Results in Journal Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders: 57
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Published: 8 September 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001057
Repressive regulation of potassium channel genes by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins contributes to PcG protein-mediated neuroprotection against neuronal ischemic injury, as seen in an ischemic stroke. Here we asked the question whether Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins, the antagonistic partners of PcG proteins (i.e, epigenetic activators targeting the same genes) may also regulate potassium channels. Results of patch-clamp studies on cultured neuronal cells showed that inhibition of TrxG protein MLL-1 led to an increase in potassium channel activity, an unexpected effect for a presumed gene activator. In contrast, decreased sodium currents were observed with MLL-1 inhibition. Increased or decreased levels of potassium channel protein Kv2.1 or sodium channel protein Nav1.2, respectively, were seen with MLL-1 inhibition, as determined by immunocytochemistry. These results, for the first time, demonstrate an involvement of TrxG protein MLL-1 in regulating neuronal ion channels, potentially repressing potassium channel genes.
Published: 24 August 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 087-088; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001056
Published: 27 July 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 083-096; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001055
Published: 15 July 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 069-071; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001053
Objectives: To describe a patient with facial-onset sensory-motor neuronopathy (FOSMN) that later developed Huntington’s disease (HD). Case report: A 62-year-old woman complained of progressive dysphagia 8 years before referral. At initial evaluation, there was excessive salivation, dysphagia, and sensory-motor trigeminal impairment. Denervation was noted on the upper limbs and the tongue. Blink reflexes were abolished. Genetic study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related genes was normal. She was diagnosed with FOSMN syndrome. Her clinical state progressively worsened with corneal anesthesia, severe denutrition, right arm and axial weakness. Seven years after referral, she was unable walk and developed generalized chorea. Abnormal huntingtin gene repeat expansion confirmed the diagnosis of HD. She died 16 years after onset of dysphagia. Conclusion: Cases with both HD and ALS have already been reported but not FOSMN and HD, to our knowledge. Some FOSMN cases have been linked to ALS-related gene mutations and HD phenocopies have been associated with C9ORF72 repeat expansions. Recently, huntingtin repeat expansions were described in the ALS population. Although a chance association cannot be excluded, data from the literature are in favor of a pathogenic relationship between FOSMN and HD in this particular case. We suggest that huntingtin gene be more systematically studied in patients with FOSMN.
Published: 6 July 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 061-068; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001052
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is thought to be the most common neurodegenerative disease with movement disorder. The key motor symptoms are rigidity, tremor, akinesis/hypokinesia/bradykinesia, and postural instability. However, in our day-to-day clinical practice we tend to see several other symptoms which may be motor or non-motor. Non-motor symptoms (NMS) are quite common and debilitating. The pathological hallmarks of PD are loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPc) and accumulation of unfolded or misfolded alpha-synuclein. Diagnosis of PD is difficult in the pre-motor stage. Late diagnosis renders a substantial loss of dopaminergic neurons in SNPc and spread of disease in other parts of the brain. This may manifest as either full blown symptoms requiring multiple medications or may even lead to life threatening condition due to lack of early diagnostic tools and techniques. Biomarkers are required to diagnose PD at a very early stage when prevention is possible. Hence, we see a lot of interest among researchers involved in finding a biomarker specific to the disease. Biomarkers may be clinical, image based, genetic, and biochemical. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum markers which may correlate with disease pathophysiology are of great significance. One such molecule which recently gained a lot of attention is neuron-specific enolase (NSE). The main aim of this paper is to highlight the role of NSE in predicting neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation ultimately reflecting damage of brain cells in PD.
Published: 29 June 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 055-060; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001051
Published: 9 June 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 048-054; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001050
Mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction accounts for a large group of inherited metabolic disorders most of which are due to a dysfunctional mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) leading to deficient energy production and defects in phagocytosis in endosomal-lysosomal pathway respectively. MRC function depends on the coordinated expression of both nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes. Thus, mitochondrial diseases can be caused by genetic defects in either the mitochondrial or the nuclear genome, or in the cross-talk between the two. The mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes (MDSs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance that have onset in infancy or early childhood and are characterized by a reduced number of copies of mtDNA in affected tissues and organs. In this review article, we summarized the spectrum of mtDNA depletion disorders along with minor learning of lysosomal storage diseases. This current article offers a perspective on the role of genetics in medical practice and how this role may evolve over the next several years.
Published: 3 June 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 034-047; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001049
Medical benefits of cannabis and related compounds is widely known. Discovery of psychotropic plant cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol have urged researchers to study more about the cannabinoid system and related therapeutics in the field of neurology and medicine. Where activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) yielded in unwanted and serious side effects, discovery of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) and its ligands gave a new hope. Till now there is limited success in this field because of complex expanded endocannabinoid system comprising of receptors, ligands and enzymes. In this review we will update about the role of endocannabinoidome relevant to neurological disorders.
