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Results in Journal Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research: 25

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Azhar Ammara, Saeed Umar, Piracha Zahra Zahid, Amjad Areesha, Ahmed Aftab, Batool Syeda Itrat, Jabeen Maimoona, Fatima Areej, Noreen Fakhia, Uppal Rehan, et al.
Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research, Volume 5, pp 026-033; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.apcr.1001025

Abstract:
SARS-CoV-2 a virulent disease that established the entire wide world due to its severity. Its 1st case was rumored in Wuhan, China within the year 2019 and it had been the beginning of this pandemic. This virus killed virtually a complete of 4,465,683 folks round the globe until date. Despite the fact that viral co-infections have the ability to alter the host’s illness pattern, few research have looked at the disease outcomes in patients who are infected with HIV and hCoVs. Despite the fact that HIV-positive people can be infected with hCoVs, researchers are now revealing that their chances of acquiring serious CoV-related disorders are typically similar to what is seen in the general population. The relation between SARS-CoV-2 and HBV was summarized rather HBV effects the severity of COVID patient or not. SARS-CoV-2 could be a severe acute metabolic process syndrome. Scientists found ways in which to treat this virus, some were useful and alternative weren’t that a lot of effective. Immunizing agent was one among the most important considerations for the entire world. This virus conjointly fashioned an entry for alternative co-infections too. SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus, both causes respiratory diseases which confer as an extensive array of illness from asymptomatic or benign to critical disease and death. Also the mode of transmission and symptoms of influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 are same. Viral and bacterial rate is higher in SARS-CoV-2 negative patient but are comparable. Serologies facts confirmed that patients with effective results for dengue virus (DENV) NS1 antigen and anti-dengue IgM were also attentive to COVID-19 speedy antibody tests, suggesting dengue COVID-19 co-infection. Mixed infection of dengue and COVID-19 needs unique interest from all dengue-common nations in Asia, especially the ones with limited resources. To our knowledge, this is the primary showed case of co-infection of dengue and COVID-19 in Indonesia. During patient’s TB course, COVID-19 can occur at any time with worse consequences for the patients who are affected by active pulmonary disease.
Jiang Yuankuan, Chen Haiyang, Liu Jiayue, Wei Tianfu, Ge Peng, Qu Jialin, Lin Jingrong
Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research, Volume 5, pp 020-025; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.apcr.1001024

Abstract:
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex mechanism, which is believed to be mainly based on immune disorders and activation of inflammatory pathways. However, we have combed through the literature and found that the pathogenesis of psoriasis might involve a “mobius loop” of “immunity-inflammation-oxidative stress-proliferation” process. The disordered immune environment of the skin might act as the basis, the outbreak of inflammatory factors as the mediator, and the imbalance of oxidative stress homeostasis as the activator. These factors work together, leading to abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes and further immune abnormalities, finally aggravating psoriasis. Therefore, here we review the latest evidence and advance in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, trying to contribute to further understanding and treatment of psoriasis.
Nagy Anita, Sergi Consolato M, de Nanassy Joseph, Abbot Lesleigh S, Arnoldo Anthony, Hawkins Cynthia, Ngan Bo-Yee
Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research, Volume 5, pp 016-019; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.apcr.1001023

Abstract:
We report a case of a right gluteal mass from the sacroiliac joint to the knee of an infant girl. Biopsy showed histopathological features similar to infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS). However, unlike most IFS, no ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene abnormality was detected. Molecular analysis with TruSight RNA Pan-Cancer Panel detected the presence of KIAA1549-BRAF translocation and an oncogenic NF2p.Q459* SNV with potential clinical significance. A review revealed that the combination of this patient’s tumor site with the presence of a KIAA1549-BRAF translocation abnormality and an accompanying single nucleotide variant has not been previously described. The detection of this translocation abnormality raises the possibility that the spindle cell tumors in infants with an absence of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene abnormality might have a distinct pathogenetic mechanism different from the previously known IFS and congenital mesoblastic nephroma. Furthermore, the discovery of BRAF translocation and its aberrant signaling of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in this tumor contributes to the promise of clinical benefit of using the MEKi trametinib for the treatment of progressive disease that is refractory to conventional chemotherapy.
Waeckel Louis, Li Guorong, Berger Anne-Emmanuelle,
Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research, Volume 5, pp 010-015; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.apcr.1001022

