Results in Journal KALAM: 147
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KALAM, Volume 13, pp 1-30; doi:10.24042/klm.v13i2.5075
The concept of 'reality' is one of the most debatable discourse by philosophers, especially between Western and Islamic philosophers. One of Muslim philosophers’ criticism which addressed to Western philosophy is their tendency to restrict the only meaning of reality to empirical beings. That makes metaphysical beings like truth (haqīqah), reason (‘aql), revelation (wahy), also God to be reduced merely as ‘concept’ (grand narrative). Therefore, this paper would like to examine the Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas’ thought on ‘reality’. This study focuses on the classification of reality and the relationship between physical and metaphysical reality. This philosophical study was carried out with a descriptive and critical-analysis method among al-Attas' works. This study conclude that reality is not restricted to merely rational-empirical beings; but further to the metaphysical reality that affirms the existence of God and its relationship with nature and humans are also examined in it. This study concludes that reality; both physical and metaphysical are actually classified as objects of knowledge, which imply to the perception of human judgment on the 'truth value' of a being.
KALAM, Volume 13, pp 79-104; doi:10.24042/klm.v13i2.3529
Violence due to religious conflict is still becoming one of the problems faced by almost all countries, including Indonesia. Religious doctrine is often understood so narrowly that it imprisons its adherents in religious exclusivism and triggers conflict. In the context of a pluralistic Indonesian society, anticipatory efforts need to be made so that violence in the name of religion can be avoided. One of the efforts is by strengthening the values of pluralism. This article examines the implementation of the values of pluralism among the people of the village of Hanura Pesawaran Lampung while looking for its relevance to the values of pluralism that exist in the Medina Charter. This study is a field research using a qualitative approach. This study is field research using a qualitative approach. Data were obtained by observing, documenting, and interviewing community leaders in the village of Hanura. The results showed that the people of Hanura village had implemented pluralism values well. This can be seen from three indicators, namely: recognition of equal rights and obligations, the existence of social coherence, and community tolerance. These three things are following the values of pluralism in the Medina Charter. In conclusion, the life of Hanura villagers can be used as a model of the implementation of the values of pluralism in society.
KALAM, Volume 13, pp 55-78; doi:10.24042/klm.v13i2.4674
Sunni – Shia polemic becomes issues depict the debate in Islamic discourse. Even though it starts from political issue, while in its progress meddling in theology area to justify the truth of each other. In this context, verbal violence often occurs to attack, hurt, insult, or weaken the opponent. This paper will discuss verbal violence in the Sunni – Shia polemic as has been written in al-Munazarat baina Fuqaha' as-Sunnah wa Fuqaha' asy-Syi'ah book. The paper focuses on discussing the form and the factor behind these violences. The study is conducted using qualitative descriptive analysis method. The research result shows that the verbal violence found in the text quite varied, which are verbal violence in the form of satire, accuse or defame, mock, intimidate, curse, and threaten. Factors that cause violence also vary. However, the main factor of verbal violence is when the speaker is carried away by the critical situation of the debate. Other influencing factor is the speaker feels proud of himself or group, disappointed, hatred, and power relation. This article concludes that verbal violence can be found in debate on Islamic religious discourse.
KALAM, Volume 13, pp 105-124; doi:10.24042/klm.v13i2.5251
Radicalism has become one of the recent world problems faced by many countries, including Indonesia. The radical movement in this country is growing rapidly, especially after the reformation era. The spirit of democracy has provided opportunities for radical Islamic groups to express their beliefs openly and use religious symbols in their religious and social movements. This article aims to analyze the historical roots of radicalism in Indonesia and the factors that influence it. This article uses descriptive qualitative methods. The results of the study indicate that the radical movement in Indonesia can be traced from the tendency of groups trying to realize the Islamic State system (the khilafah) in Indonesia. This tendency can be found in several radical groups such as Darul Islam (DI/TII), Jama'ah Islamiyah, Hizb ut-Tahrir Indonesia (HTI), Laskar Jihad, Laskar Jundullah, Laskar Fisabilillah, Islamic Defender Fronts (FPI), and Preparatory Committee for the Application of Islamic Sharia (KPPSI). The study concludes that radicalism in Indonesia is the response of Muslims to the social, economic, and political conditions of Muslims in Indonesia.
KALAM, Volume 13, pp 31-54; doi:10.24042/klm.v13i2.4548
In general, studies about tariqa have put more emphasis on aspects related to ritual teachings and spiritual experience of the Sufi leaders. Little has been studied so far about how teachings of a Sufi order are related to cosmological concepts. This paper aims to analyze the cosmological concepts that are taught in the teachings of the Naqshbandi Sufi order in the district of Pauh, the city of Padang, West Sumatera. Data for this research are gathered through interviews, observation and documentation. These data are then analyzed with content analysis method. The research find that the Naqshbandi order perceives the notion of sharia as one that is intimately related with divine revelation and the universe’s law of order, a holistic approach that regards deeds of a sālik (a Sufi traveler) as part of the cosmic order. The existing seven types of sharia law outline seven layers of heaven and earth. Thus, a mystic attainment of martabah hakikat (degree of reality) represents seven layers of heaven and earth, which are manifested through amaliah lathāif (inner ‘worship’ rituals) - all of which are attributed to internal parts of the human soul, such as brain, heart, spleen, liver, lungs and all internal parts of the human physical body. Within the Naqshbandi Sufi order, all sālik aredevised to be able to attain close relationship with God, and to become an imagery of human’s mystical potentials in their everyday lives’ activities.