Published: 11 May 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 029-033; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001048
Aim: To assess the efficacy of decompressive craniectomy in patients with large basal ganglia (BG) bleed. To establish predictive criteria of mortality after surgery in patients with BG bleed. Materials: This prospective study includes all patients of large spontaneous BG bleed operated by decompressive craniectomy without hematoma evacuation from October 2012 to September 2015. Data was collected on patient age, gender, distribution of bleed, affected hemisphere dominancy, preexisting medical conditions, admission Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), midline shift on CT or MRI Brain, hematoma volume and anisocoria, duration (hours) between the onset of stroke and operation, post-operative complications, and the duration of hospital stay. This data was correlated with one month mortality of the patients. Results: Total number of patients were 27. Mean age was 51 years and mean GCS was 7.55(range 5-11). The mean volume of the bleed was 68.51 ml. Mortality was noted in 17 out of 27 patients (63%) in 30 days. Thirteen of the 16 patients with intraventricular extension of BG bleed had mortality. The factors that showed statistically significant correlation with one month mortality were age, GCS at admission, volume of the bleed and the intraventricular extension. Conclusion: Large BG bleed was associated with high mortality and morbidity. Age of 50 years or more and GCS ≤ 8 at presentation were poor prognostic factors for decompressive craniectomy in patients with BG bleed. Patients with large BG bleed of volume > 60 ml and intraventricular extension had poor prognosis.
Published: 26 April 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 026-028; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001047
Background and Objective: Thrombolytic and mechanical thrombectomy therapies are proven treatment methods in patients with acute stroke. Aim is to share our experience in acute stroke therapy with colleagues. Material and methods: In this study we evaluated the patients who underwent MT or MT + IV-tPA between 2018-2019 retrospectively. Demographic features, comorbid diseases of patients, symptom onset-to-gate and symptom gate-to-puncture durations, mRS (Modified Rankin Score) and NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) score, treatment method and degree of recanalization were listed. Results: MT was applied to 29 patients, MT + bolus IV-tPA was applied to 12 patients and MT + full dose IV-tPA was applied to 7 patients. The mean age was 66 ± 15 years, arrival mRS was 2 ± 2, arrival NIHSS score was 14 ± 5, onset-to-gate duration was 185 minutes and gate-to-puncture duration was 118 minutes. Conclusion: The rate of recanalization, functional independence and mortality were similar to the HERMES study. It was observed a higher rate of intracranial hemorrhage in patients who received bolus or full dose IV-Tpa compared to patients who underwent MT. These results have led us to question the necessity of giving bolus or full dose IV-tPA before MT. Onset-to-gate and gate-to-puncture durations were found longer than the recommended durations. Rapid and effective management of AIS patients will provide good clinical results.
Published: 20 April 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 022-025; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001046
Background: A misguided auto-reactive injury is responsible for several types of central nervous system (CNS) conditions in pediatrics. We propose that, in some of these conditions, the adaptive immune system has a common cellular immune pathogenesis, driven predominantly by T cells, despite variability on the phenotypical clinical presentation. Methods: We have characterized the CD4+/CD8+ adaptive immune response (AIR) on pediatric patients presenting with clinical symptoms compatible with Neuroimmune Disorders (NID). Flow cytometry with deep immunophenotyping of T cells was performed on peripheral blood obtained during the acute clinical phase and compared to an age-matched cohort group (Co). Results: We found that pediatric patients with confirmed NID, exhibit a pattern of dysregulation of CD4+ lineages associated with autoimmune processes. Discussion: The autoimmune associated CD4+ dysregulation was associated with patients with NID, as compared to healthy controls and patients with non-autoimmune diagnoses. If we can improve our capacity for early accurate diagnosis and meaningful disease monitoring of pathogenic T cell subsets, we can both expedite disease detection and may serve as a guide to the administration of effective immunotherapeutic agents.
Published: 23 March 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 016-021; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001045
Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is one of the main complications of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage and one of its causes is the cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs). Cortical spreading depolarizations are waves of neuronal and glial depolarizations in which there is loss of neuronal ionic homeostasis with potassium efflux and sodium and calcium influx. In damaged brain areas and brain areas at risk, such as those adjacent to subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), CSDs induce microvascular vasoconstriction and, therefore, hypoperfusion and spread of ischemia. Several studies have been devoted to minimize secondary injuries that occur hours to days after an acute insult. Ketamine, a drug until recently contraindicated in the neurosurgical population for potentially causing intracranial hypertension, has re-emerged as a potential neuroprotective agent due to its pharmacodynamic effects at the cellular level. These effects include anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and those of microthrombosis and cell apoptosis controls, and of modulation of brain excitotoxicity and CSDs. A literature review was performed at PubMed covering the period from 2002 to 2019. Retrospective studies confirmed the effects of ketamine on the control of CSDs and, consequently, of DCI in patients with SAH, but did not show improvement in clinical outcome. The influence of ketamine on the occurrence/development of DCI needs to be further confirmed in prospective randomized studies.
