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Wanja Wolff, Maik Bieleke, Chris Englert, Alex Bertrams, Julia Schüler, Corinna S. Martarelli
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 17, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.7453

Abstract:
Self-control is a highly adaptive human capacity and research on self-control is booming. To further facilitate self-control research, especially in conditions where time-constraints might render the use of multi-item measures of self-control problematic, a validated time-efficient single item measure would be an asset. However, such a measure has not yet been developed and tested. Here, we address this gap by reporting the psychometric properties of a single item measure of self-control and by assessing its localization within a larger theorized psychometric network consisting of self-control, boredom and if-then planning. In a high-powered (N = 1553) study with paid online workers from the US (gender: 47.3% female, 51.7% male, 1% other; age: 40.36 ± 12.65 years), we found evidence for the convergent validity (Brief Self-Control Scale), divergent validity (Short Boredom Proneness Scale and If-Then Planning Scale), and criterion validity (objective and subjective socio-economic status) of the single item measure of self-control (“How much self-control do you have?”). Network psychometrics further revealed that the single item was part of the self-control subnetwork and clearly distinguishable from boredom and if-then planning, which together with self-control form a larger psychometric network of psychological dispositions that are relevant for orienting goal directed behavior. Thus, the present findings indicate that self-control can be adequately captured with the single item measure presented here, thereby extending the methodological toolbox of self-control researchers by a highly-time efficient measure.
Thierry Bornand, Olivier Klein
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 17, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.6897

Abstract:
The socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals is related to their political trust. The higher their status, the more they trust the political system. This well-known relation is generally explained in terms of socialisation. The higher the SES, the more people are exposed to democratic values or interact with trustworthy institutions. This increases political interest, which increases political trust. In this study, we propose a complementary explanation: lower SES enhances the perception that the social fabric is breaking down (anomie), and this reduces political trust. We test this hypothesis by using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a representative survey (n = 1203) conducted in the Wallonia region of Belgium. That region appeared suited to explore our hypothesis because of its long-term economic difficulties. The results reveal that those of low SES have less political trust because they perceive more anomie in society. These results are consistent even when the alternative explanation is taken into account (the socialisation hypothesis). Moreover, the results also showed that a higher level of anomie reduced interpersonal trust which reduced political trust (serial mediation). These results highlight the key role of anomie when considering the relation of SES with political trust.
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 17, pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.4161

Abstract:
Romantic jealousy is a multidimensional response to a perceived threat to one’s relationship or self-esteem and the specific emotions experienced in the process are complex and interrelated, affecting one another. Many researchers focus on jealousy-related sex differences, however there are few studies exploring gender-specific jealousy. The current study investigated whether individuals representing various types of biological sex and psychological gender differ in their experience and expression of romantic jealousy. The study involved 367 subjects (213 women, 154 men) ranging in age from 18 to 40 years. The assessments were carried out using the Psychological Gender Inventory based on gender schema theory, proposed by Bem, and the author’s own Questionnaire on the Emotion of Romantic Jealousy. The results of MANOVA showed associations between romantic jealousy and both biological sex and psychological gender, however efforts to save the relationship appear to be the only gender-differentiated response to jealousy. Those with a high level of feminine traits are more likely to take action to preserve their relationships. Overall negative emotions elicited by a partner’s infidelity are stronger in women and in feminine individuals. The results confirm it is necessary to take psychological gender into account in research focusing on jealousy. The findings, however, do not support claims suggesting that men and masculine individuals tend to respond with stronger aggression to a partner’s infidelity, as proposed in the literature.
Emma De Araujo, Sacha Altay, Alexander Bor, Hugo Mercier
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.6999

Abstract:
Could there be upsides to rudely challenging people’s positions? If no one calls out the speaker of a challenging or offensive statement, it might be because the audience is afraid to challenge the speaker, thereby suggesting the speaker holds a dominant position. In two experiments (N = 635), participants read vignettes in which a speaker uttered a statement that was challenging (it directly clashed with the audience’s prior views) or unchallenging (it agreed with the audience’s prior views). We also manipulated whether the audience accepted or rejected the statement after it was uttered. In Experiment 1 the statements were about mundane topics, while in Experiment 2 the statements were offensive. In both experiments, speakers uttering challenging statements that the audience nonetheless accepted were deemed more dominant and more likely to be the boss of the audience members. This shows that people use audience reactions to challenging statements to infer dominance, and suggests that people might use the utterance of challenging statements to demonstrate their dominance.
Boglárka Nyúl, Hadi Sam Nariman, Mónika Szabó, Dávid Ferenczy, Anna Kende
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.3897

