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, Cathy Greaver, Chenay Simms
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i1.1427

Abstract:
South African National Parks (SANParks) manage landscapes rather than numbers of elephants (Loxodonta africana) to mitigate the effects that elephants may have on biodiversity, tourism and stakeholder conservation values associated with protected areas. This management philosophy imposes spatial variability of critical resources on elephants. Restoration of such ecological processes through less intensive management predicts a reduction in population growth rates from the eras of intensive management. We collated aerial survey data since 1995 and conducted an aerial total count using a helicopter observation platform during 2015. A minimum of 17 086 elephants were resident in the Kruger National Park (KNP) in 2015, growing at 4.2% per annum over the last generation of elephants (i.e. 12 years), compared to 6.5% annual population growth noted during the intensive management era ending in 1994. This may come from responses of elephants to density and environmental factors manifested through reduced birth rates and increased mortality rates. Authorities should continue to evaluate the demographic responses of elephants to landscape scale interventions directed at restoring the limitation of spatial variance in resource distribution on elephant spatiotemporal dynamics and the consequences that may have for other conservation values.Conservation implications: Conservation managers should continue with surveying elephants in a way that allows the extraction of key variables. Such variables should focus on measures that reflect on how theory predicts elephants should respond to management interventions.
Lucas P. Rutina, Kefentse M. Mogwera, Elford Seonyatseng, Charles Mpofu, Ditso Ntloyathuto
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i2.1389

Abstract:
Botswana is one of the countries in Southern Africa that pay compensation for human properties damaged by wildlife. Before compensation is paid, a thorough investigation on determining wildlife species that have caused the damage is mandatory. Because of insufficient resources by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, the initial investigation is carried out by herders. Three basic indicators are used to determine carnivore predation; sighting the carnivore at the kill, tracks of the predator and examining the carcasses. In this study, we tested herders’ knowledge on the above three indicators. The study was conducted in a communal area around Makgadikgadi and Nxai national parks, Botswana, where the main activities practiced by the local communities is pastoral farming. In general, there was a significant association between reported and perceived incidents of predation for all carnivores at all distances from protected areas. Herders were able to identify the large carnivores visually. But they had difficulties in identifying carnivore tracks and kill characteristics. The results demonstrate the importance of involvement of local communities in human–wildlife conflict management. However, more education regarding identification of carnivore tracks and kill behaviour is needed for herders in the study area.Conservation implications: Based on the results of this study, this calls for a change in the management of human–wildlife conflict (HWC) and administration of the compensation scheme. Decentralising HWC to local communities using existing government structures that exist at local level will not only supplement the inadequate resources by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) to effectively mitigate the problem, but also empower local communities’ participation in wildlife management.
Editorial Office
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1295

Abstract:
Mr Chairman, Dr. Vollmar, ladies and gentlemen!It is indeed a pleasure on behalf of the National Parks Board of Trustees to welcome all the delegates to the symposium which coincides with the 50th anniversary of the National Parks Board.
R. Knobel
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1293

Abstract:
Ladies and gentlemen: We have reached the end of our Symposium proceedings and allow me to have a final word.
Sy Edele H. Schoeman
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1292

Abstract:
The significance of the 50th anniversary of the National Parks Board of Trustees is highlighted and homage is paid to all those who have contributed to the development of the national parks system in the Republic of South Africa. The Government never lightly refuses requests on sustained pressures for new national parks and establishment of a new National Park near Beaufort West in the Karoo, is announced.
O. Martiny
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1291

Abstract:
Let me start by saying that the Symposium has, to a very large extent, been a report back from many departments and from many sections within and without the Republic of South Africa, and we are very grateful to the neighbouring States for the valuable contribution they made, in telling us what they are doing.
T.C. Owen
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1290

Abstract:
The spectacular development in air technology during and since the Second World War, and a parallel economic growth, have been responsible for a tremendous increase in international tourist statistics, making tourism the world's largest industry. For the sake of clear international definition, a tourist is regarded as a person who visits a country other than his country of normal residence, for any reason other than being gainfully employed within the country he visits. During 1975 such tourist arrivals numbered 213 million, and the receipts from international tourism amounted to US $32 000 million. Domestic tourism also plays an important role in most countries. It is the rule rather than the exception that the local tourist creates the demand for the development of amenities, which can then cater for the tourist from abroad.
G.A. Robinson
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1289