Published: 19 March 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 006-015; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001044
Systemic arterial air embolism (SAAE) is a rare but serious complication of CT-guided hook wire localization of pulmonary nodule usually with catastrophic and poor outcome. Hook wire needle localization is done pre-operatively by placing wire around or into the pulmonary nodule to provide the thoracic surgeon accurate location guidance of the target nodule for Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) wedge resection with safety margins. Physicians should be aware of this possible complication during the procedure in order to rescue the patient promptly as it requires rapid diagnosis and management. We describe a 55-year-old male who underwent a CT-guided hook wire needle localization of left upper lobe lung cancer and left lower lobe pulmonary nodule prior to planned VATS wedge resection who developed altered mental status and bilateral lower extremities paralysis after wire placement was completed. His CT head demonstrated small air embolism in the left occipital area, confirming the diagnosis of cerebral air embolism and follow up CT and MRI of the head revealed multiple areas of brain infarction. In addition, he was diagnosed with anterior spinal cord syndrome (ACS), most likely due to anterior spinal artery ischemia from micro air embolism on the basis of clinical findings but with negative ischemic changes on MRI of the spinal cord. His mental status recovered but he remained paraplegic and transferred to inpatient rehabilitation service.
Published: 25 January 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 004-005; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001043
Published: 8 January 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 001-003; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001042
A mass arising from the pituitary gland commonly damages cells of the anterior pituitary gland and affects the secretion of gonadotropins and growth hormone. However, central hypothyroidism and secondary adrenal insufficiency from such damage is a rare phenomenon. Acute urinary retention as the main symptom of central hypothyroidism is also an unusual initial presentation. We report a male patient who comes with frequent urinary retention and hyponatremia at our hospital.
Published: 1 January 2021
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 5, pp 094-095; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001058
This very brief communication is aimed to highlight some recent contact points between neurosciences and dynamical system theory, passing through paleoneurology, with some remarks suggesting further possible interdisciplinary developments.
Published: 30 December 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 084-087; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001040
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is common among adult congenital heart diseases but rarely causes paradoxical cerebral embolism. By sharing the ASD diagnosed after the first ischemic stroke attack at the age of 49 and a case of paradoxical cerebral embolism developing accordingly, we aimed to draw attention to the necessity of detailed cardiac examination in patients with cryptogenic stroke.
Published: 30 December 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 088-098; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001041
Published: 15 December 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 079-083; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001039
We report a case of 30-year-old immunocompetent man, with a previous history of cranial-facial trauma, who presented with progressive left exophthalmos due to an intracranial left frontal-ethmoidal-orbital mass. Histology of the resected tumor revealed a classical Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL). Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA/EBER was detected in typical Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. After postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy administration, the patient remains free of systemic disease or recurrence on 4 years of follow-up. Intracranial involvement by HL has rarely been described, mostly as a late localization or as a recurrence of a disseminated disease, in a setting of immunosuppression. Primary HL of the central nervous system occurring as an isolated disease is even more uncommon, with only 16 reported cases documented to date. The prognosis of these rare cases appears comforting with appropriate treatment. Tumor resection and, in appropriate cases, treatment with radiation and/or chemotherapy seem to warrant a durable response. For this reason a systemic disease should be excluded in all cases intracranial HL by a comprehensive work-up. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report that documents the association of intracranial HL and local trauma with subsequent intracranial infection.
Published: 27 November 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 075-078; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001038
Many patients with chronic cerebrovascular diseases complain “dizziness”, which is a distortion of static gravitational orientation, or an erroneous perception of motion of the sufferer or of the environment. In the vestibular cortical system, the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) serves as the core region having the strong interconnections with other vestibular cortical areas and the vestibular brainstem nuclei. By forming the reciprocal inhibitory interactions with the visual cortex (VISC), it also plays a pivotal role in a multisensory mechanism for self-motion perception. In a line of our studies on post-stroke patients, we found that there was a significant decrease in the cerebral blood flow in both the VISC and PIVC in the patients who suffered from dizziness. In this article, we provide a new concept that due to dysfunction of the visual-vestibular interaction loop, low cerebral blood perfusion in the PIVC and VISC might elicit post-stroke dizziness.