Abstract:
Public reactions to rape are often distorted by the acceptance of so-called rape myths. The goal of our research was to examine how rape myth acceptance (RMA) is connected to the evaluation of rape cases among survivors, unimpacted people, and those impacted by rape through a close relation, who can potentially be important allies of survivors in bringing about social change. We tested these connections in three online survey studies. In Study 1 (N = 758) we found that those impacted by rape personally or through a close relation accepted rape myths less. In Study 2, using a nationally representative sample in Hungary (N = 1007), we tested whether RMA predicted uncertain rape cases more strongly than certain (i.e., stereotypical) ones, considering that a stereotypical rape scenario is condemned by most members of society, but not all rape is labeled as such. We found that RMA predicted the evaluation of both rape scenarios, but the prediction was stronger when rape was uncertain. In Study 3 (N = 384), in a pre-registered study we examined how RMA predicted the evaluation of rape cases amongst people with different previous experiences (impacted/unimpacted). We found that unimpacted people accepted rape myths more, blamed the victim more and labeled the case less as rape when the case was uncertain. These findings suggest that rape myth acceptance functions as cognitive schema and that rape impacted people could have a key role not only in the life of survivors but as allies for social change as well.
Ariane S. Marion-Jetten, Kaspar Schattke, Geneviève Taylor
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.7225

Abstract:
Action crises are the intrapsychic conflicts people face when hesitating between continuing and giving up on a goal after the accumulation of setbacks. They are detrimental to goal achievement and psychological health. While many predictors of action crises have been identified, including dispositional mindfulness, almost none have been investigated in terms of their helpfulness during an action crisis. This experimental laboratory study tested whether a 15-minute mindfulness meditation influenced the emotional regulation of imagined action crises. Participants (N = 121, 105 students, 44 men, M = 28.26 years) were randomly assigned to meditate with a body scan meditation recording or to read magazines after identifying their most important current personal goal. Those in the body scan condition reported more adaptive emotion regulation strategies after reading an action crisis scenario personalized with their goal than those in the control, magazine-reading, condition. This effect was found even when controlling for baseline action crisis and baseline autonomous and controlled motivation. No difference between the groups was found in terms of maladaptive emotion regulation. Results suggest that mindfulness training is a promising tool to help people cope with goal-related difficulties such as action crises.
Sarah Gradidge, Magdalena Zawisza, Annelie J. Harvey, Daragh T. McDermott
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.5953

Abstract:
Many people wish to avoid harming animals, yet most people also consume meat. This theoretical ‘meat paradox’ is a form of cognitive dissonance and has grave negative consequences for animal welfare and the environment. Yet, despite these consequences, the meat paradox literature is sparse. The current structured literature review (SLR) explores primary literature up to May 2020, supporting the paradox and uniquely reviewing all known triggers of the paradox (e.g., exposure to meat’s animal origins), all known strategies to overcome the paradox (e.g., avoiding thinking about consumed animals) and how different people (e.g., those of different genders, occupations, ages, dietary preferences, cultures or religions) utilise varying strategies to overcome the paradox. For instance, the review uniquely demonstrates how dietary identity, dietary adherence and meat consumption frequency, among other demographic and psychographic factors, all affect moral (dis)engagement from animals. Overall, this paper has wide-ranging theoretical implications for the meat paradox and social psychological literature, and practical implications for meat reduction policies.
Anna Sutton, Jason Render
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.6553

Abstract:
The story of who we are is central to our sense of authenticity and this story is constructed from our autobiographical memories. Yet we know surprisingly little about the functions that autobiographical memories of being authentic serve. This study provides a preliminary examination of the self, social and directive functions used in autobiographical memories of being authentic and inauthentic. Participants recalled times they felt they had been authentic or inauthentic at work. Analyses revealed that the self and directive functions were significantly more prevalent than the social function. In addition, authentic memories were most strongly associated with the self function while inauthentic memories were more likely to be used for the directive function. This may indicate that recall of an authentic experience serves to support one’s current self-identity, while recall of an inauthentic experience provides an opportunity to direct future behaviour towards a more authentic response. This study provides some of the first evidence for how autobiographical memories of being authentic or inauthentic may function in developing a coherent story of self that is needed for a sense of authenticity.
Aleksandra Szymkow, Natalia Frankowska, Katarzyna Gałasińska
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.4389

Abstract:
Topics of prejudice, discrimination, and negative attitudes toward outgroups have attracted much attention of social scientists during the COVID-19 pandemic, as the preference for social distancing can originate from the perception of threat. One of the theoretical approaches that offers an explanation for avoidance tendencies is the behavioral immune system theory. As a motivational system that aims to identify and avoid pathogens, the behavioral immune system has been shown to be triggered by various cues of a potential disease threat (e.g., the risk of contracting a virus), which further leads to negative social consequences such as xenophobia, negative attitudes toward various social groups, and distancing tendencies. We present a correlational study (N = 588; Polish sample) that was designed to test mediational models derived from the behavioral immune system theory, using the COVID-19 pandemic as a source of natural disease threat. In serial mediation analyses we show that the perceived threat of COVID-19 translates into greater preferred social distance from foreign individuals, and that this occurs in two ways: 1) via pathogen disgust (but not sexual or moral disgust), and 2) via germ aversion (but not perceived infectability). Both pathogen disgust and germ aversion further predict general feelings toward foreign individuals, which finally determine the preferred social distance from these individuals. The results support the behavioral immune system theory as an important concept for understanding social distancing tendencies.
Catarina L. Carvalho, Isabel R. Pinto, Rui Costa-Lopes, Darío Paéz, José M. Marques
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-27; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.5451

