural environment of one's life and attitudes of spiritual and moral nature that make up one's social health formation. Social pressure is an attributive characteristic of social life, which is getting increasingly complex in all areas of human life. The article also introduces the term of social immunity as a set of spiritual foundations of one's activity that provides one with productive social relationships. Social immunity depends on one's age, lifestyle, and sociocultural environment. The author also analyzed various prosocial deviant forms of behavior. The decisive factor of social health formation is that social immunity should correspond with the current social pressure.
, Galina Tupikina, Elena Tsigichko
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-2-125-132

Abstract:
The research featured the intellectual abilities of teenagers with different levels of stress resistance. The research objective was to describe the options for intellectual development of secondary school students depending on their stress resistance level. The authors reviewed various approaches to intellectual development of younger adolescents. They proposed a set of assessment techniques for the level of mental development. The research revealed the effect of stress resistance on the intellectual abilities of teenagers. Teenagers with a low level of stress resistance were excitable and careless, while demonstrating tender conscience and poor analytical and verbal skills. Respondents with a high level of stress showed a low level of excitability and conscientiousness, a high level of carelessness, a good ability to establish analogies, and admirable verbal abilities. The paper contains some useful recommendations for teachers and parents on the development of teenagers' intellectual skills based on their level of stress resistance.
Lyudmila Arlasheva, , Natalia Kasatkina
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-2-105-113

Abstract:
He concept of life-long education and the Federal State Educational Standard for General Education presupposes teaching technologies that form a positive attitude to a safe and healthy lifestyle in teenagers. The cognitive and social tasks that teenagers have to face grow more and more complex, which means that class environment should develop their coping potential and healthy lifestyle habits. The article features a pedagogical model for improving the health-saving and coping potential of adolescents in class. The model includes functional components that consist of organizational and pedagogical conditions aimed at solving learning, developmental, educational, and social tasks in class and during extracurricular activities. Monitoring proved to be the main organizational and pedagogical condition for improving the potential of adolescents in adaptation and healthy lifestyle habits. Monitoring includes three main stages: analytical, technological, and corrective. The research involved traditional and modified criteria of the health-saving and coping potential. The experiment proved the effectiveness of the new model.
Eugene Anichkin, Alexey Rezinkin
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-2-155-164

Abstract:
The article describes the international scientific and technical cooperation (ISTC) of the Russian Federation with foreign states in the context of the anti-Russian sanctions. The research featured the political and economic anti-Russian sanctions that define the current cooperation in the scientific and technical field. The authors described the phenomenon of sanctions, their main types, reasons, specific features, etc., putting stress on the industrial and selective character, as well as on their indirect influence on Russian ISTC. There are no scientific and technological sanctions per se; however, the current political and economic sanctions keep affecting the ISTC sphere, e.g. inability to purchase and deliver reagents and high-tech equipment, to accept financing from foreign funds, etc. The sanctions manifest themselves as narrow scope of research projects, low academic mobility, etc. The two areas with appropriate mechanisms to counter the sanctions policy are political and legal. For instance, a diversified state policy could be developed to support ISTC. Public scientific diplomacy and an official vector of development might be of great help, in particular, the Asian vector of ISTC development. The authors believe ISTC should take place between the members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. The legal counteraction mechanisms include issuing normative legal acts, suspension of international agreements in ISTC, counter-sanctions, and international arbitration.
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-2-133-140

Abstract:
Cross-cultural analysis has firmly taken its place in linguistics, while the novelty of the term is relative: we are dealing with a new definition of what was meant by the concept of ethnolinguistics, linguistics, and cultural studies. In literary studies, cross-cultural analysis is a new term for culturological comparative studies, i.e. an analysis from the point of view of the "dialogue of cultures", which makes it possible to single out the national images of the world. The aim of the present research was to study the cross-cultural component in the works of the national authors of Dagestan who write in Russian. The study featured Russian-language poetic texts created by Dagestan authors and how they reflect the national identity of the author. Cross-cultural analysis relies on the idea about universal cultural patterns. As a result, Dagestan Russian-language literature can be interpreted as a set of national works written in Russian. Literary text as a role model plays a fundamental role in language acquisition. Reading fiction allows language learners to move away from standardized teaching texts and immerse into the "living" language. While studying a foreign work of art, the learner touches upon both linguistics and culture: it provides information about the social and cultural structure of a foreign community. A positive aspect of using literary texts for educational purposes makes it possible to learn more about the culture of the people, since the texts always reflect the language in its historical, social, and cultural context.
Svetlana Voronina
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-2-165-173

