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Results in Journal Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research: 21

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Bereda Gudisa
Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research, Volume 6, pp 007-009; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jatr.1001021

Abstract:
Ceftriaxone is having many uses and useful “third-generation” cephalosporin that necessitates being given every day. Ceftriaxone acts as binds to one or many of the penicillin-binding proteins which inhibit the final transpeptidoglycan step of peptidoglycan synthesis in the bacterial cell wall, thus inhibiting biosynthesis and arresting cell wall assembly resulting in bacterial cell death. Ceftriaxone-associated biliary adverse events in children less than eighteen years cause biliary pseudolithiasis and scarcely nephrolithiasis often happen in children less than eighteen years after receiving overdoses of ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone perhaps binds with calcium and figure insoluble chelation leading to biliary pseudolithiasis. Cholelithiasis, increased biliary thickness, and pseudolithiasis rarely happen in a period of being a child, but there are two modes of distribu¬tion described by two peaks, the first being at an early stage of development and the second is a period of life when a child develops into an adult. Hyperbilirubinemia is significantly contraindicated for neonates administrated ceftriaxone, particularly premature neonates, because of the displacement of bilirubin from albumin-binding sites and increase in blood concentrations of free bilirubin. A child than one month old and a child less than twelve-month old in special are at great risk of poor results because of bilirubin encephalopathy. Coincident administrations of ceftriaxone with aminoglycosides such as gentamycin and loop diuretics (furosemide) perhaps increase the risk of nephrotoxicity (rapid degeneration in the kidney function to the toxic outcome of double or triple medications). Coincident administrations of ceftriaxone with anticoagulant medications such as warfarin are associated with bleeding due to increased prothrombin times, which is reversible with vitamin K.
Lemma Alembante Fikadu, Robert Urban, Laszlo Lajtai
Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research, Volume 6, pp 001-006; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jatr.1001020

Abstract:
Khat is a huge green plant that thrives at high elevations throughout the region ranging from southern to eastern Africa, and in the Arabian Peninsula. However, chewing Khat became common among the young (youth). The objectives of this study were to investigate the khat use behavior, users’ self-understanding, and their readiness of stopping using khat among street people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A Semi-structured interview was used to collect information from street people in Addis Ababa. 15 participants were individually interviewed and 11 of them were males and the rest 4 were female participants. The data acquired from the interview was analyzed using descriptive and thematic analysis. Chewing Khat was identified as a common activity among the youth living in the streets of Addis Ababa. Most of the participants have an awareness of the use of khat and its effects on their health but they are still struggling to stop it. While the readiness to stop using khat was investigated and the addiction behavior and the lifestyle of the participants were affecting them from stooping chewing Khat.
Baitubayеv Dg, Baitubayeva
Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research, Volume 5, pp 027-031; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jatr.1001019

Abstract:
The article shows that the current level of physiology does not disclose the biological mechanisms of the organism’s transition from one range to adapt to a higher one with an increase in the regular forces of the stimulus above sub-extreme. A new trend in the physiology of adaptation - proqredient adaptation, explains the mechanism of increasing the tolerance of the organism, with dependence on psychoactive substances (PAS). Scientific has reasonably shown that depending on the organism from PAS - not the disease, and the states like proqredient adaptation.
Amoako Thomas Nti, Owusu-Ansah Frances Emily
Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research, Volume 5, pp 014-019; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jatr.1001017

Abstract:
Background: End-Stage Kidney Disease and its maintenance hemodialysis treatment force patients to make several lifestyle changes to cope with this debilitating illness. These changes often trigger the onset of notable psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, these negative psychological experiences can undermine the effectiveness of the treatment and consequently worsening the health and quality of life of patients. Objective: The study assessed the psychological well-being among hemodialysis patients in Kumasi Metropolis. Further, it explored the relationship between these psychosocial factors and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: 30 hemodialysis patients were recruited from two dialysis units in Kumasi, Ghana. Participants were aged 18 and above and had been on hemodialysis treatment for more than three months. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) was used to assess depression and anxiety whiles the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used to assess perceived social support of participants. Results: The majority of respondents were males (60%), relative to females. The study revealed that 80% were severely depressed, 20% met the criteria for severe anxiety. Some participants reported moderate social support 53.3%; perceived social support being inversely correlated with both depression (r = -0.41; n = 30; p < 0.05) and anxiety (r = -0.59; n = 30; p < 0.05). Income levels were inversely correlated with depression (r = -0.41, n = 30; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Findings of the study suggest that the psychological wellbeing of hemodialysis patients is compromised. Social support appears to alleviate depression and anxiety. Implications for patient treatment are discussed.
, Lam Ka Wang Kelvin, Zhong Hua
Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research, Volume 5, pp 020-026; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jatr.1001018