Abstract:
Conservation in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) is dominated by big game and terrestrial reserves. Protecting these, have been in existence for many years. Recently Man has turned his attention more and more to the sea and due to adverse effects of pollution, overexploitation and habitat destruction the marine environment is threatened. However, conservationists have learnt lessons about both terrestrial and marine ecosystem-destruction and are now demanding with increasing persistence the establishment of marine parks and reserves.
L. Botha
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1288

Abstract:
I stand before you as what I would reluctantly like to call a crisis conservationist. In marine fisheries conservation we are exposed to the full blast of human greed. Dr Hey has referred to the unfortunate human attitudes to nature conservation. I fully share his concern. Fisheries conservation finds itself in the unenviable position of having largely to apply conservation principles to species which are more often than not in advanced stages of commercial exploitation. In this situation ethics, aesthetics and science cuts little or no ice with decision-makers. The only language which they understand is economics. Unfortunately fisheries conservation has also been hampered by the well-meant but thoroughly unscientific efforts of certain lay so-called "conservation societies". Through their admirable but purely humanistic approach to conservation, they have antagonized economically-orientated decision-makers and thereby unfortunately harmed the cause of conservation.
D.W. Immelman
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1287

Abstract:
The important role played by organized agriculture in modern society is emphasized and discussed against the current population explosion of mankind. Attention is focussed on the natural resources available to agriculture which include topography, climate, the soil, a diversity of vegetation types and water. The resources are subject to processes of erosion, bush encroachment, unfavourable ecological plant succession as well as other examples of misuse and mismanagement, all resulting in a lowering of the agricultural output and turnover. These detrimental processes cannot be tolerated and agricultural production therefore has to be in harmony with the environment and its natural resources in order to be economically viable. By implication this means an efficient classification of the agricultural resources incorporating the concept of nature conservation.
D.P. Ackerman
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1286

Abstract:
In September 1965, at the signing ceremony of a National Park Bill, United States President Johnson remarked: "We are living in the Century of Change. But if future generations are to remember us more with gratitude than with sorrow, we must achieve more than just the miracles of technology. We must also leave them a glimpse of the world as God really made it, not just as it looked when we got through with it." In the same spirit, forestry in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) shares the responsibility of conserving and restoring as far as possible the environment in which we and succeeding generations must live.
J.T. Geddes Page
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1285

Abstract:
It is pleasant to have an opportunity to deal with the subject of interpretation in nature conservation at a time when so many diversified and often ingenious efforts over the years are becoming formalized into systems with specially trained personnel supplied with specific and reasonable budgets to enable them to really get on with the job. Preparations for the writing of this paper have led to the decision that education in nature conservation, although unquestionably running as a thread throughout most of our interpretative efforts is truly a very different approach.
J. Du P Bothma
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1284

Abstract:
Conservation in some form, albeit dormant at times, has probably been with man for many centuries. Yet wildlife conservation as a science is a relatively new concept, which basically originated in the United States of America (USA). That country also led the world in developing conservation education. This lead was followed by most progressive countries, although the nature of conservation and its related educational processes has been adopted to the attitudes and needs of individual countries.
H.B. Rycroft
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1283

Abstract:
I am to talk about botanic and zoological gardens and the role they play, or should play, in the conservation of our wild life in its broadest sense. To get everything straight, let us see in the first place what we mean by a botanic and a zoological garden. The simplest definition of a botanic garden is that of the International Directory of Botanic Gardens (2nd Ed. Fletcher, Henderson, and Prentice) which simply requires a garden to be open to the public and in which the plants are labelled.
M.M. Ntloko
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1282

Abstract:
The Republic of the Transkei is situated in the south-east of the Republic of South Africa and is bounded by the Cape Province, Natal, Lesotho and the Indian Ocean. The area of the country is some 43 200 km2, almost as large as Denmark and twice the size of Wales. It is a country made up of mountainous regions along the Lesotho border and the rest is made up mostly of rolling hills with deep river valleys. It is a summer rainfall region ranging between 500 mm and 1300 mm per year and thus the country may be termed well watered. Climatic conditions may be described as temperate with occasional frosts during the worst winter months.
M.J. De Beer
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1281

Abstract:
Comments on the status of nature conservation in an area require an evaluation of progress. Apart from ad hoc nature conservation actions taken in the past by the agricultural and administrative staff of the Department of Bantu Administration and Development (hereafter called the Department) and of the governments of the various developing territories, or homelands, the more formal and specialised nature conservation action by these bodies started almost exactly three years.
T.E. Reilly
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1280