Abstract:
He present research considered the property rights of minors by comparing civil and family legislation. The article covers various matters of separate ownership of parents and children, property management, and the behavior of parents, as well as sectoral and inter-sectoral legal relations as a whole based on family relations. The research was based on normative legal acts, scientific publications, and precedents. Family law regulates the property relations between parents and children regarding the maintenance and personal belongings. Any other property rights of minors fixed by the Family Code go beyond the limits of family law and are part of civil law. The basis of civil property relations of minors is the family relations. Therefore, they have to take into account social and legal relations between parents and children. A prerequisite for the emergence and implementation of property relations is the organizational relations that arise between the subjects of private and public law. Authorization by the guardianship authority ensures the protection of the property rights and interests of children. The regulation of property relations involving minors and their legal representatives is subject to inter-sectoral and inter-subject interaction, which must be taken into account when implementing the rights of minors and protecting them.
Elena Kovalenko, Nadezhda Tydykova, Olga Shavandina
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-2-174-181

Abstract:
The research objective was to substantiate the concept of sports law as an independent branch of Russian law. Using the induction method, the authors analyzed the general approaches to understanding any branch of law. They believe that, at the present stage, sports law can be considered a complex branch of law. The systemic-structural method made it possible to present sports law not only through its subject and method, but also through sources, principles, and other attributes. Some of the positions expressed in the scientific publications were questioned by the methods of critical analysis. They used the comparative legal method to analyze the positive foreign experience. As a result, they obtained an authentic concept of sports law. They also defined the groups of social relations, their general characteristics, interpretation method, the concept of sports legal relations, etc. The field of sports legislation needs legal codification. A Sports Code of the Russian Federation would be a logical solution to the problem. It should unite the positive experience of foreign countries. Sports law is a complex branch of Russian law. Its subject is relations in the field of physical culture and sports. This branch of law uses both dispositive and imperative methods. The newly developed system of sources of sports law requires systematization, improvement, and legal codification. The results obtained can be used to expand the scientific understanding of sports law and as a material for lawmaking.
Alexandra Dashkina
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-2-114-124

Abstract:
The present research featured how learning a foreign language in small groups under the guidance of a student with leadership qualities improves professional vocabulary. Such ESL classes proved useful for students majoring in management. Their work was organized in such a way that students' roles were close to their personal characteristics, i.e. action-, people-, and thinking-oriented. A diagnostic test revealed the students' level of proficiency in English. A psychological training made it possible to identify potential leaders. The students in the experimental group were divided into small subgroups and had to master professional vocabulary under the guidance of the leader. In the control group, the subgroups consisted of either leaders or subordinates. Vocabulary acquisition in the experimental subgroups appeared to be 25 % higher than in the control subgroups. Therefore, teamwork under the guidance of a leader proved quite effective.
Natalia Zvyagina, Viacheslav Baev
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-1-88-95

Abstract:
In this article, the authors analyze the changes in civil procedural legislation. The research featured the issues of qualification for legal representatives in all categories of cases, with the exception of cases considered by magistrates and district courts. The study was based on the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Code of the Russian Federation, which initially provided no exceptions for this rule. The authors believe that the expansion of the sphere of professional representation requires an analysis of these amendments and existing regulations on professional representation from the point of view of constitutional right to judicial protection and the right to receive qualified legal assistance. A certificate of higher legal education or an academic degree in a legal specialty does not always indicate the level of professionalism. A professional representative should also have positive practical experience, as well as strive for professional development. The authors assessed the classification of cases that require a professional representative. In this article, they criticize the current monopoly of lawyers on representation in civil court and argue the uselessness of establishing the education and qualification of a representative in its current form. The professionalization of the institution of legal professional representation is possible only under the conditions of the evolutionary development of procedural relations and the imperative consolidation of the rules of a competitive professional process.
Daria Buniak
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-1-73-87

Abstract:
In the era of global epidemic, the mechanism of HIV transmission still remains a subject of urban legends. HIV-positive patients are stigmatized in all aspects of life, including access to health services, housing, education, and employment. The article covers the legislation and practice that can affect the rights of HIV-positive people in countries that belong to different models of human rights. The author focused on the principle of non-discrimination and its role in the regulation of the rights of HIV-positive citizens. When it comes to human rights in healthcare, the state should have limited "margin of appreciation", especially if there is no international consensus, and response adequately to relevant questions, e.g. about the difference between the legal status of citizens and foreigners. The research objective was to reveal the importance of new scientific data for legislators and law enforcement agencies in different countries. The author believes that an international dialogue could help states to cooperate in order to guarantee people their rights. Public opinion cannot influence the constitutional right on fair treatment.
Irina Sokolova, Olga Spirina
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-1-43-51