Abstract:
Extant studies have labelled persons-with-addiction and the homeless as ‘invaders’ of public parks, aggressive/violent with psychiatric and medical disorders, a burden to the society, and transmitters of most deadly airborne or chronic diseases. Literature subtly discuses that such people must be chased out of the public. Yet, such studies have not concurrently analyzed from the viewpoint of urban parks users, the persons-with-addiction and the homeless people what needs to be done to improve the situation. Therefore, the study aims to explore whether problematic communities and subcultural factors make the disadvantaged resort to negative copping strategies when their legal means are blocked: how the other park users respond to the homeless drug addicts’ hardship: and the possible suggestions from all the park users. This is done with reference to social disorganization and Sub-culture theory, and through ethnographic research approach (8 months field observation) and in-depth-interviews with 27 participants. Our study found that persons-with-addiction and the homeless are not always aggressive/violent/harmful as they have been labelled. But only disadvantaged individuals who desire to emulate the ideals and ambitions of the middle class but lack resources to achieve such success. Being overwhelmed with such frustrations from their dilemmas, they consider themselves ‘double-failures’ and retreat into drug addiction and find abode in the public spaces. We therefore conclude that persons with addiction and the homeless people are not always violent and criminal persons who are to be chased out of public parks. But only disadvantaged individuals who need help for choosing a negative coping strategy.
Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research, Volume 5, pp 012-013; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jatr.1001016

Abstract:
The study attempted to answer several questions: Does the cultural and social background of immigrant youth from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) affect their use of addictive substances? Do these youth show distinctive patterns of drug and alcohol abuse? Do the addictive substances used by these teenagers share similar characteristics? Are the patterns of drug abuse and alcohol abuse different? Do students in different educational frameworks demonstrate different consumption patterns? Can “critical moments” explain the presence or absence of alcohol and drug abuse?
, Oberoi Avneet
Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research, Volume 5, pp 003-008; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jatr.1001014

Abstract:
Background: Epidemiological studies in smokers indicate a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the risk of developing certain smoking related diseases. The alkaloid nicotine is the major pharmacologically active substance in tobacco. Objective: To estimate the cotinine level excretion in urine among smoked and smokeless tobacco users and nonsmokers among the Indian population. Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of 250 subjects who were apparently healthy, asymptomatic and not using any drug. The study sample was divided into smoked tobacco users (bidi and cigarette), smokeless tobacco users, both smoked and smokeless tobacco users and controls (non-users of tobacco in the past or present). Results: The mean Cotinine level in urine was significantly (p – value < 0.05) more among smoked tobacco users in comparison to smokeless tobacco users and non-users of tobacco. Whereas, the mean Cotinine level in urine was significantly (p – value < 0.05) more among smokeless tobacco users in comparison to non-users of tobacco. Conclusion: The mean cotinine levels among smokers and both smokeless and smoked tobacco users were found to be higher than only smokeless tobacco users and non-users of tobacco.
Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research, Volume 4, pp 013-016; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jatr.1001012

Abstract:
Background: the level of alcohol consumption per capita is an important indicator of the alcohol-related problems. However, it is difficult to estimate the real level of alcohol consumption, since part of the consumption comes from illegal sources. Aim: an overview of studies estimating the overall level of alcohol consumption in Russia. Methods: in this review, 9 articles were analyzed estimating the overall level of alcohol consumption in Russia. Results: in the period from 1956 to 2015 the overall level of alcohol consumption was subject to significant fluctuations: it grew almost linearly in the period from 1965 to 1979; decreased markedly in 1981; declined sharply between 1984 and 1987; rose sharply between 1991 and 1994; decreased significantly between 1995 and 1998; then increased significantly in the period from 1999 to 2003, after which it began to decline. The lowest estimate of the level of alcohol consumption for the entire period under consideration was obtained using the method proposed by Razvodovsky (7.25 litres - 1987), and the highest - using the method proposed by Norstrom (19.64 litres - 1994). Conclusion: despite a significant decrease in the level of alcohol consumption in Russia over the past decade, this level remains high.
, Missaoui Cyrine, Haouala Amjed Ben, Mhalla Ahmad, Zaafrane Ferid, Gaha Lotfi
Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research, Volume 4, pp 006-012; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jatr.1001011

Ahmed Ismail Al-Bahbhani, Abo Jarad Bakr Khadr, Al-Bahbhani Ahmed Ismail, Nkhala Sadi Yehia, Al-Buhisi Ali Naim, Elessi Khamis Abdelkarim
Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research, Volume 4, pp 001-005; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jatr.1001010

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