Abstract:
Swaziland is a Kingdom under the stable leadership of His Majesty, King Sobhuza II, Ngwenyama of Swaziland. His Majesty is the longest reigning monarch in the world, and is an active protagonist of nature. He has championed its cause in Swaziland through very difficult times. His Majesty is Patron in Chief of both wildlife sanctuaries in the Kingdom, and is personally involved with their development. The success that has been achieved in nature conservation in Swaziland to date. would not have been possible without His Majesty's active support.
W. Von Richter
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1279

Abstract:
The sparse human population and the general lack of surface water over most parts of the Republic of Botswana, which has hampered rapid expansion of agricultural activities into the less suitable areas in the past, have contributed to the fact that Botswana still supports a varied and rich wildlife population. The long history of hunting by the local populae makes them understand and appreciate the concept of wildlife conservation and utilization and has assisted in general to implement a policy for rational conservation and utilization. The next decade will be decisive whether this laudable state of affairs will continue or whether the wildlife resource will be depleted and finally restricted only to formal conservation areas as it has happened in many other countries on the African continent. The government is fully aware of the significance of wildlife conservation and utilization and the necessity to integrate it into overall landuse planning.
G.F.T. Child
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1278

Abstract:
The conflicting emotions generated around the aesthetic qualities of wildlife and its pragmatic use as a resource are a feature of human societies stretching into antiquity. On the one hand it has been, and remains, the subject of much folklore and art in societies extending from the Stone Age to the Technological Age. On the other, hunting for the necessities of life, and more recently for recreation, goes very deep into the history of the human race.
D.G. Anstey Anstey, A.J. Hall-Martin Hall-Martin
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1277

Abstract:
When Malawi (formerly Nyasaland) became independent in 1964 the status and future of its game reserves were in jeopardy. The former administration had adopted a policy of benign neglect towards the country's wildlife areas (Anon 1963), and the remnants of the Department of Game, Fish and Tsetse Control had been absorbed by the Forestry Department in 1963. Fortunately the Life President of Malawi, Dr H Kamuzu Banda, took a strong interest in wildlife conservation and it was only his personal intervention, and the advent of independence, that saved the former Lengwe Game Reserve from deproclamation (Hayes 1967) as planned by the colonial administration. With the Life President's encouragement and the dedicated efforts of the staff responsible for wildlife, the tide which had been running strongly against nature conservation was turned, culminating in the establishment of a separate Department of National Parks and Wildlife only a decade after independence.
J.J. La Grange La Grange
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1276

Abstract:
The concept of a natural resource is explained and nature conservation as a form of land use is discussed in some detail. Special reference is made to the National Physical Development of Planning and the Environment on the role played by nature conservation in basic usage of the soil as planned by the state in the Republic of South Africa.
A.M. Brynard
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1275

Abstract:
This paper deals mainly with the past and present status of nature conservation in the Republic of South Africa. It is pointed out that the nature conservation history of the Republic of South Africa commenced as early as 1656. In 1897 the first areas for the conservation of wild animals were set aside. These were the Hluhluwe and Umfolozi Game Reserves. Shortly after- wards, in 1898, the Sabi Game Reserve was established mainly through the efforts of President Paul Kruger. Col James Stevenson-Hamilton was appointed the first Warden of the Sabi Game Reserve and through his continued endeavours and perse-verance this game reserve, with certain additions, was eventually proclaimed as the first national park in the RSA in 1926. The first National Parks Board of Trustees, instituted according to the National Parks Act of 1926 commenced with its duties on the 16th September, 1926. The National Parks Act made provision for the establishment of other National Parks. Since 1931 eight National Parks were estab- lished. A short description of the history and most important features of each of these is given.
F. Vollmar
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1274

Abstract:
It is a great pleasure to join in this symposium held on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the National Parks Board of South Africa. I am deeply honoured to have been entrusted with presenting the Keynote Address to the symposium, which brings together those responsible for conservation in southern Africa, and I come here representing both the World Wildlife Fund and its sister organisation IUCN, the Interna- tional Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Having considered contents of the programme before us, I have felt it appropriate to talk on the subject of "Conserving One Earth". First I wish to look at our Earth as we find it today and then discuss the role of conservation both as a tool for wise development and in ensuring that wild things and wild places can continue to contribute to our quality of life.
R. Phillips
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1273