Abstract:
We discuss the idea that competition-based motives boost low-status group members’ support for group-based hierarchy and inequality. Specifically, the more low-status group members feel motivated to compete with a relevant high-status outgroup, based on the belief that existing status positions may be reversed, the more they will defend status differentials (i.e., high social dominance orientation; SDO). Using minimal groups (N = 113), we manipulated ingroup (low vs. high) status, and primed unstable status positions to all participants. As expected, we found that SDO positively mediates the relation between ingroup identification and collective action, when ingroup’s status is perceived to be low and status positions are perceived as highly unstable. We discuss the implications of considering situational and contextual factors to better understand individuals’ support for group-based hierarchies and inequality, and the advantages of considering ideological processes in predicting collective action.
Katarzyna Stasiuk, Józef Maciuszek, Mateusz Polak, Dariusz Doliński
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.6525

Abstract:
This paper investigates the susceptibility to anti-vaccine rhetoric in the vaccine-hesitant population. Based on the literature on attitudes and attitude change it was assumed that susceptibility to anti-vaccine arguments may be related to personal experience with vaccination and to the strength of vaccine hesitant attitudes. The first aim of the study was to investigate the relation between personal experience with post-vaccination side effects and acceptance of select categories of anti-vaccine arguments. The second aim was to compare whether vaccination deniers and the vaccine-ambiguous group differ in their susceptibility to these arguments. The online survey was run in Poland on a final sample of 492 vaccine hesitant respondents. Results indicate that individuals who declared a negative experience with vaccination were persuaded by all types of anti-vaccine arguments. Moreover, pre-existing anti-vaccine skepticism may cause individuals to interpret negative symptoms as consequences of vaccines, further reinforcing the negative attitude. Additionally, it appeared that the vaccine-ambiguous believe in serious negative side effects of vaccination and ulterior motives of pharmaceutical companies, but do not believe that vaccines are ineffective. However, the opinion profile for vaccine deniers indicates that it may be a generalized stance, rather than a set of individual issues concerning different perceived negative aspects of vaccination.
Amélie Bret, Brice Beffara, Adrien Mierop, Martial Mermillod
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.6593

Abstract:
Right Wing Authoritarianism (i.e., RWA) is associated with enhanced conservatism and social prejudice. Because research linking RWA to attitudes is largely correlational (i.e., it provides control for neither RWA nor attitude learning), it is not clear how RWA relates to attitude learning dynamics. We addressed this question in 11 evaluative conditioning experiments that ensured rigorous control of the affective learning setting. Results from two integrative data analyses suggest that (i) individuals scoring higher in RWA show a stronger acquisition of positive attitudes, and that (ii) the residuals of this stronger acquisition remain even after exposure to counter-attitudinal information. Implications of these findings for research on RWA and its link to social prejudice are discussed.
Alexandra Fleischmann, Laura Van Berkel
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.2897

Abstract:
Women increasingly occupy jobs in psychological research, but continue to face career barriers. One such barrier is fewer authorship and publication opportunities, with women often having fewer first authorships than men. In this research, we examine the overlooked role of middle authorship. Middle authorship contributes to various indices of productivity, while having lower costs. Study 1 looks at five years of authorship in two major journals in social and personality psychology. Study 2 examines publication records of all social psychology faculty in the Netherlands. Both studies find that women have fewer authorship possibilities: In Study 1, women were underrepresented as authors in academic journals, while women in Study 2 had shorter publication lists. More importantly, this tendency was exacerbated for middle authorship positions. Furthermore, the percentage of middle authorship publications were positively related to more publications overall. A focus on middle authorship highlights previously underestimated challenges women continue to face in psychological research.
Krystyna Skarżyńska, Beata Urbańska, Piotr Radkiewicz
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.4395

Abstract:
The paper shows the role of mental health and political views in attributing responsibility for COVID-19 incidence rates to the government and factors beyond government control. Authors' hypotheses draw on the classic and new versions of attribution theories, on literature from political psychology about the process of blaming the government for natural catastrophes, and also on local socio-political specifics (political polarization). The empirical data used in the article come from the survey carried out on-line via a professional research panel at the turn of May and June 2020, after about three months of lockdown, and during the presidential election campaign. The research sample included 850 Polish adults (aged 18 to 84) fully diversified in terms of gender, age, and education (the sample was representative for the Polish population in terms of respondents' place of residence and the country's region). To measure attribution of responsibility, the authors developed an 8-item instrument. Half of the instrument’s items indicate government and state institutions' responsibility and half describe circumstances not related to the government. The results showed that the respondents tended to attribute more responsibility for COVID-19 effects to the government than other ("non-government") factors. In explaining the government's responsibility, political views and party preferences play an incomparably more significant role than mental health symptoms. The authors interpret these results as the effect of attitudinal and affective political polarization of Polish society.
Piotr Szarota, Ewa Rahman, Katarzyna Cantarero
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.3889