Abstract:
The research featured the views of the teaching staff of a military engineering university about didactic testing and diagnostics. It included a survey of students' learning motivation based on the achievement goal theory. The military students proved to be oriented towards improving their skills and getting new knowledge in order to achieve professional and personal growth. The article introduces a criterion-oriented estimate of efficiency methods that can be used to assess class activities and communicative interaction between the teacher and the student. The modeling process was illustrated using the mathematical formalization method. The authors believe that criterion-oriented testing can help to verify teachers' achievements. The article justifies the need to develop new criterion-oriented methodologies for identifying teachers' performance and offers a detailed algorithm that can be used in future research and verification of professional achievements.
Natalia Shmireva, Grigory Lopatkin
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-1-52-62

Abstract:
The present research featured the conceptual foundations of pre-school spatial learning environment with its interdependent semantic components and a potential for new products. The study was based on the systematic approach to the problem as an integral complex of interrelated elements. A thorough analysis of various definitions of spatial learning environment made it possible to separate it from the concept of learning environment. Both internal and external environment of educational organizations should create such spaces that stimulate children's development. The article also describes the concept of pedagogical design as an important multifaceted phenomenon and introduces efficiency criteria and a basic algorithm of actions: mission, environment components, functions, principles, goals, tools, requirements, directions of activity, and resource provision. Designing the strategic and tactical guidelines can improve the quality of early childhood. The conceptual foundations of design were formulated as tools that facilitate the movement towards solving the problem in the system of theoretical and practical steps. The conceptual foundations include organizational and pedagogical conditions that ensure the high-quality level of life in all subjects of learning process in pre-school educational establishments.
Elena Michurina, Elvira Kozhevnikova, Sergey Tuzhilkin
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-1-21-31

Abstract:
The paper introduces the organizational and methodological aspects of extracurricular activities as a necessary condition for the intellectual development of young teenagers, who usually demonstrate a striking imbalance in mathematical, non-science, and technical abilities, as well as a partial decrease in non-verbal abilities. The article describes various psychological and pedagogical approaches to the issue of intellectual abilities. The research objective was to study the forms and methods of organizing extracurricular activities that ensure the intellectual and personality development in 11–13-year-olds. A set of controlled experiments proved their efficiency and demonstrated some intellectual improvement in the test subjects. For instance, the research resulted in an obvious increase in the number of test subjects with a medium level of logical thinking, mathematical skills, speech development, and the ability to compare concepts.
Mikhail Simkin, Lyudmila Kurganova, Zhanna Fomina
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-1-32-42

Abstract:
The article describes theoretical approaches to understanding the emotional sphere of primary school children with disabilities. The research featured the means of relieving negative emotions in younger schoolchildren with special needs. The goal was to identify and test the possibilities of emotional relief in this category of children. The authors determined the situations that can trigger negative emotions in children with special needs during various activities. The negative manifestations of the emotional sphere resulted from the difficulties of adaptation to a school environment, increased school anxiety, and internal conflicts. The authors also conducted a series of experiments to test various methods of emotional relief and their consequences. The methods of targeted influence proved quite efficient.
Victor Rossiev
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-1-96-104

Abstract:
The present research featured the state policy that ensures the right on free legal assistance in the Kemerovo region. The author analyzed the efficiency of state and non-state systems of free legal aid in Kuzbass. He believes the state of affairs in this area can hardly be called satisfactory, due to both the lack of political will, funding, information, and public awareness. Kuzbass lawyers and other entities have no motivation to provide free legal assistance as they are discouraged by low fees and red tape. The author believes that it is the non-state system of free legal assistance that should be considered as a priority. Free legal assistance requires significant organizational costs to set up legal clinics at universities and a full-scale system of state legal bureaus. Currently, lawyers are not capable of providing primary qualified free legal assistance in all civil cases. Therefore, it would be reasonable to create conditions for consulting a wide range of citizens by other organizations involved in the system of non-state legal assistance.
Margarita Mikhailova, Tatiana Shamovskaya
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-1-11-20

Abstract:
The article deals with teenagers' motivation, which is important for education, project of life, etc. The research objective was to assess a set of measures aimed at increasing cognitive motivation and motivational awareness in learning process. The study focused on the development of motivational sphere in 14- and 15-year-olds. The article introduces an analysis of patterns and factors of the motivational development, as well as types of motives behind educational and cognitive activity. The empirical research featured the motivational sphere of teenagers, which demonstrated instability, failure avoidance, and a decrease in interest in learning. Their conscious cognitive interest in educational activity decreased as the leading activity shifted from educational to communicative. The article also describes a set of measures aimed at increasing the level of cognitive motivation and the motivational awareness of educational activities. The experiment included educational techniques that promote students' involvement in the learning process, as well as group sessions with elements of psychological training, aimed at raising self-esteem, improving communication skills, and building a friendly attitude towards peers. The empirical and statistical methods confirmed the effectiveness of the new method.
Peter P. Kirschenmann
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-1-63-72