Abstract:
Lesotho is an independent enclave within the Republic of South Africa. It is roughly the size of Belgium and has a population of approximately one million. Prior to independence (4 October 1966) no official action had been taken toward nature conservation. Priority had been given to rural development schemes, improvement of agricultural practices, and to urban and industrial development.
D. Edwards
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1272

Abstract:
The question has been posed as to whether there is need for strict control of nature reserves. A first reaction might well consider the answer to be an unequivocal 'yes5, but further reflection and the fact that the question has been asked suggests that the answer is a less obvious one requiring a more rigorous analysis.
P.J. Le Roux
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1271

Abstract:
The basic quesiion to which I apply myself in this paper is: Can a private nature reserve make a worthwhile contribution to the national conservation effort? To my mind, and I must emphasize from the start that the views expressed in this paper are wholly my own and not the official view of any conservation authority, the answer can at best be a severely qualified affirmative. Affirmative, because of the fact that any positive step.
B.J.G. De La Bat
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1270

Abstract:
Introduction During 1975 the tourist industry was worth between R35-R40 million to the economy of South West Africa (SWA). The figures are based on a survey conducted by the Bureau of Economic Research of the University of Stellenbosch.
S.S. Du Plessis
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1269

Abstract:
Before considering the role of the provinces in nature conservation in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) it is necessary to briefly review the responsibilities of other government agencies in this field:(i) the Department of Planning and the Environment has a co-ordinating function with regard to environmental conservation and land-use planning;(ii) the National Parks Board of Trustees is responsible for the estab-lishment and management of national parks;(iii) the Department of Forestry controls vast natural areas in mountain catchments and also has a system of nature reserves and wilderness areas;(iv) the Sea Fisheries Division of the Department of Commerce and Industries is responsible for the conservation of marine resources including mammals and birds. The two maritime provinces, how-ever, have jurisdiction over estuaries, while Natal also controls inshore fisheries;(v) the Weather Bureau of the Department of Transport is responsible for conservation of oceanic islands used as weather stations;(vi) soil conservation is the responsibility of the Department of Agricul-tural Technical Services.
W. Van Riet
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1268

Abstract:
Definition of the Concept "Wilderness"The Wilderness Act of September 1964, of the United States of America, states that "... wilderness, in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape, is hereby recognised as an area where the earth and its community of life are not influenced by man and where man himself is a visitor who does not remain55 (Nash 1967). The Act also states that a wilderness "... must retain its primeval character and influence and that it must be protected and managed in such a way that it appears to have been effected primarily by the forces of nature.”
D. Hey
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1267

Abstract:
I am sure that it is common cause at a gathering such as this that we live in a country of remarkable scenic beauty. Consider for example, our extensive beaches of golden sands, spectacular rocky headlands, rugged mountain chains, vast Karoo's, desert landscapes, rolling grasslands, acacia studded savannas and the unique bushveld where we are gathered today.
U. De V Pienaar
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1266

Abstract:
The primary purpose of any national park service in administering natural areas is to maintain an area’s ecosystems in as nearly pristine a condition as possible. This means that ecological processes, including plant succession and the natural regulation of animal numbers, should be permitted to proceed as far as possible as they did under pristine conditions, and that modern man must be restricted to generally non-consumptive uses of these areas (Houston 1971).
G. De Graaff, P.T. Van Der Walt
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1265

Abstract:
The idea of arranging this symposium originated with the Chief Director of the National Parks Board of Trustees, Dr R Knobel, towards the end of 1974. It is often stated that the Republic of South Africa (RSA) plays a leading role in the global conservation movement, but that there seems to be a lack of cross-fertilization with other countries and that the RSA is failing to implant the philosophy of nature conservation in the presently developing countries. Unless the emerging states can be convinced of the value of wildlife for mankind, there remains little hope for any future action concerning nature conservation.
Editorial Office
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 58; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v58i1.1456

Editorial Office
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 57; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v57i1.1455

Editorial Office
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 56; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v56i2.1331

Editorial Office
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 56; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v56i1.1330

Editorial Office
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 53; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v53i2.1332

Editorial Office
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 52; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v52i1.1333