Abstract:
This contribution is one of the few psychological studies analyzing the marriage preferences of Bangladeshi urban youths. Our goal was to demonstrate that the line between traditional and “modern” marriage is no longer clear-cut and document the importance of social status and religion in shaping the life priorities of young, educated Bangladeshis. The sample (N = 205) consisted of unmarried university undergraduates aged 19-26. Participants were presented with three marriage scenarios: a traditional marriage arrangement, a hybrid model based on mutual attraction and family support, and finally, a Western-style love marriage. Generally, the Western marriage arrangements were rated more positively than the other models. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between preferences for a hybrid and a traditional model. Additionally, participants from a higher social milieu with lower levels of religiosity accepted love marriages more eagerly than middle-class students.
Charlotte Kukowski, Katharina Bernecker, Veronika Brandstätter
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.4391

Abstract:
In the current pandemic, both self-regulated health-protective behavior and government-imposed regulations are needed for successful outbreak mitigation. Going forward, researchers and decision-makers must therefore understand the factors contributing to individuals’ engagement in health-protective behavior, and their support for government regulations. Integrating knowledge from the literatures on self-control and cooperation, we explore an informed selection of potential predictors of individuals’ health-protective behaviors as well as their support for government regulations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aiming for a conceptual replication in two European countries, we collected data in Switzerland (N = 352) and the UK before (N = 212) and during lockdown (n = 132) and conducted supervised machine learning for variable selection, followed by OLS regression, cross-sectionally and, in the UK sample, across time. Results showed that personal importance of outbreak mitigation and beliefs surrounding others’ cooperation are associated with both health-protective behavior and support for government regulations. Further, Swiss participants high in trait self-control engaged in health-protective behavior more often. Interestingly, perceived risk, age, and political orientation consistently displayed nonsignificant weak to zero associations with both health-protective behavior and support. Together, these findings highlight the contribution of self-control theories in explaining COVID-19-relevant outcomes, and underscore the importance of contextualizing self-control within the cooperative social context.
Serena Stefani, Gabriele Prati, Iana Tzankova, Elena Ricci, Cinzia Albanesi, Elvira Cicognani
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.3887

Abstract:
A substantial amount of literature has revealed gender gaps in political participation. However, little is known about such gaps when using more comprehensive measures of civic and political participation including online participation. In the present study, we recruited a sample (n = 1792) of young people living in Italy. Controlling for age, majority/minority status, socioeconomic status, respondents’ educational attainment, and parents’ educational attainment, we found that female participants reported higher scores on online and civic participation, while male participants were more likely to report political and activist participation. The effect size for these gender differences was small. In addition, we did not find any gender differences in voting behavior in the last European parliamentary elections, national parliamentary elections, and local elections. These findings highlight the need to move toward a more comprehensive and detailed picture of gender gaps in political engagement and participation including different types of participation.
Paweł Koniak, Wojciech Cwalina
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.4421

Abstract:
In this study (N = 110) factors influencing formation of attitudes toward COVID-19 related restrictions as well as factors influencing stability or change of these attitudes were tested. Specifically, the study concentrated on two possible determinants of formation and changing attitudes toward COVID-19 related restrictions – fear of coronavirus and presenting restriction in forbid vs. allow frames. A restriction presented in the forbid frame was rejected more strongly than a restriction presented in the allow frame. For changing attitudes, a mere thought paradigm was used. This activity was not able to change these negative attitudes toward a forbid framed restriction. A higher level of fear of coronavirus was related to a more positive (or rather – less negative) attitude toward an allow framed restriction and allows this attitude to be changed to be more supportive of restrictions than initially. Moreover, the effect of fear was partially mediated by the changes in the confidence of initial attitude inconsistent thoughts.
Nicole S. Harth, Kristin Mitte
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.4347

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic represents a global crisis with high demands for the general population. In this research, we conducted a cross-sectional online study (N = 2278), which was diverse regarding age, employment, and family status to examine emotional well-being in times of the lockdown. We focused on inter-role conflict as a central factor associated with well-being. We tested whether individuals with high inter-role conflict (e.g. care-taker and employee) would appraise the lockdown more negatively than those experiencing low role-conflict and whether this would be associated with fatigue. In addition, we looked at gender as moderating this link. Latent modelling only showed small gender specific effects in the non-parent sample. However, in the parent sample, we found that although men experience less inter-role conflict than women on average, they coped significantly less well with it. We discuss the role of gender stereotypes in creating these psychological obstacles for men and women.
Veronica M. Lamarche
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.4409

Abstract:
COVID-19 caused unprecedented social disruption the likes of which many people had not seen since the Second World War. In order to stop the spread of the virus, most nations were required to enforce strict social distancing precautions, including orders to shelter in place and national lockdowns. However, worries over whether citizens would become fatigued by precautions that constrain personal liberties made some governments hesitant to enact lockdown and social distancing measures early on in the pandemic. When people feel that their social worlds are responsive to their needs, they become more trusting and more willing to sacrifice on behalf of others. Thus, people may view COVID-19 precautions more positively and be more trusting in government responses to such an event if they are inclined to see their sociorelational world as supporting their connectedness needs. In the current study (N = 300), UK residents who were more satisfied that their close others fulfilled their connectedness needs at the start of the government-mandated lockdown, perceived COVID-19 precautions as more important and more effective than those who were relatively dissatisfied in how their connectedness needs were being met, and reported greater trust in the government’s management of the pandemic. These effects persisted in a follow-up one month later. Implications for how society and governments can benefit from the investment in social connectedness and satisfaction, and future directions are discussed.
Simone Dohle, Tobias Wingen, Mike Schreiber
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.4315