Abstract:
Flow cytometry (FCM) is a unique technique that allows rapid quantitative measurement of multiple parameters on a large number of cells at the individual level. FCM is based on immunolabelling with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies, leading to high sensitivity and precision while time effective sample preparation. FCM can be performed on tissue following enzymatic or mechanical dissociation. The expression of epithelial antigens and cytokeratin isoforms help in distinguishing tumor cells from adjacent epithelial cells and from tumor infiltrating leukocytes. Tumor phenotypes can be characterized on expression intensity, aberrancies and presence of tumor-associated antigens as well as their cell proliferation rate and eventual heteroploidy. FCM can measure quantitative expression of hormone or growth factor receptors, immunoregulatory proteins to guide adjuvant therapy. Expression of adhesion molecules tells on tumor’s capacity for tissue invasion and metastasis seeding. Tumor heterogeneity can be explored quantitatively and rare, potentially emerging, clones with poor prognosis can be detected. FCM is easily applicable on fine needle aspiration and in any tumor related biological fluids. FCM can also be used to detect circulating tumor cells (CTC) to assess metastatic potential at diagnosis or during treatment. Detecting CTC could allow early detection of tumors before they are clinically expressed although some difficulties still need to be solved. It thus appears that FCM should be in the pathologist tool box to improve cancer diagnosis, classification and prognosis evaluation as well as in orientating personalized adjuvant therapy and immunotherapy. More developments are still required to better known tumor phenotypes and their potential invasiveness.
Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research, Volume 5, pp 004-009; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.apcr.1001021

Abstract:
Currently, the emergence of highly virulent mutants in Europe and the United States has caused refractory recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) to be a problem in clinical practice. In 2013, the Netherland group demonstrated breakthrough therapeutic efficacy in fecal microbial transplant (FMT) treatment clinical trials for RCDI, and FMT treatment is rapidly gaining attention. In addition to RCDI, FMT treatment has been attempted in various gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation, as well as extragastrointestinal diseases. In this review, I would like to describe the current status, complications and prospects of FMT treatment.
, S Fassino
Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research, Volume 5, pp 001-003; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.apcr.1001020

Abstract:
The article describes the interaction of anorexic patients, hospitalized in the Regional Pilot Psychiatric Service for the treatment of Anorexia in the Molinette Hospital of Turin, with the reading volunteering group. On the basis of said interaction, the Creative Self is searched for in patients and shows into be present in different ways. It seems anyway enhanced by the presence in the reading group.
Lenjani Basri, , Rashiti Premtim, Shabani Gani, , Demiri Arber, Pelaj Besarta, Spahiu Fllanza, Demi Arban, Lenjani Dardan
Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research, Volume 4, pp 024-027; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.apcr.1001019

Abstract:
Emergency medical care in palliative patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to provide a consistent treatment for stable patients that should be consistent with the goals and benefits, the perspective of these patients, but avoiding palliative patients with a poor prognosis that is unlikely to survive. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world around 8.8 million deaths a year. Worldwide, about 7-10 million patients are diagnosed with cancer each year, recently there has been a significant increase in the number of cases diagnosed with cancer. About 70% of cancer deaths are in low- and middle-income countries. The goals of emergency medical care based on the criteria of BLS and ACLS, that is should be done “Do not do resuscitation, do not intubate but continue medical treatment excluding endotracheal intubation without prospects for the patient, but offering BLS only treatment concentrated symptomatic. ED is often the only place that can provide the necessary medical interventions (e.g., intravenous fluids or pain management medications. Medications as well as immediate access to advanced diagnostic tests when needed such as CT, RM and other diagnostic and treatment procedures.
, Tan Gek San, Tham Chee Kian, Tony Lim Kiat-Hon
Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research, Volume 4, pp 011-023; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.apcr.1001018

Abstract:
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations are a common event in secondary glioblastoma multiforme and lower-grade adult infiltrative astrocytomas and independently confer a better prognosis [1,2]. These are highly conserved mutations during glioma progression and thus also a useful diagnostic marker amenable to modern molecular sequencing methods. These mutations can even be detected in sites distant from the primary tumour. We use an illustrative case of a patient with radiologically suspected recurrent astrocytoma and negative histology, but positive IDH-mutated tumour DNA detected within CSF. Our results demonstrated the usefulness of liquid biopsy for recurrent glioma within the context of equivocal or negative histopathological results, whilst also showing the ability to detect a de-novo IDH-2 mutation not present in the previous resection. Building on this ‘proof-of-concept’ result, we also take the opportunity to briefly review the current literature describing the various liquid biopsy substrates available to diagnose infiltrative gliomas, namely the study of circulating tumour DNA, circulating tumour cells, and extracellular vesicles. We outline the current challenges and prospects of liquid biopsies in these tumours and suggest that more studies are required to overcome these challenges and harness the potential benefits of liquid biopsies in guiding our management of gliomas.
Zoly Rakotomalala Nivoarimelina, Besaina Rakotozanany, Felanarivo Razafindraibe Andriatompoina, Patrick Marco Ramarokoto Malalafinaritra, Florent Rafamatanantsoa Jean, Edith Kapche Wato, Malala Aurelia Randriambololona Domoina
Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research, Volume 3, pp 022-027; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.apcr.1001015

, Cai Qi, Vohra Nasreen A., Wong Jan, Therien Zsuzsanna P., Hewan-Lowe Karlene, Sutton Ann
Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research, Volume 3, pp 008-014; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.apcr.1001012

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