Editorial Office
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v20i2.1296

Carina Coetzer,
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i1.1419

Abstract:
With tourism in South Africa expanding, the number of avitourists increases. The increase in infrastructure and human activities in protected areas, if not managed properly, can be harmful to birds. Flight initiation distances (FID) can be used as a method to monitor habituation to disturbances. This study was performed at the Barberspan Bird Sanctuary, North West province, South Africa, to determine the levels of habituation among waterbirds and make appropriate recommendations regarding the management of the reserve. Our results indicated a 0.29 m increase in FID per gram reported mean biomass. Compared with conspecific or congeneric birds from Australia, Europe and North America, South African birds have relatively larger FIDs to human disturbance, which may indicate lower habituation. We also calculated buffer zones based on the maximum FID of the waterbirds for three mass groups. These buffer zones were then matched with the spatial distribution of the birds along the shoreline. We recommend that the mean FID for the blacksmith lapwing, Vanellus armatus (62 m), can be used as approach distance outside the breeding season in areas where the birds are sparsely distributed and 104 m during the breeding season in breeding areas. A large buffer of 200 m is suggested for areas with threatened, sensitive and skittish species. However, it is still preferable for avitourists to use the bird hides along the shores.Conservation implications: This study provides information for conservation management at Barberspan, based on typical birder activity. Smaller birds would need smaller buffer zones, while larger birds need much greater distances from observers to minimise disturbance. Similar studies can be applied elsewhere.
Edmund February, Eleanor Shadwell, Storme Viljoen,
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i1.1454

Abstract:
In this article we determine the effect of an extralimital megaherbivore on the reproductive potential and vegetation structure of two keystone tree species in the Auob River in the south western Kalahari Desert of southern Africa. Using spoor and dung counts we establish the presence of giraffe in three predetermined density zones by walking 50 transects across the river in each zone. We also photographed six trees from each species in each zone and use these photographs to determine browse impact on reproductive potential, canopy volume as well as the percentage dieback on the extremities of the canopy. We then perform stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on the leaves of the trees and compare these relative to the isotope ratios of giraffe dung to ascertain dietary preference. Crude protein was determined as a guide to nutritive value. Finally, we determine both chemical and physical defences for the two species. Our results show a significant negative impact of giraffe browse on tree canopies, no significant differences in recruitment and a noticeable decrease in flowers and pods at the giraffe browse height of 2 m – 5 m. No significant differences in crude protein or condensed tannins were found but significant differences in spinescence. Giraffe are not endemic to the Auob River and our study shows that the introduction of these animals is having a negative impact on the canopies of Vachellia haematoxylon. While there are, as yet, no significant impacts on reproductive potential we speculate that this will happen with time.Conservation implications: Our study shows that giraffe are significantly impacting the canopies of two common tree species in the Auob River in the arid Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. Without management intervention an increasing population of giraffe will result in substantial changes to the plant community vegetation structure of the river.
, Sospeter Kiambi, Tim Beale,
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i1.1426

Abstract:
This article provides a preliminary list of alien plant species in the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem in East Africa. The list is based on broad-scale roadside surveys in the area and is supplemented by more detailed surveys of tourist facilities in the Masai-Mara National Reserve and adjoining conservancies. We encountered 245 alien plant species; significantly more than previous studies, of which 62 (25%) were considered to have established self-perpetuating populations in areas away from human habitation. These included species which had either been intentionally or accidentally introduced. Of the 245 alien plants, 212 (including four species considered to be native to the region) were intentionally introduced into gardens in the National Reserve and 51 (24%) had established naturalised populations within the boundaries of these tourism facilities. Of the 51 naturalised species, 23 (11% of the 212 alien species) were recorded as being invasive within the ecosystem, outside of lodges and away from other human habitation. Currently, the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem is relatively free of widespread and abundant invasive alien plants, with a few exceptions, but there are extensive populations outside of the ecosystem, particularly to the west, from where they could spread. We address the potential impacts of six species that we consider to pose the highest risks (Parthenium hysterophorus, Opuntia stricta, Tithonia diversifolia, Lantana camara, Chromolaena odorata and Prosopis juliflora). Although invasive alien plants pose substantial threats to the integrity of the ecosystem, this has not yet been widely recognised. We predict that in the absence of efforts to contain, or reverse the spread of invasive alien plants, the condition of rangelands will deteriorate, with severe negative impacts on migrating large mammals, especially wildebeest, zebra and gazelles. This will, in turn, have a substantial negative impact on tourism, which is a major economic activity in the area. Conservation implications: Invasive alien plants pose significant threats to the integrity of the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem and steps will need to be taken to prevent these impacts. The most important of these would be the removal of alien species from tourist facilities, especially those which are known to be naturalised or invasive, the introduction of control programmes aimed at eliminating outlier invasive plant populations to slow down the spread, and the widespread use of biological control wherever possible.
, Glyn Maude, Gosiame Neo-Mahupeleng, Rebecca Klein, Lorraine Boast, Lindsey N. Rich,
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i2.1441