Abstract:
The article introduces a complete translation of Professor P. P. Kirschermann's "Problems of Information in Dialectical Materialism". It was originally published in the respectable sovietological journal "Studies in Soviet Thought" in 1968. Professor P. P. Kirschermann's article is a preview of his monograph "Information und Widerspiegelung. Zu Problemen der Kybernetik und des Diamats", published in 1969. Its English translation appeared a year later and was published by D. Reidel Publishing Company as "Information and Reflection: On Some Problems of Cybernetics and how Contemporary Dialectical Materialism Copes with Them". Professor P. P. Kirschenmann worked under the guidance of the famous Polish philosopher J. M. Bochenski in the framework of a special program implemented by the Institute for Eastern European Studies at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. In his article, he identified the main features of dialectical and materialistic reflection of information and demonstrated their connection with the fundamental principles of the dialectical materialism. Professor P. P. Kirschenmann focused on the existence of internal collisions, which impeded the implementation of a consistent conceptualization of information. This critical understanding of the dialectical and materialistic philosophy of information is of significant interest for several reasons. First of all, it proves the involvement of dialectical and materialist philosophy in the context of European thought of the XX century. In addition, it demonstrates the relevance of P. P. Kirschenmann's provisions for modern domestic contexts of the philosophy of information.
Antonina Kartavtseva
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2021; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2021-5-1-1-10

Abstract:
The present research tested various technologies of pedagogical support of tolerance development in students of a technical university during foreign language acquisition. The paper reviews scientific approaches to the essence of tolerance and introduces the stages of its formation, the definitions of pedagogical technology and teaching technology, etc. The author focused on teaching a foreign language in a non-linguistic university and proved that the choice of forms, methods, and technologies depends on a number of circumstances. The research revealed substantive characteristics of tolerance in students and the positive effect of second language acquisition on the parameters of tolerance. The changes in the content characteristics of tolerance were registered on the basis of the corresponding indicators. The study made it possible to determine the effectiveness of the classroom and extracurricular conditions that contribute to the development of tolerance in students of technical universities.
Andrey Peraladov, Alexander Lichman
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-4-353-364

Abstract:
The present research featured optimization of the proof and its effect on the meaning and spirit of the law as in the case of administrative liability for exceeding the vehicle average speed. The authors describe the legal opinions of administrative bodies, courts, and prosecutors on the issue of exceeding the vehicle average speed registered by traffic cameras. The authors believe that it cannot be used as a basis for administrative liability since the concept of "vehicle average speed" is absent from the law. Moreover, it violates the presumption of innocence and imposes unfair burden of proof on the driver. The article introduces the difference between the calculation of the vehicle average speed and the proof of the body of an administrative offense. The proof should include the exact place and time of speeding, whereas the evidence for their determination should be admissible and relevant. Traffic cameras have too many disadvantages to be used for establishing the event of an administrative offense and bringing people to administrative sanctions.
Irina Timofeeva
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-4-306-314

Abstract:
The article introduces a new model for developing volitional self-direction skills in students of orphanage schools. The research objective was to identify and describe the components of this model. The paper explains the essence of the self-direction process and the specifics of self-direction development in adolescents. The problem of developing self-direction in orphans still remains understudied. The authors proved that volitional self-direction skills develop in orphans in the environment where they live and study. They defined the concept of developing volitional self-direction skills in orphanages as a continuous, purposeful, and controlled interaction between teachers and students, aimed at developing a system of knowledge and ideas about the volitional regulation of students’ activities, as well as acceptable ways of reacting and behavioral patterns in various situations. The paper describes criteria, indicators, recommendations for assessment, and organizational conditions.
Angelina Sevostyanova
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-4-365-375

Abstract:
Indemnity is considered in three aspects: the philosophy of law, the principles of civil law, and the legislative establishment in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. This study focuses on this ambiguous institution that was introduced on June 1, 2015, in order to maintain the practice of parties applying contractual terms that are not part of the counterparty's mandatory program. The article analyzes the controversial issues of the need to introduce the institution of indemnity, for instance, the decision to narrow its scope of application in comparison with the Anglo-Saxon law countries. The scope of application of indemnity is limited by its subject composition. Legal entities with a complex corporate structure are especially interested in this institution: the higher their risks connected with reputation, foreign economy, market conditions, strategy, etc., the greater the need for establishing indemnity. The present research does not cover all scientific publications on this subject, as most of them demonstrate a critical view of the fact that the institute of indemnity was borrowed from the English law. Similarly, the paper does not describe the indemnity formation process in the contract law of England, as scientific literature on this matter is abundant. This work is aimed at analyzing the causes of legislative establishment, identifying problems in the practice of application, and forming models of effective legal understanding of indemnity.
Alexander Dumov
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-4-315-322