KALAM, Volume 13, pp 85-112; doi:10.24042/klm.v13i1.4069
Mahdism, or the belief in the resurrection of the eschatological figure of the Mahdi remains important in Islam today. This belief, legitimated by the mahdawiyyah hadith, has allowed many individuals throughout Islamic histories to claim themselves to be the Mahdi, as well as to carry out a radical strand of Islamic movement in order to support their claim. Using a historical method, this paper studies the history and development of mahdism, along with their interpretationof the mahdawiyah hadith; and analyzes the connection of such interpretation with the rise of religious radicalism. The study argues, mahdism is linked to the practices of millenarianism, formerly existed in Jewish and Christian theology. The emergence of mahdism related to the political conflict during the power transition from the Umayyad to the Abbasid dynasty. Yet, the rise of the Mahdi movement found its support from the mahdawiyyah Hadith, which are interpreted in such a way as to legitimize the radical-subversive movement of the mahdi’s leaders, enabling mahdism to develop, ideologically, as a radical movement. This study concludes that mahdism is at once a religious and political movement aiming to bring back the glory of Islam. Religion becomes a legitimate and effective ideological framework of a political mission.
KALAM, Volume 13, pp 61-84; doi:10.24042/klm.v13i1.3412
Religious radicalism is a serious problem faced by many countries in the world, including Indonesia. Various efforts have been made by authorities to prevent the emergence of religious radicalism. One model of the efforts for preventing religious radicalism is the assimilation-based model. The purpose of this study is to examine some factors triggering religious radicalism, and the application of the assimilation-based model for the prevention of religious radicalism in Lombok society. This research uses qualitative approach. The data are collected through observation, interview and documentation methods. These data are then analyzed by following Miles and Huberman’s suggestion, consisting of data reduction, presentation and verification. This research finds out that, firstly, the main factor causing religious radicalism is due to lack of education among people; a situation which makes these people easily compromise radical doctrines without further critical thoughts. Secondly, the application of religious radicalism prevention model has to be accompanied by government’s policies and civil’s participation in social, cultural, and economic empowerment. In addition, it is important to conduct religious activities that create good atmosphere for all parties in conflict. This research concludes that religious radicalism can be prevented by social assimilation.
KALAM, Volume 13, pp 1-24; doi:10.24042/klm.v13i1.3953
The relationship between science and religion is one of the issues that has not been resolved completely until now. Although some universities in Indonesia and even Malaysia have developed academic traditions with the paradigm of integration of science, they still leave a fundamental problem related to aspects of scientific science developed with religion. To meet scientific and objective criteria, science must avoid the element of subjectivity of scientists, and eliminate the intersubjectivity of tradition and culture. This paper will analyze, especially to emphasize the position of philosophy in the development of religion-based science, as well as reflection for the development of philosophical sciences. This paper will discuss two main problems, the investigation of the religious dimension for science, and the role of religion-based science development for the development of philosophical sciences. The study found that in addition to the theoretical framework and scientific paradigm, there is one more thing that cannot be left behind in the process of developing science, namely the theological assumptions or theological dimensions of science. So that the basis of the development of science not only consists of theories and paradigms, but also theological assumptions. This article concludes that the theological dimension allows for the development of religion-based science.
KALAM, Volume 13, pp 49-60; doi:10.24042/klm.v13i1.4076
Al-Maturidy theology has been considered as a traditional creed for many regions in the world, including Volga region of Russia. Throughout the Soviet period, Muslims in Volga were forced to practice their religion in secretive manner, which eventually caused an interruption in the chain of spiritual continuity. But, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Muslims in Volga started to return to their ethno-confessional tradition. At the same time, the theological tradition had to compete with the Salafi ideology which begun to arrive in the region from abroad. As such has triggered the Muslim proponents of Maturidy traditions to reclaim their heritage. This study aims at tracing the historical process of the origin and development of Maturidy thought in the Volga-Ural region. It uses descriptive and comparative methods and the theory of continuity and changes. Observing the chronological sequence, the study traces the process of the origin and development of Maturidy ideology. The chronological scope of this study is limited by the period from the tenth century until our time. The study reveals that the al-Maturidy's teachings in the region for all periods of historical development have experienced five periods. Three periods show a rapid development stage and two periods experience a decline.
KALAM, Volume 13, pp 25-48; doi:10.24042/klm.v13i1.3978
Prophet Muhammad besides being a leader and statesman, he was also a great thinker. Aside from being a master educator, he was also a rational-transcendental thinker. But not many of us are able to see the Prophet Muhammad in the aspect of his thinking. In the perspective of Musa Asy’arie, the most important aspect for us to emulate in the Prophet Muhammad is his aspect of thought. When we are able to emulate the dimensions of the Prophet's thinking, we will be able to apply the method of prophetic thinking. This paper raises several epistemological questions: What is the meaning of prophetic thinking? How is the epistemology of reconstruction prophetic thinking in the perspective of Musa Asy’arie? This study uses philosophical and historical approach. It is found that in the view of Musa Asy’arie prophetic thinking is transcendental rational thinking by uniting between aspect rational and spiritual aspects. While the epistemology of prophetic thinking is a systemic integrative thinking process between transcendental awareness and scientific methodological and technological thinking in order to find God's laws that can produce knowledge, science and technology. This paper will elaborate epistemology of reconstruction of prophetic thinking metodology in the view of Musa Asy’arie.