Abstract:
The brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea) is endemic to southern Africa. The largest population of this near-threatened species occurs in Botswana, but limited data were available to assess distribution and density. Our objectives were to use a stratified approach to collate available data and to collect more data to assess brown hyaena distribution and density across land uses in Botswana. We conducted surveys using track counts, camera traps and questionnaires and collated our results and available data to estimate the brown hyaena population based on the stratification of Botswana for large carnivores. Brown hyaenas occur over 533 050 km² (92%) of Botswana. Our density estimates ranged from 0 brown hyaenas/100 km² in strata of northern Botswana to 2.94 (2.16–3.71) brown hyaenas/100 km² in the southern stratum of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve. We made assumptions regarding densities in strata that lacked data, using the best references available. We estimated the brown hyaena population in Botswana as 4642 (3133–5993) animals, with 6.8% of the population in the Northern Conservation Zone, 73.1% in the Southern Conservation Zone, 2.0% in the smaller conservation zones and 18.1% in the agricultural zones. The similar densities of brown hyaenas in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve and the Ghanzi farms highlight the potential of agricultural areas in Botswana to conserve this species. The conservation of brown hyaenas in the agricultural landscape of Botswana is critical for the long-term conservation of the species; these areas provide important links between populations in South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe. Conservation implications: Botswana contains the core of the brown hyaena population in southern Africa, and conflict mitigation on agricultural land is crucial to maintaining connectivity among the range countries.
Phemelo Gadimang,
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i2.1413

Abstract:
A ground survey of red lechwe was carried out in the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains of northern Botswana in the dry and wet seasons of 2012 and 2013, respectively. We documented numbers, sex ratio and age structure of red lechwe within the linear strips of 25 km × 300 m along the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains. Results indicated a significant difference in the numbers of red lechwe between sites and seasons. About 66 and 755 red lechwe were estimated for Chobe in the dry and wet season, respectively, with 343 and 261 of them estimated for Linyanti in the dry and wet season, respectively. In Chobe, the red lechwe densities varied widely between seasons (9 red lechwe/km2 – 101 red lechwe/km2 ) compared with Linyanti, where the densities did not vary much between seasons (35 red lechwe/km2 – 46 red lechwe/km2 ). The lower densities of red lechwe in Chobe in the dry season when compared with the wet season suggest a possible seasonal shift in the distribution of red lechwe to the nearby Zambezi floodplains in Namibia.Conservation implications: The higher number of red lechwe in the Chobe floodplains in the wet season indicates the potential of the floodplains as a habitat for this species in that season. The dry season shift in the distribution of red lechwe in Chobe presents an opportunity for local communities in Namibia to engage in tourism, whereas the return of the red lechwe to the floodplains in the wet season ensures protection of the animals as well as boosts the tourism potential of the Chobe National Park.
Keoikantse Sianga, , Mpaphi C. Bonyongo
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i2.1382

Abstract:
This study aimed to establish seasonal movement and habitat selection patterns of African buffalo Syncerus caffer in relation to a detailed habitat map and according to seasonal changes in forage quality and quantity in the Savuti–Mababe–Linyanti ecosystem (Botswana). Two buffalo were collared in November 2011 and another in October 2012. All three buffalo had greater activities in the mopane–sandveld woodland mosaic during the wet season, which provided high-quality leafy grasses and ephemeral water for drinking, but moved to permanent water and reliable forage of various wetlands (swamps and floodplains) and riverine woodlands during the dry season. Wetlands had higher grass greenness, height and biomass than woodlands during the dry season. Buffalo had similar wet season concentration areas in the 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 wet seasons and similar dry season concentration areas over the 2012 and 2013 dry seasons. However, their dry season location of collaring in 2011 differed dramatically from their 2012 and 2013 dry season concentration areas, possibly because of the exceptionally high flood levels in 2011, which reduced accessibility to their usual dry season concentration areas. The study demonstrates that extremely large and heterogeneous landscapes are needed to conserve buffalo in sandy, dystrophic ecosystems with variable rainfall. Conservation implications: This study emphasises the importance of large spatial scale available for movement, which enables adaptation to changing conditions between years and seasons.
Keoikantse Sianga, Richard Fynn
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i2.1406