Abstract:
The paper presents a review of modern philosophical and methodological literature on exploring complexity. The research featured the effect of metaphor in the cognitive processes, research communication, and transmission of complex ideas. The author developed a classification of metaphors in the context of exploring complexity. The approach is based on the identification of a certain ontological and epistemic content of the metaphor. The contextual role of the metaphor in cognition processes depends on these aspects of its content. The author analyzed the groups of metaphors associated with such topics of exploring complexity as self-organization, ecology, and dialogue. The metaphors proved important in developing a complex vision of the relationship between the cognizer and the world. The study also examined the axiological aspects of the metaphors, as well as the connection between the metaphor and the new vision of rationality, typical of the philosophical reflection of complexity. The metaphor proved to have a heuristic, communicative, and organizational potential in conditions of methodological uncertainty. The context of philosophical and theoretical-methodological reflection of complexity makes it possible to study the metaphor in order to identify the existing models of exploring complexity and their cognitive stylistics.
Veronika Dzvonik, Georgy Mukhanov
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-4-297-305

Abstract:
The present research featured the possibilities of using the training process to develop volitional character qualities in young football players in a sports school. The article describes the theoretical ideas about volitional qualities as an object of psychological and pedagogical research, as well as various types of activity where these qualities can be realized. The authors focus on the development of volitional qualities in primary school children involved in sports vs. their peers. They believe that sport brings about positive changes in the parameters of the volitional sphere of the primary school students, e.g. discipline, sense of purpose, etc. The research experimentally proved the effectiveness of football for the development of volitional qualities in primary school children. The research results can improve the process of developing various volitional qualities in pupils during extracurricular activities. The paper also introduces a program of psychological and pedagogical support, which develops volitional qualities in young football players.
Maria Yazsevich
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-4-338-345

Abstract:
The article explores the ontological foundations of power in Western European philosophical discourse. The author analyzed essential characteristics of power within classical and non-classical paradigms, thus revealing the relationship of its ontological principles with social practice in different historical periods. According to the classical rationalistic world view, power was endowed with metaphysical properties, which provided it with transcendental status and ethical characteristics. Power correlated with such concepts as "good", "hierarchy", "responsibility", "order", "law", "justice", etc. This discourse presented the government as a category of ontological order, sacrament to the Absolute, and contributed to the development of its institutional forms and management strategies based on control, subordination, and coercion. The non-classical paradigm put forward the idea of power as a manifestation of the irrationality of the human psyche. Criticism of logo-centrism made voluntaristic philosophers present power as a category of anthropological discourse. Its basic properties were defined through such concepts as "universality", "irrationality", "subjectivity", "totality", "ubiquity", etc. Power was deprived of its transcendental status and ethical character, which traditionally provided it with legitimacy in society. However, it acquired the properties of universality and immanence of human nature in the unconscious structures of human psyche. In social practice, the transformation of the principles of power led to the development of ideological discourses and new ways of exercising power
Olga Biryukova, Irina Bondarenko, Oleg Vinnichenko
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-4-346-352

Abstract:
This research featured the origin, formation, and development of the institute of defence attorneys in Russia. The methodology was based on the classical principles of historicism and objectivity. Comparative-historical and chronological methods made it possible to reproduce a retrospective analysis of the development of the Institute of defence attorneys. The formal-legal method helped to clarify its legal basis. The authors studied normative legal acts and monuments of law, as well as scientific publications, monographs, and dissertations related to the history of the Bar in Russia. The institute of defence attorneys proved to have a long history, from the first legal representatives of the XV century to the first Russian Bar in the second half of the XIX century, the Soviet Bar, and the contemporary Bar. At each stage, the Russian Bar had its own specific features. For instance, the term "lawyer" was not used in the pre-revolutionary period. The Judicial Statutes of 1864 included the term "sworn attorney". During the Soviet period, lawyers were called "defenders". Their function was quite formal: to represent the general principles of Soviet legislation rather than to defend the interests of the client. The contemporary law on legal practice and defence defines the terminology and regulates the legal status of an attorney. The paper also introduces an analysis of the forms of Bars in Russia and their main functions. The Institute of defence attorneys provides qualified legal assistance to the population, which makes the review quite relevant.
Vladimir Zolotukhin
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-4-323-329

Abstract:
The article deals with the socio-philosophical and cultural aspects of human activity in the conditions of forced interaction with information technologies and related socio-economic and psychological risks. On the one hand, there is a need to develop an information culture as one of the essential elements of the communicative interaction between various subjects of information space. On the other hand, ethnonational and other risks should be minimized, including the current situation of modern information diversity. The development of information technologies triggers new forms of criminal behavior, which shape a symbolic image of violence through manipulation and propaganda. The effectiveness of Internet crime prevention depends not only on the timeliness of the adoption of relevant legal acts, but also on the prompt response by state and law enforcement agencies to criminal activities in the information space. The new information infrastructure should be human-centered and aimed at realizing human potential and needs in order to improve the quality of life.
Marina Golovaneva
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-4-287-296

