Results in Journal International Journal of Neonatal Screening: 223
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International Journal of Neonatal Screening, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/ijns6040082
Generalizing about the cost-effectiveness of newborn screening (NBS) is difficult due to the heterogeneity of disorders included in NBS panels, along with data limitations. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent evidence about cost-effectiveness should influence decisions to screen for specific disorders. Screening newborns for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency can serve as a useful test case, since there is no global consensus on whether CAH should be part of NBS panels. Published and unpublished cost-effectiveness analyses of CAH screening have yielded mixed findings, largely due to differences in methods and data sources for estimating health outcomes and associated costs of early versus late diagnosis as well as between-country differences. Understanding these methodological challenges can help inform future analyses and could also help interested policymakers interpret the results of economic evaluations.
International Journal of Neonatal Screening, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/ijns6040081
We screened 51,081 newborns for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) using a two-tiered strategy quantifying very long chain lysophosphatadylcholines (LPC). Our testing strategy used flow injection tandem mass spectrometry for the first-tier analysis of LPCs, and second-tier quantification of C26:0 LPC using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. There were 364 specimens considered abnormal using our first-tier algorithm that relied on the four LPC measurements and post-analytical tools. Second-tier test results were reported as normal or abnormal based on a cutoff for the single analyte, C26:0 LPC. Eleven cases were reported as abnormal based on second-tier test results. One male with ALD was identified, and two females with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders were also identified. A single female case remains unresolved, due to a loss to follow up after a negative molecular test result for ABCD1 gene sequencing. The positive predictive value for confirmed, clinically relevant disorders during this pilot study was 27.3%. Challenges identified during the study period were based around coverage for confirmatory testing, particularly if family members needed molecular testing, which is an ongoing issue with newborn screening in Georgia. We also encountered issues with the follow up for a patient who remained asymptomatic. Due to the different timelines involved with clinical findings in ALD, follow-up coordination may be more difficult, particularly if the child identified by newborn screening (NBS) is the only member of the family affected, or able to be tested.
International Journal of Neonatal Screening, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/ijns6040079
Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). MPS II satisfies all criteria defined by the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (ACHDNC) for inclusion in the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) for newborn screening, apart from the fact that only minimal prospective population screening data are available. This report details the analytical validation, clinical validation, and implementation of a fluorometric assay for measurement of IDS activity in newborn dried blood spot (DBS) specimens at the Missouri State Public Health Laboratory (MSPHL). The assay is performed in a microwell plate format requiring approximately 15 min of hands-on time per plate and an incubation time of two hours. The analytical validation of this assay included linearity, analytical sensitivity, precision, and carry-over testing. Clinical validation was completed using more than 5000 deidentified presumptive normal newborn DBS specimens as well as seven specimens from patients known to be affected with MPS II. Following validation, MSPHL began prospective screening using the IDS assay on 1 November 2018. In the first 18 months of screening (to 30 June 2020), 146,954 specimens were prospectively screened using the method. Two newborns were identified with severe Hunter syndrome and the assay had a presumptive positive rate of 0.022%.
International Journal of Neonatal Screening, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/ijns6040078
Newborn screening (NBS) for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I, Hurler syndrome) is currently conducted in about two-fifths of the NBS programs in the United States and in a few other countries. Screening is performed by measurement of residual activity of the enzyme alpha-l-iduronidase in dried blood spots using either tandem mass spectrometry or digital microfluidic fluorometry (DMF). In this article, we focus on the development and practical experience of using DMF to screen for MPS I in the USA. By means of their responses to a questionnaire, we determined for each responding program that is screening for MPS I using DMF the screen positive rate, follow-up methods, and classification of confirmed cases as either severe or attenuated. Overall, the results show that at the time of reporting, over 1.3 million newborns in the US were screened for MPS I using DMF, 2094 (0.173%) of whom were screen positive. Of these, severe MPS I was confirmed in five cases, attenuated MPS I was confirmed in two cases, and undetermined phenotype was reported in one case. We conclude that DMF is an effective and economical method to screen for MPS I and recommend second-tier testing owing to high screen positive rates. Preliminary results of NBS for MPS II and MPS III using DMF are discussed.
International Journal of Neonatal Screening, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/ijns6040077
Proximal urea cycle disorders (PUCDs) have adverse outcomes such as intellectual disability and death, which may benefit from newborn screening (NBS) through early detection and prevention with early treatment. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1D) are screened in six and eight states in the United States. We analyzed current evidence to see if it supports inclusion of PUCDs in the NBS panels based upon prevention potential, medical, diagnostic, treatment, and public health rationales. A literature review was performed in PubMed using MESH terms for OTCD, CPS1D, and NAGSD. A systematic review was performed in the hallmark of NBS inclusion criteria. We reviewed 31 articles. Molecular and biochemical diagnosis is available to provide diagnostic evidence. Untreated PUCDs have a significant burden with considerable developmental delay and mortality that may improve with early treatment. Tandem mass spectrometry can be used for NBS for PUCDs; however, citrulline and glutamine alone are not specific. Medical treatments currently available for PUCDs meet existing medical, diagnostic, treatment, and public health rationales. Improvement in NBS algorithms to increase sensitivity and specificity will allow earlier diagnosis and treatment to potentially improve disability and mortality rates.