Abstract:
The United Nations have described the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as the worst global crisis since the second world war. Behavioral protective measures, such as good hand hygiene and social distancing, may strongly affect infection and fatality rates worldwide. In two studies (total N = 962), we aimed to identify central predictors of acceptance and adoption of protective measures, including sociodemographic variables, risk perception, and trust. We found that men and younger participants show lower acceptance and adoption of protective measures, suggesting that it is crucial to develop targeted health messages for these groups. Moreover, trust in politics and trust in science emerged as important predictors for the acceptance and adoption of protective measures. These results show that maintaining and ideally strengthening trust in politics and trust in science might be central for overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic.
Annelot Wismans, Srebrenka Letina, Roy Thurik, Karl Wennberg, Ingmar Franken, Rui Baptista, Jorge Barrientos Marín, Joern Block, Andrew Burke, Marcus Dejardin, et al.
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.4383

Abstract:
Prevailing research on individuals’ compliance with public health related behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic tends to study composite measures of multiple types of behaviours, without distinguishing between different types of behaviours. However, measures taken by governments involve adjustments concerning a range of different daily behaviours. In this study, we seek to explain students’ public health related compliance behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic by examining the underlying components of such behaviours. Subsequently, we investigate how these components relate to individual attitudes towards public health measures, descriptive norms among friends and family, and key demographics. We surveyed 7,403 university students in ten countries regarding these behaviours. Principal Components Analysis reveals that compliance related to hygiene (hand washing, coughing behaviours) is uniformly distinct from compliance related to social distancing behaviours. Regression analyses predicting Social Distancing and Hygiene lead to differences in explained variance and type of predictors. Our study shows that treating public health compliance as a sole construct obfuscates the dimensionality of compliance behaviours, which risks poorer prediction of individuals’ compliance behaviours and problems in generating valid public health recommendations. Affecting these distinct behaviours may require different types of interventions.
Dariusz Drążkowski, Radosław Trepanowski, Patrycja Chwiłkowska, Magda Majewska
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.4415

Abstract:
During the COVID-19 pandemic, governments use direct persuasion to encourage social isolation. Since self-persuasion is a more effective method of encouraging behavioural changes, using an experimental approach, we compared direct persuasion to self-persuasion on underlying motivations for voluntary social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. We asked the participants (N = 375) to write three arguments in support of social isolation (self-persuasion condition) or to evaluate three government graphics containing arguments for social isolation (direct persuasion condition). Then we asked the participants to evaluate perceived own vulnerability to COVID-19, the perceived severity of COVID-19, moral obligation to socially isolate and the attitude toward social isolation. Self-persuasion had a significant impact on the moral obligation to socially isolate, and through it on self-isolation intention. We also found evidence that individuals who perceived greater benefits from social isolation and who perceived a higher severity of COVID-19 have a higher intention to socially isolate. Significant sex and age differences also emerged. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms of self-persuasion and underlying motivations that influence social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic.
, Phuong Nguyen, Cara C. MacInnis
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.2951

Abstract:
In general, cross-group friendships are less stable than same-group friendships. What conditions are present in currently existing versus dissolved cross-group friendships? In order to examine qualities that may influence cross-group friendship stability we compared current and dissolved friendships, including cross-group friendships. Cross-group friendships exist in various group domains, some more easily categorizable than others. That is, sometimes it is easy to tell that a relationship is cross-group (e.g., cross-race), and other times this is less clear (e.g., cross-socio-economic status). Thus, we compared current and dissolved friendships across both a more and a less easily categorizable group domain. In this study, participants reported on their current and dissolved friendships, and we found that, overall, friendship influencing qualities such as closeness, similarity, and social network integration (i.e., becoming friends with the friends of one’s own friends) were present to a greater extent in current versus dissolved friendships. This was the case for both cross-group and same-group friendships. These qualities may influence cross-group friendship stability.
, Monika Prusik
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.3697

Abstract:
The NEP (New Ecological Paradigm) scale is an internationally used measure of environmental attitudes and a predictor of pro-ecological behaviours (Dunlap, Van Liere, Merting, & Jones, 2000). In the current study we investigate the factor structure of the scale in order to state if it fits the theoretical model concerning the Polish population. We use the GEB (General Ecological Behaviour) scale as a test of the convergent validity of NEP scale results. The online study made use of a convenience sample of people aged 17–68 years, N = 305. Our study revealed that the theoretical concept of the NEP scale, including its five-factorial solution proposed by the authors of the scale, does not fit our results. After having conducted the exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) we found a two-factorial structure to be more appropriate, but the newly revealed solution was still not completely satisfactory according to the obtained psychometric parameters. Convergent validity of NEP was confirmed. However, socio-demographic characteristics of participants in the study were not related to the frequency of pro-ecological behaviours in general.
Taciano L. Milfont, Robert Thomson
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.3019