Abstract:
Dualism is a specific quality of approximation principle. The present research featured the potential of approximation principle for linguadidactics, namely to what degree it can be used to teach Russian as a foreign language and perform correction work in class. The research objective was to assess the efficiency of this principle. The study was based on the method of observation. The article introduces analyses of scientific linguadidactic literature and some typical situations of educational process. The author separates correction work from speech activity, i.e. talking, writing, and reading. The author believes that speech mistakes must be corrected immediately, involving the student in the correction process. Graphic facilities should be used to illustrate the norm. Therefore, in practical linguadidactics, approximation principle should be minimal. Yet, approximation is impossible to avoid in the abovementioned types of speech activity, which hints at the dualism of this principle. Therefore, all errors must be corrected using graphic means, if possible, by both the teacher and the student. Students should be encouraged to participate in the correction process, while the teacher maintains supervisory control.
Vladimir Laluev
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-4-330-337

Abstract:
The increasing interest of the mass audience to various types of fantasy art triggered an interest for the genre of religious vision, a phenomenon of the theological literature of the XIX century. The present research featured a philosophical and theological analysis of the genre of vision in the Western European and Russian religious culture of the XIX century. The research objective was to identify the origins of the genre of vision that arose in the religious culture of the XIX century and to give it a general description. The author compared the visionary experiences of the Protestant author Ellen G. White and an anonymous Orthodox author. The study helped to reveal that people's idea of the existence of the other world is an integral component of the imaginary world that underlies any religion and can be a subject of comprehensive analysis in modern theology and cultural studies. The author used the following research methods to comprehend the spiritual experiences embodied in the genre of visions and recorded in the doctrinal literature of Protestantism and Orthodoxy: the comparative historical method and the textual analysis of visionary texts, theological literature, and ontopsychological studies. The theoretical basis included various works by Russian philosophers, cultural scholars, and theologists, who elevated the visionary literature to the level of meta-scientific synthesis. The scientific novelty of the research is that it compares the spiritual experiences of Protestantism and Orthodoxy. The paper introduces a method that can be used to study other religious confessions in philosophical and religious discourse.
Daria Buniak
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-3-245-256

Abstract:
The present research featured anti- discrimination laws used in EU countries. The research objective was to describe the categories of equality, non-discrimination, and protection against discrimination within the European model of human rights, as well as to analyze their effectiveness. The article focuses on domestic violence, gender discrimination in the political sphere, and the so-called gender laws, or laws on gender-based violence. Even in the modern world, women still remain subject to discrimination. This fact justifies the development of special laws to protect their natural rights. However, the exact extent of gender discrimination remains unclear. The author raises the question of effectiveness of such laws and other legal provisions. The research featured both constitutional norms and current legislation in cases its norms develop the constitutionally significant principle of non-discrimination, as well as the practice of constitutional review bodies, special bodies, and legal awareness. The work was based on the dialectical method (logical method, analysis and synthesis, modeling), as well as on some special methods (formal legal, historical, systemic, etc.). The formal legal method was used to analyze the gender anti-discrimination norms of legislation of EU countries. The specific-historical method helped to interpret the legal events and facts that shaped the modern constitutional protection measures. The system method was used to describe the legislation of the EU states. Equality is the freedom for a person to choose their identity and occupation regardless of behavior stereotypes imposed by their community. The European model of human rights concentrates on such constitutional and legal aspects of the fight against discrimination as the legislation reform and bodies of constitutional control. However, sometimes such measures fail and might be used for manipulation.
, Alena Borisenko
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-3-207-217

Abstract:
The research featured various means of psychological and pedagogical support of college students from foster families aimed at developing their socio-psychological adaptation. The authors identified the key characteristics of the socio-psychological adaptability of underage orphan students. Students that spent less than a year in foster families combined adaptation with behavioral regulation and demonstrated communicative potential, long-term goals, interest in life, and a sense of purpose. They were active, strong, and satisfied with their self-realization and self-image. Their maladaptation disorders, as well as asthenic and psychotic reactions, were minimal. The key characteristics of the socio-psychological adaptation of minor students from foster families were manifested in the inverse relationship of maladaptation with the life process, locus of self-control, behavioral regulation, communicative potential, moral norms and maladaptation disorders. In underage students from orphanages, adaptation was associated with the locus of control – life, behavioral regulation and minimized asthenic reactions. The authors designed and tested a set of means of psychological and pedagogical support that improve the socio-psychological adaptation of students from foster families. The experiment demonstrated a positive dynamics in the level of adaptation, emotional comfort, sense of purpose, internality and personal adaptive potential, as well as a decrease in the level of maladaptation.
Oleg Gavrilov
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-3-227-234