Abstract:
This study classified the vegetation of the Savuti-Mababe-Linyanti ecosystem (SMLE), northern Botswana and developed a detailed map that provides a reliable habitat template of the SMLE for future wildlife habitat use studies. The major vegetation units of the SMLE were determined from satellite imagery and field visits and then mapped using Landsat 8 and RapidEye imagery and maximum likelihood classifier. These units were sampled using 40 m x 20 m (800 m²) plots in which the coverage of all plant species was estimated. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) demonstrated that plant communities were determined by gradients in soil texture or fertility and wetness. NMS 1 represented a gradient of soil texture with seven woodland communities on sandy soils (sandveld communities and Baikiaea forest) dominated by Baikiaea plurijuga in Baikiaea forest and Terminalia sericea and Philenoptera nelsii in sandveld, with various indicator species differentiating the various sandveld community types. Mopane woodland further from and riparian woodland adjacent to permanent water was common on less sandy alluvial soils. Mineral-rich, heavy clay soils in the sump of a large paleolake system support open grassland and mixed Senegalia/Vachellia (Acacia) savanna, with the mineral-rich soils supporting grasses high in minerals such as phosphorus, calcium, sodium and potassium, and thus this region is a critical wet season range for migratory zebra. Taller, high-quality grasses in the mosaic of sandveld and mopane woodland communities provide critical grazing for taller grass grazers such as buffalo, roan and sable antelope, whereas wetland communities provide reliable green forage during the dry season for a variety of herbivores, including elephant. This study has demonstrated how large-scale environmental gradients determine functional habitat heterogeneity for wildlife.Conservation implications: Our study demonstrated that the functionality of protected areas is determined by large-scale environmental gradients. Thus conservation science must aim to ensure that protected areas cover the full range of key environmental gradients in a region (soil texture and wetness in our study). Our habitat map provides a data base for wildlife habitat use studies in the region.
Keoikantse Sianga, Mario Van Telgen, Jip Vrooman, Richard W.S. Fynn,
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i2.1434

Abstract:
Environmental heterogeneity across savanna landscapes, including different seasonal resources at different distances to water, may play a critical role in maintaining the size and diversity of wildlife populations and the sustainability of their resource base. We investigated whether extensive landscapes with functionally diverse seasonal resources and large waterless regions can mediate the effect of herbivory on plant composition, structure and diversity. Vegetation composition, structure and richness in two different vegetation types (mopane and sandveld woodland) at three distance zones (0 km – 5 km, 10 km – 15 km and > 20 km) from the permanent water of the Okavango Delta and Linyanti Swamps were surveyed. We modelled vegetation response of the most abundant species to herbivory in relation to distance from permanent water, and included fire frequency as a covariate. Trees favoured by elephants during the dry season occurred typically as immature, pollarded populations within 5 km of permanent water sources while mature tall populations of these species were found far from water (> 10 km – 15 km). Similarly, short high-quality grazing grasses were higher in abundance within 5 km of permanent water, whereas taller high-quality perennial grasses peaked in abundance beyond 20 km from permanent water. Trends in herbaceous richness with distance from water were contingent upon vegetation type, while tree richness did not change with distance from water. Spatial refuges in waterless regions of landscapes facilitate the creation of heterogeneity of vegetation structure, composition and richness by large herds of mammalian herbivores. Therefore, the extension of herbivore dry season foraging range, for example, by the creation of artificial water points (AWP) in backcountry woodlands, could seriously undermine the resilience of landscapes to herbivory by reducing the availability of spatial refuges. Consequently, it reduces the resilience of herbivore and predator populations that depend on these spatial refuges. We strongly advise that future scientific work, and management and policy actions should be focused on the identification and sustaining of these spatial refuges in wildlife areas.Conservation implications: Management and policy actions should be focused on the identification and sustainability of spatial refuges in wildlife areas. Too many AWP in backcountry woodlands could undermine the resilience of landscapes to herbivory by reducing the proportion of landscapes beyond 15 km from permanent water.
, , Mark Hovork, Glyn Maude
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i2.1366