Abstract:
The spatial and temporal reach of contemporary environmental problems are unparalleled. Collective efforts to address global environmental problems are required but actions to tackle these problems demand initial recognition of their seriousness. Cross-cultural research has shown a reliable bias in comparative judgements about the severity of environmental problems for geographically distant places, with environmental issues perceived to be more severe “there” than “here.” The robustness of this effect may have unwarranted consequences since perceiving environmental problems as being worse elsewhere might lead individuals to not take actions in their locality. We conducted a within-country study to test whether this spatial bias would emerge for samples from all Brazilian states (k = 27, N = 4,265; 85% female; Age M = 24; Age SD = 9.67). Providing further support for a biased comparative judgement, we observed that the severity of environmental problems was judged as worse at the country level than at the state level (mean spatial bias score among Brazilian states = 0.54). Only 2% of the variation in spatial bias was attributable to across-state differences. By replicating cross-cultural findings within a single nation, our findings provide further support for the prevalence and generalizability of biased comparative judgements about the severity of environmental problems. We discuss critical future directions for spatial bias research.
Mitch Brown, Donald F. Sacco
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.2721

Abstract:
To reduce disease transmission through interpersonal contact, humans have evolved a behavioral immune system that facilitates identification and avoidance of pathogens. One behavioral strategy in response to pathogenic threat is the adoption of interpersonal reticence. However, reticence may impede status acquisition. This program of research tested whether activating pathogen-avoidant motives through priming fosters reticence related to status, namely disinterest in pursuing a group leadership position (Study 1) or disinterest in accepting a group leadership position bestowed onto them (Study 2). Individuals high in germ aversion were particularly interested in pursuing leadership as a form of status, with disease salience unexpectedly heightening status motives among those low in germ aversion. Furthermore, those high in perceived infectability reported reluctance for high-status positions, although disease salience heightened interest in accepting such positions. We contextualize findings by identifying dispositional and situational factors that foster individuals to invoke motivational tradeoffs.
, Christina Mühlberger, Eva Jonas
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.2875

Abstract:
Research has identified political disenchantment as an important driver for the recent spread of right-wing populism. The cultural backlash approach explains this relationship as a counter response to progressive socio-political developments in Western societies. Drawing on previous work, the present research examines motivational and affective factors underlying the support of right-wing populist parties. We hypothesize that a perceived alienation from the symbolic architecture of a society may decrease levels of psychological need satisfaction, which may catalyze into anxiety and anger. As the “political system” represents an important reflective surface for the socio-political status quo, we expected lower levels of need satisfaction and its resulting affective consequences to help explain the relationship between political disenchantment and right-wing populist support. We tested these tenets based on data from the 2016 Austrian presidential election (n = 626). The results of a structural equation model corroborated our predictions with some exceptions. Data indicated a negative relationship between political disenchantment and need satisfaction. Moreover, decreased need satisfaction was associated with increased self-reported anxiety and anger. Political disenchantment indirectly predicted support for a right-wing populist presidential candidate through decreased need satisfaction and anger, thus corroborating the role of anger as an important driver underlying right-wing populism support. Counterintuitively, the data indicated a negative relationship between anxiety and right-wing support. We discuss theoretical and practical implications, as well as limitations stemming from sample characteristics and the employed cross-sectional design.
, Sebastian Pusch, Birk Hagemeyer, Felix D. Schönbrodt
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-37; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.2873

Abstract:
Motivational variables are considered fundamental factors influencing the occurrence of behavior. The current study compared different types of motivational variables (implicit and explicit motive dispositions, motivation as states and as aggregated person-level variables) in their ability to predict communal and agentic behavior reports in intimate relationships. 510 individuals completed measures of dispositional communion and agency motives and participated in a dyadic experience sampling study with five assessments per day across four weeks. They reported on their momentary communal and agentic motivation, as well as on their own and their partner’s behaviors. All examined types of motivational variables predicted certain behavior reports on the between-person or within-person level and had incremental effects beyond the other motivational variables in at least one motive domain. Directly replicating and conceptually extending prior research, the effects of motivational states and their aggregates were consistently found across behavioral outcomes, across self- and partner-reports and across the motive domains of communion and agency. Using the example of motivational states, the general value of assessing within-person variables for psychological phenomena in ESM-designs is discussed.
, Guido Alessandri
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.2975

Abstract:
Emotion dynamics, how people’s emotions fluctuate across time, represent a key source of information about people’s psychological functioning and well-being. Investigating emotion dynamics in the workplace is particularly relevant, as affective experiences are intimately connected to organizational behavior and effectiveness. In this study, we examined the moderating role of emotional inertia in the dynamic association between both positive and negative emotions and self-rated job performance among a sample of 120 Italian workers (average age 41.4, SD = 14), which were prompted six times per day, for five working days. Emotional inertia refers to the extent that emotional states are self-predictive or carry on over time and is measured in terms of the autocorrelation of emotional states across time. Although inertia has been linked to several indicators of maladjustment, little is known about its correlates in terms of organizational behavior. Findings revealed that workers reporting high levels of positive emotions and high inertia rated their performance lower than workers high in positive emotions, but low in inertia. In contrast, the relation between negative emotions and performance was not significant for either high levels of inertia or low levels of inertia. Taken together, these results suggest the relevance of investigating the temporal dependency of emotional states at work.
, Dominika Karaś, Ewa Topolewska-Siedzik, Maria Kłym-Guba, , Radosław Rogoza, Eldad Davidov, Jan Cieciuch
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-33; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.3029