Abstract:
Orthodox Christianity is the most widespread religion in Russia. Recently, there have been a lot of seemingly independent attempts to defame it, thus deforming the traditional matrix of historical memory. This well-coordinated campaign is based on the fact that historical identification and religion shape the foundations of cultural tradition and, in their inextricable unity, can develop the content of civil religion under certain circumstances. Civil religion gives sacred meanings to historical symbols, regardless of the religious affiliation of individual citizens. Therefore, it ensures social solidarity and awareness of the direction of various social processes. Civil religion originated in the Soviet period; today, it is undergoing some serious transformations. In its early days, it cultivated the sacral meanings of history limited by space and time, which is typical of undeveloped religions. Nowadays, these sacral meanings are gradually becoming more transcendental. For instance, historical events now correlate with the concept of God, and this dependence has been fixed in the basic law of the country. As a result, the former archaic nature of civil religion has acquired the status of a developed religion, capable of consolidating society with an appeal to the Absolute. These changes are often evaluated as violating the principles of secular society. However, their opponents ignore the intrinsically religious nature of culture. This legal innovation does not give preference to any particular confession. Foreign experience proves that many developed states with an official state religion manage to maintain their secular character. The research objective was to define common traits behind the seemingly independent attempts at discrediting Orthodox Christianity and develop some countermeasures.
Vladimir Krasikov
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-3-235-244

Abstract:
Numerous non-political radical ideas that appeared in the digital space of the RuNet require a thorough theoretical analysis as potentially extremist. The present research featured views and activities of radical gender Internet communities. The research objective was to assess their potential threat to society. The study was based on both empirical and theoretical analyses. The author developed a set of criteria that made it possible to refer some Internet communities to "hate groups." He used a specially compiled thesaurus in search engines and social media search programs. The empirical information was structured and conceptualized. The novelty of the research lies in the criterial and typologizing analysis of a previously unexplored fragment of radical activity on the RuNet. The article introduces a set of categories and criteria for identifying radical non-political Internet communities. The author established the addresses of the Internet distribution of masculists and radical feminists, compared them, and assessed their potential threat to society. The results may be of interest to social scientists and government officials, as well as to specialists in security issues.
Tatiana Bobrova, Sergei Dranishnikov
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-3-187-197

Abstract:
This article introduces the theoretical and methodological foundations for studying the development of identity and tolerance in foreign university students. The research featured the organization of the educational process that encourages the development of personality identity and tolerance in foreign students. The authors defined the main directions and approaches to the problem of identity and tolerance development as a set of skills. The article describes the identity and tolerance profile of foreign students that study at Russian universities. The author proved that tolerance developed under the effect of national, cultural, and religious factors, as new sociocultural environment affected the personal characteristics of foreign students. The results were both positive and negative, thus forming both tolerant and intolerant attitudes. Subsequently, the personality profile of foreign students demonstrated a combination of tolerant and intolerant traits. The levels of ethnic nihilism and egoism were low; so were the levels of ethnic isolationism and fanaticism. The level of ethnic and social tolerance appeared average. The ethnic indifference and communicative tolerance were also at an average level. However, the level of positive ethnic identity was high. The research revealed a link between tolerance and ethnic identity in foreign students. The results can help to organize the development of identity and tolerance in foreign students.
Sergey Kichigin
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-3-270-277

Abstract:
The matter of canceling a service contract often hinders the work of personnel offices of government and local self-government. Due to the specifics of labor relations between state and municipal employees, it remains unresolved in the domestic labor law. There is a controversy between the subsidiary application of general labor legislation norms and special laws that control the activity of certain categories of workers. It comes from the vague border between the scope of general and special norms of labor legislation in relation to state and municipal employees. Another reason is the limited legal regulation of labor relations with these categories of workers with application of the general norms of the current labor legislation. The article features approaches to resolving the issue of the possibility and legality of canceling a service contract in personnel offices of government bodies. The research was based on a critical review of the two existing opinions on the place of the cancellation procedure in relations with state and municipal employees. The author describes the legal nature of the cancellation and termination of the employment contract based on scientific literature. The article contains some recommendations on how to avoid the situation in which the representative of the employer does not have adequate legal mechanism for responding to an employee's failure to appear at work on the first day of the contract.
Vladislav Radov
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-3-278-286