Published: 26 November 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 069-074; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001037
Objective: Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) occurs when there is misalignment of the atlantoaxial joint. Several etiologies confer increased risk of AAS in children, including neck trauma, inflammation, infection, or inherent ligamentous laxity of the cervical spine. Methods: A single-center, retrospective case review was performed. Thirty-four patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of S13.1 were identified. Demographics and clinical data were reviewed for etiology, imaging techniques, treatment, and clinical outcome. Results: Out of thirty-four patients, twenty-two suffered cervical spine trauma, seven presented with Grisel’s Syndrome, four presented with ligamentous laxity, and one had an unrecognizable etiology. Most diagnoses of cervical spine subluxation and/or instability were detected on computerized tomography (CT), while radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were largely performed for follow-up monitoring. Six patients underwent cervical spine fusion, five had halo traction, twelve wore a hard and/or soft collar without having surgery or halo traction, and eight were referred to physical therapy without other interventions. Conclusion: Pediatric patients with atlantoaxial subluxation may benefit from limited 3D CT scans of the upper cervical spine for accurate diagnosis. Conservative treatment with hard cervical collar and immobilization after reduction may be attempted, but halo traction and halo vest immobilization may be necessary. If non-operative treatment fails, cervical spine internal reduction and fixation may be necessary to maintain normal C1-C2 alignment.
Published: 24 September 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 063-068; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001036
Introduction: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common helminthic infection of the nervous system that occurs when humans become intermediate hosts in the life cycle of the pig tapeworm (Taenia solium) after ingesting its eggs. The objective of this study was to analyze socio-demographic, clinical and paraclinical features of patients with NCC in Lubumbashi, DRC. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 2 years within the Neuropsychiatric Center of Lubumbashi. Socio-demographic, clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic features were studied. Results: A total of 18 patients with NCC were listed. Epilepsy was found in 72.2% (13/18) of the cases. The mean age of the patients was 30.2 ± 13.5 years; males accounted for 61.2% of the cases. 84.6% were consumers of pork. Generalized epilepsy was found in 84.6% of the cases and hypereosinophilia in 38% of the cases. On the neuroimaging, the parietal location of lesions represented 92.3%; calcifications were the type of lesion in 53.8% of the cases and 69.2% of the cases presented lesions in the 4th evolutionary stage. Electroencephalogram was normal in 84.4% of the cases. Phenobarbital was the antiepileptic drug used in 69.3%; albendazole and prednisone were used in 53.9% of the cases. Conclusion: This study shows that NCC is one of the causes of epilepsy in Lubumbashi. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are the most common form of presentation and calcified parenchymal lesions are the most common radiological feature of NCC. So, any patient with acute onset of afebrile seizure should be screened for NCC provided other common causes been ruled out.
Published: 25 August 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 053-062; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001035
Blood vessels that supply and feed the central nervous system (CNS) possess unique and exclusive properties, named as blood–brain barrier (BBB). It is responsible for tight regulation of the movement of ions, molecules, and cells between the blood and the brain thereby maintaining controlled chemical composition of the neuronal milieu required for appropriate functioning. It also protects the neural tissue from toxic plasma components, blood cells and pathogens from entering the brain. In this review the importance of BBB and its disruption causing brain pathology and progression to different neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease (HD) etc. will be discussed.
Published: 11 August 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 3, pp 049-52; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001034
Published: 26 May 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 038-044; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001032
Published: 26 May 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 038-044; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001033
Published: 24 April 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 029-037; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001031
Published: 6 April 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 024-028; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001030
Published: 5 March 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 014-023; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001029
Published: 24 January 2020
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 4, pp 001-013; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001028
Published: 11 November 2019
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 3, pp 162-166; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001027
Published: 4 November 2019
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 3, pp 148-161; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001026
Published: 1 October 2019
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 3, pp 145-147; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001025
Published: 1 August 2019
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 3, pp 135-144; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001024
Published: 31 July 2019
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 3, pp 102-134; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001023
Published: 24 July 2019
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 3, pp 096-101; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001022
Published: 18 July 2019
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 3, pp 091-095; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001021
Published: 9 July 2019
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 3, pp 087-090; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001020
Published: 4 March 2019
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 3, pp 001-086; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001019
Published: 31 December 2018
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 2, pp 098-100; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001018
Published: 14 December 2018
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 2, pp 065-097; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001017
Published: 30 November 2018
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 2, pp 052-064; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001016
Published: 28 November 2018
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 2, pp 052-059; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001015
Published: 5 October 2018
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 2, pp 047-051; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001014
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 2, pp 028-032; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001011
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 2, pp 039-046; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001013
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 2, pp 001-010; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001008
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 2, pp 014-027; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001010
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 2, pp 011-013; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001009
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders, Volume 2, pp 033-038; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001012