Abstract:
Experience sampling is considered one of the best methods for measuring behavior (Furr, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1002/per.724). When used for this purpose, it requires a coding system to transform diversified reports on what people are doing, provided as responses to an open-ended question, into interpretable data. We present a categorization of everyday behaviors that can be used to code responses from experience sampling and diary studies conducted with different groups of participants—from adolescents to elderly people. This categorization was developed and validated on a set of 19,840 responses to an open-ended question about participants’ recent activity, provided by 667 persons ranging in age from 12 to 66. As a result of the multistage work, we present a categorization system which forms a hierarchy from three broad categories to 97 narrow ones through middle levels of five, 23, and 63 categories of behaviors. The possible usage of the developed categorization is discussed.
John Nezlek
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.2679

Abstract:
The present paper provides an overview of diary style research. This includes descriptions of different methods and the types of research questions for which they are appropriate. Data analytic methods are described and some recommendations are provided. Recommendations regarding the preparation of manuscripts describing the results of diary studies are also provided.
, , Pilar Montañés
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.2667

Abstract:
We investigated how sexism affected leadership in mixed-gender alpine climbing-dyads. We asked whether benevolent sexism would impair, and hostile sexism would increase (as a form of resistance) women’s leadership; and whether benevolent sexism would increase men’s leadership (as a form of paternalism). A correlational study assessed reported leading behaviour of alpine climbers. Then a vignette-based experiment presented climbers with cross-gender targets, of which three were sexist (non-feminist), and one feminist (non-sexist), and assessed leading intentions depending on targets’ and participants’ gender attitudes. Findings showed that women endorsing benevolent sexism indicated lower leading intentions with targets expressing benevolent sexism (i.e., benevolent and ambivalent men) as compared to hostile sexist men. Moreover, women’s benevolent sexism negatively affected their leading intentions with men endorsing the same gender ideology. Unexpectedly, women with low endorsement of hostile sexism reported higher leading intentions with a hostile sexist man than an ambivalent one, and with an ambivalent than a benevolent man. Conversely, men intended to lead more with female targets who expressed benevolent sexism, accommodating these women’s expectations. Further, men intended to lead more with ambivalent women, than with women deviating from gender stereotypes (i.e., feminist women, or hostile sexist women – who lack expected benevolence based on gender stereotypes). We conclude that benevolent sexism likely reinforces traditional gender roles in a leadership context when men face women who fit the gender stereotype; and when women are benevolently sexist, themselves. Moreover, low hostile sexist women confront men’s hostility with higher leading intentions, as a form of resistance.
Aleksandra Cisłak, Marta Pyrczak, Artur Mikiewicz, Aleksandra Cichocka
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.2645

Abstract:
In three studies we examine the link between types of national identity and support for leaving the European Union (EU). We found that national collective narcissism (but not national identification without the narcissistic component) was positively associated with a willingness to vote Leave, over and above the effect of political orientation. This pattern was observed in a representative Polish sample (Study 1, n = 635), as well as in samples of Polish youth (Study 2, n = 219), and both Polish (n = 73) and British (n = 60) professionals employed in the field of international relations (Study 3). In Studies 2 and 3 this effect was mediated by biased EU membership perceptions. The role of defensive versus secure forms of in-group identification in shaping support for EU membership is discussed.
Thuy-Vy Nguyen, Jonathon McPhetres, Edward L. Deci
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.2663

Abstract:
Based on previous theoretical models, the present research investigated three different psychological constructs (religious belief, trust in government, and the experience of personal control) as moderators of the link between country’s economic growth (i.e., Gross Domestic Product) and income inequality (i.e., Gini) on health, happiness, and life satisfaction. Using a large cross-national data set (N = 490,579), we found that personal control predicted health, happiness, and life satisfaction above and beyond reliance on God and trust in government. Religious belief predicted greater health and buffered the negative effect of income inequality on health only in wealthy economies, but yielded negative correlations with health in poor economies. The associations between personal control and trust in government with well-being outcomes were consistently positive across different levels of countries’ GDP and Gini. Further, personal control also served a compensatory function by buffering the negative effect of income inequality in wealthy economies.
Matthias Keller, Mirella Walker, Leonie Reutner
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.2643

Abstract:
Advertising with sexualized female models is a commonly used technique in the advertisement industry. While “sex sells” is often successful in eliciting positive responses from male consumers, it often elicits negative responses from female consumers. On the one hand, female consumers might perceive sexualization as lacking in value (i.e., as a cheap display of sexuality lacking any kind of commitment). On the other hand, they might perceive sexualization as lacking in agency (i.e., as the model being displayed as an object rather than a subject). In two studies we investigate whether it is the lack of value or the lack of agency in sexualization that leads to more negative evaluations by young female perceivers. We manipulated the slogan in a sexualized advertisement so that it either adds value to sex (but does not add agency to the model) or so that it adds agency to the model (but does not add value to sex). Furthermore, we investigate the role of relatedness between the consumer and model with two advanced methodological approaches manipulating the facial characteristics of the model in the advertisement. In Study 1, we manipulated relatedness via perceived familiarity of the model’s face, whereas in Study 2, we manipulated relatedness via actual similarity between the perceivers’ and the model’s face in the advertisement. Results indicate that the lack of agency rather than the lack of value leads to negative evaluations by female consumers. This effect was pronounced if the advertisement model was relatable to the consumers.
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 14, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.v14i4.2437