Abstract:
African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are the most endangered large carnivores in southern Africa. Direct and indirect persecution by farmers causes significant conservation challenges. Farmer– wild dog conflict in Botswana commonly occurs as a result of cattle and stocked game depredation by wild dogs, affecting farmer livelihood and causing economic and emotional distress. Although wild dogs predate livestock at lower levels than other carnivores, they continue to be killed both indiscriminately and in retaliation for incidents of depredation. Investigating farmer–wild dog conflict is a necessary step towards establishing appropriate conflict mitigation strategies. Eighty livestock and game farmers were interviewed in order to examine farmers’ value of, perceptions of and experiences with wild dogs as well as their insights on wild dog impacts and conservation in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana. Interviews were semi-structured and used open-ended questions to capture complexities surrounding farmer–wild dog relations. This research contributes baseline data on wild dogs in understudied tribal land and commercial livestock and game farms in eastern Kalahari. It confirms the presence of wild dogs, livestock and stocked game depredation by wild dogs and negative perspectives amongst farmers towards wild dogs and their conservation. Mean losses were 0.85 livestock per subsistence farmer, 1.25 livestock per commercial livestock farmer, while game farmers lost 95.88 game animals per farmer during January 2012 through June 2013. Proportionally, more subsistence farmers than commercial livestock farmers and game farmers held negative perspectives of wild dogs (χ ² = 9.63, df = 2, p < 0.05). Farmer type, education level, socioeconomic status and land tenure, as well as positive wild dog characteristics should be considered when planning and operationalising conflict mitigation strategies. As such, conservation approaches should focus on conservation education schemes, improved wild prey base for wild dogs, poverty alleviation, and community engagement in order to offer long-term opportunities for addressing farmer–wild dog conflict in Botswana. Conservation implications: Our research contributes to wild dog conservation in Botswana by confirming the presence of wild dogs and the occurrence of livestock and stocked game depredation in previously understudied tribal land and commercial livestock and game farms in eastern Kalahari. To improve predominately negative perceptions of wild dogs and reduce conflict, practitioners should focus their efforts on conservation education schemes, improved wild prey base for wild dogs, poverty alleviation, and community engagement.
Anna Spenceley, Andrew Rylance, Sadiki L. Laiser
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i1.1442

Abstract:
User fees charged by Tanzania’s Game Reserves (GR) and Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) have not changed since 2008. Although previous research has been done on visitors’ willingness-to-pay to enter national parks in Tanzania, none has been conducted on GRs and WMAs. This article assesses the entrance fees in GRs and WMAs, by comparing them with equivalent fees charged in Tanzania (at national parks and the Ngorongoro Crater) and also with regional protected areas in Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Based on 28 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholder institutions working on tourism and conservation and more than 50 online survey responses from Tanzanian tourism operators, the research reviews local opinion and issues relating to adjusting current entrance fees. The article considers that while one objective for generating revenue from entrance fees is for conservation management, it is difficult to establish appropriate fees where there are gaps in knowledge about existing levels of visitation, tourism revenue and associated management costs.Conservation implications: This article has implications for protected area management practices, as it provides information on processes by which managers can review and revise entrance fee values.
Michelle L. Hamer,
Koedoe - African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v59i1.1428

Abstract:
Mkambati Nature Reserve (NR) falls within the Pondoland Centre of Endemism, which is part of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany global biodiversity hotspot. The biodiversity status of this area is based largely on its flora, and the invertebrates are poorly known. The area is under threat from various proposed developments. We surveyed 14 orders in three invertebrate phyla at 26 sites with two main objectives: (1) to assess the fauna in terms of conservation value, and, (2) to identify habitats and sites of conservation concern. From the survey, 3231 samples were sent for identification and 425 species were identified. A minimum of 18 new species were confirmed. Mkambati NR shows exceptional diversity for molluscs (Gastropoda, 51 species), bees (Apoidea, 48 species) and true bugs (Heteroptera, 65 species). At least 43 species collected from the Reserve are South African endemics, 31 have a restricted distribution within South Africa and 18 are only known from the Reserve itself.Conservation implications: The authors provide the first assessment of the invertebrate fauna of the Mkambati NR, which indicates that it is a rich and important fauna. The results highlight the need to consider invertebrates in other biodiversity assessments in the Pondoland region. In terms of habitats, for both forest and grassland there was a large difference in the invertebrate communities at different sites, even over relatively short distances in grassland; shared habitat attributes clustered sites with more similar communities, for example, rocky ledges or the sea shore. All forest patches are a priority for protection.
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