International Journal of Neonatal Screening, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/ijns6040076
CLAN (Caring and Living as Neighbours) is an Australian-based non-governmental organisation (NGO) committed to equity for children living with chronic health conditions in resource-poor settings. Since 2004, CLAN has collaborated with a broad range of partners across the Asia Pacific region to improve quality of life for children living with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This exploratory case study uses the Knowledge to Action (KTA) framework to analyse CLAN’s activities for children living with CAH in the Asia Pacific. The seven stages of the KTA action cycle inform a systematic examination of comprehensive, collaborative, sustained actions to address a complex health challenge. The KTA framework demonstrates the “how” of CLAN’s approach to knowledge creation and exchange, and the centrality of community development to multisectoral collaborative action across a range of conditions, cultures and countries to redressing child health inequities. This includes a commitment to: affordable access to essential medicines and equipment; education, research and advocacy; optimisation of medical management; encouragement of family support groups; efforts to reduce financial burdens; and ethical, transparent program management as critical components of success. Improvements in quality of life and health outcomes are achievable for children living with CAH and other chronic health conditions in resource-poor settings. CLAN’s strategic framework for action offers a model for those committed to #LeaveNoChildBehind.
International Journal of Neonatal Screening, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/ijns6030075
Newborn screening (NBS) laboratories cannot accurately compare mass spectrometry-derived results and cutoff values due to differences in testing methodologies. The objective of this study was to assess harmonization of laboratory proficiency test (PT) results using quality control (QC) data. Newborn Screening Quality Assurance Program (NSQAP) QC and PT data reported from 302 laboratories in 2019 were used to compare results among laboratories. QC materials were provided as dried blood spot cards which included a base pool and the base pool enriched with specific concentrations of metabolites in a linear range. QC data reported by laboratories were regressed on QC data reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and laboratory’s regression parameters were used to harmonize their PT result. In general, harmonization tended to reduce overall variation in PT data across laboratories. The metabolites glutarylcarnitine (C5DC), tyrosine, and phenylalanine were displayed to highlight inter- and intra-method variability in NBS results. Several limitations were identified using retrospective data for harmonization, and future studies will address these limitations to further assess feasibility of using NSQAP QC data to harmonize PT data. Harmonizing NBS data using common QC materials appears promising to aid result comparison between laboratories.
International Journal of Neonatal Screening, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/ijns6030074
Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is recommended for implementation in many developed countries as the standard of care. Efforts to implement this point of care screen in developing regions face unique barriers, and present important opportunities. The First Pan-African Newborn Screening Conference, held in Rabat in June 2019, incorporated a workshop dedicated specifically to identifying and discussing CCHD screening issues in the Middle East Northern Africa (MENA) region. The issues explored may be beneficial as part of the greater discussion of CCHD screening’s growing importance in developing regions around the world. Screening experts presented education and lessons learned from previous CCHD implementations, including a hands-on technical demonstration of CCHD screening. Children’s HeartLink, The Newborn Foundation, and Children’s National Hospital each presented on their experiences working with teams and pilot projects from around the world. Experience in implementation from Children’s Hospital Marrakesh was presented and highlighted some of the unique findings, challenges, and experiences of screening in Morocco. As developing regions investigate the implementation of CCHD screening using pulse oximetry either as part of research studies, pilots, regional studies, or as part of a nationally supported program, data to inform policymakers on the benefits of screening and specific needs for infrastructure development and resources are essential. This special issue contains initial lessons learned on newborn CCHD screening from a select number of developing countries, including Saudi Arabia and Morocco and regions such as Latin America.
International Journal of Neonatal Screening, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/ijns6030073
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome) is a rare, progressive multisystemic lysosomal storage disorder with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Infants with MPS II develop signs and symptoms of the disorder in the early years of life, yet diagnostic delays are very common. Enzyme replacement therapy is an effective treatment option. It has been shown to prolong survival and improve or stabilize many somatic manifestations of the disorder. Our initial experience with newborn screening in 162,000 infants was previously reported. Here, we update that experience with the findings in 339,269 infants. Measurement of iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S) activity was performed on dried blood spot samples submitted for other newborn screening disorders. A positive screen was defined as I2S activity less than or equal to 10% of the daily median. In this series, 28 infants had a positive screening test result, and four other infants had a borderline result. Three positive diagnoses of MPS II were established, and 25 were diagnosed as having I2S pseudodeficiency. The natural history and the clinical features of MPS II make it an ideal target for newborn screening. Newborn screening was effective in identifying affected infants in our population with an acceptable rate of false positive results.
International Journal of Neonatal Screening, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/ijns6030072
Two lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), Pompe disease and Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPSI) were added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) for newborn screening (NBS) in 2015 and 2016, respectively. These conditions are being screened with variable practice in terms of primary and reflex analytes (either biochemical or molecular testing) as well as collection of short- and long-term follow-up elements. The goal of this study is to evaluate practices of state health departments in regards to screening methods and follow-up data collected. We conducted online surveys and phone questionnaires to determine each U.S. state’s practices for screening and follow-up of positive newborn screens. We report the first snapshot of practices for NBS for the LSDs included on the RUSP. All 50 U.S. states responded to our survey. The majority of U.S. states are not currently screening for Pompe disease and MPSI as of March 2020, but this number will increase to 38 states in the coming 1–3 years based on survey results. Our survey identifies data elements used by state health departments for short-and long-term follow-up that could serve as the basis of common elements for larger, public health-based analyses of the benefits and efficacy of screening for Pompe disease and MPSI.