Abstract:
The article deals with theoretical and law-enforcement problems of establishing the chain of causation in crimes of omission committed by the obligor. The doctrine of criminal law developed an unambiguous philosophical understanding of causality within the framework of dialectical materialism. However, such scientists as Prof. V. B. Malinin and Prof. Z. B. Soktoev came to polar conclusions about the absence and presence of a causal relationship in cases of criminal omission. The author criticizes the so-called golden rule of causality in cases of omission and the comprehensive reason for omission. He believes that omission cannot be recognized as a condition of an antisocial result. The author uses the relativistic approach to causality to explain the relationship between the failure to fulfill one's professional or official duties and the resulting antisocial consequence. He proves the conditioning relationship in such situations and states the correlation of causation and condition, as well as the limits of understanding causality as an element of the objective aspect of a crime. Apparently, doctrinal controversies affect the law enforcement. The article introduces the latest judicial practice and positions of the courts on the legal content and legal consequences of establishing an indirect, indirect, and mediated causation chain. The category of causality cannot be used for the purposes of criminal law qualification due to the fact that law and natural science have a different understanding of causation. The research questions the significance of forensic medical examinations in cases of iatrogenic crimes in relation to the causal relationship and their assessment by the court. In this article, the issues of causality are considered only for such cases of omission that presuppose a failure to fulfill professional or official duties in a negligent crime. Therefore, the author does not claim to be exclusive of conclusions and proposals. As Academician V. N. Kudryavtsev said, the configuration of chain of causation depends on the corpus delicti or the type of crime.
Nurana Gurbanova, Semen Raspopin, Nikolai Iurtaev, Dmitrii Bardokin
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020, pp 257-263; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-3-257-269

Abstract:
Modern processes of regulation of the legal market in Russia and other post-Soviet countries take place in the context of the right to qualified legal assistance. The authors used a set of such comparative legal methods as synchronous and intra-system comparison, as well as problem-chronological and formal legal methods. The paper focuses on the definition of qualified legal assistance and its criteria. The research involved a group of entities that provide qualified legal assistance: public authorities, civil society institutions, i.e. bar, notary, legal clinics, public associations, etc., commercial organizations, and individual lawyers. The comparative legal analysis featured qualified legal assistance in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union. A key aspect of the right to qualified legal assistance is the state system of legal aid. The article describes Russian and Belarusian models. The authors believe that there is no appropriate definition of qualified legal aid and that the bar holds the dominant position in the professional lawyers' community. Some countries of the Eurasian Economic Union preserved Soviet experience of bar associations. These countries demonstrate some specific traits of advocacy activities. For instance, institutions of legal consultants function as an alternative to the bar. The Republic of Armenia declared legal practice a business activity. The Republic of Belarus legally regulates specialized bar associations, e.g. legal counseling and law firms that specialize in a particular branch of law. As for free legal assistance, Russian model proved to be more advanced than that of Belarus, as Russia has no statutory mechanisms for obliging legal firms to provide free legal assistance at their own expense. In addition, Russia has a wider range of population categories entitled to receive free legal aid. Another advantage of the Russian free legal aid system is a detailed regulation of the status of legal clinics.
Elena Kuznetsova
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-3-198-206

Abstract:
The resent research featured psychological and pedagogical approaches to determining the essential characteristics of coherent speech as a higher mental function. The article focuses on coherent speech development in senior preschoolers and project activities that improve it. The research objective was to study related scientific sources and experimentally justify the efficiency of project activities that improve various parameters of coherent speech in children of senior preschool age. The paper introduces qualitative characteristics of coherent speech development in senior preschoolers. Its specific features include variability in the formation levels of skills to generate simple and complex sentences, as well as to retell and compose texts. The article describes various technologies of coherent speech development, including project activities in the process of interaction between an adult and a child. The experiment confirmed a positive impact of project activities on the coherent speech of senior preschoolers.
Alla Portnova, , Nina Rusakova
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21603/2542-1840-2020-4-3-218-226

Abstract:
The article deals with the statistical analysis of the effectiveness of the educational process at university. The research featured factors affecting the quality of training university students. The authors employed quantitative and qualitative indicators and organizational and pedagogical approaches, as well as methods of correlation and variance analysis. The indicators were systematized and generalized in order to identify the extent of their impact on the effectiveness of the factors under consideration. The reliability of the results was checked using the Pearson test. The methodology of the study was based on the identification of factors that affect the students’ achievements. A factor is a condition for good quality education. Based on the principles of general and professional education of the individual, the authors identified two groups of factors: 1) those related to the performance of the general education stage (academic performance, training profile); 2) those related to the results of higher education (academic performance, areas of training, course of study, academics). The academic performance of the first-year students did not depend on the results of the Unified State Exam and school grades. This dependence began to manifest itself during the second year, i.e. after the adaptation period. Statistical processing provided a mathematical model of the dependence of academic performance on the identified factors. The model can be used to predict the results of academic performance, as well as to adjust the learning process in order to improve the quality of university graduates' training, e.g. additional consultations, new information technologies, changes in the curriculum, level-based differentiation of content, tasks, individualized tasks, etc. The results are of interest for organizers of psychological and pedagogical support of professional self-determination for university students and their socio-psychological adaptation.
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