Abstract:
This article discusses the role of historical closure in conflict resolution and reconciliation, departing from the example of the Polish Round Table negotiations in 1989. The concept of a “thick line” (“Gruba kreska” or “Schlussstrich”) was used in several historical contexts, showing the intention to detach from history when resolving pressing current societal issues. Historical evidence suggests that it was an intentionally chosen strategy by both sides taking part in the Round Table negotiations in 1989. Historical closure is known to have good consequences for building mutual trust, improving attitudes and making contact interventions more effective in improving intergroup relations. This is mostly attributed to the fact that historical crimes can have a long-standing impact on intergroup relations: past victimhood and perpetratorship lead to current grievances, denial, and mistrust. Only when these historical roles are overcome can both parties achieve any agreement. At the same time, historical closure breeds a sense of injustice among political followers and gives birth to numerous conspiracy theories. This article analyzes these problems in the Polish context and beyond.
, Wiktor Soral
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 14, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.v14i4.2435

Abstract:
The functions of the conspiracy theory surrounding the ’89 Round Table in present-day political life are discussed. In the online research conducted in 2018 on a representative sample of Polish citizens, we found that attitudes towards the Round Table are an important marker of the fundamental political division in Poland. Those who supported the current rule of PiS (with a nationalistic-authoritarian orientation) agreed with the ’89 Round Table conspiracy theory, whereas those who supported the liberal opposition against PiS rejected the ’89 Round Table conspiracy theory. Moreover, believers in the Round Table conspiracy appeared to trust politicians and justify the system to a higher degree than those who rejected this conspiracy theory. We also found that endorsement of the conspiracy theory of the ’89 Round Table was significantly associated with the stability of voting preferences. Among those who voted for PiS, conspiracy theory believers formed a stable electorate, whereas among those who voted for parties with a liberal orientation, theory believers were likely to change their voting preferences. Thus, belief in the discussed conspiracy is not only a part of some ideological landscape but also has direct behavioral consequences. The social-psychological reasons for the growing popularity of the ’89 Round Table conspiracy theory are discussed.
Daniel Druckman, Dominika Bulska, Łukasz Jochemczyk
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.v14i4.2329

Abstract:
At the beginning of the 1990s the “winds of change” blew through Europe, leading to the fall of Communism and regime change in several Eastern-European countries. The domino effect started in Poland with the Round Table negotiations that ultimately led to democratization of the country. The context that allowed this historical event to occur has been studied, but the talks themselves have not been analyzed in detail. In this article, we undertake this task. Using several complementary analytical approaches – negotiation theory, turning points analysis and dynamical systems – we study the process of getting to an agreement, focusing on the seven key issues of the negotiations. We treat the Round Table Talks both as a unique case of negotiations, given its structure and the context in which it happened, as well as an event comparable to other negotiations and connecting to the broader negotiation literature. Results of our inquiries show the importance of procedures during the talks and highlight the role played by motivation in propelling the negotiating parties to an agreement. We discuss the implications of our findings for negotiation theory and for the broader context of the historical event.
Anna Kende, Martijn van Zomeren
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.v14i4.2315

Abstract:
The Polish Round Table offers a rare historical example where negotiations between representatives of opposing political sides achieved major political transformation in a peaceful way. Such an outcome should undoubtedly be labeled a success. However, in our commentary, taking the example of the Polish Round Table, we take a critical look at the interpretation of success of social movements by social scientists. In line with the ethos of social sciences, social scientists value (harmoniously achieved) progressive types of change, such as the change that followed the negotiations of the Polish Round Table. Indeed, when it comes to the Round Table, our definition of success may be blurred by the political evaluation of the changes of 1989 from a liberal perspective. The target articles point out the importance of specific structural conditions (both internal and international) and psychological processes (perceptions of power, efficacy and moral commitment) that led to the successful outcome. We therefore argue that it is pivotal to delineate the conditions of success, if we want to apply them to other contexts without bias. Neither hindsight, nor liberal bias are problematic per se, but they can evoke a form of wishful thinking that, as scientists, we may want to treat with some skepticism.
Nurit Shnabel
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.v14i4.2321

Abstract:
This commentary analyzes the democratization process triggered by the Polish Round Table Talks using the framework of the Needs-Based Model of Reconciliation, which conceptualizes reconciliation as a social exchange transaction in which perpetrators gain moral-social acceptance, whereas victims gain power. I argue that the talks allowed the restoration of communists’ moral-social identity, and Solidarity’s power and voice. I further argue that to complete such a transaction, both parties must believe that they would gain more through compromise than through violence. They must also overcome the “magnitude gap”; namely the systematic discrepancy between victims’ vs. perpetrators’ estimation of the severity or immorality of the same transgressions or social arrangements. Finally, as is the case for any exchange transaction, people may question its benefits. When doing so, however, they might take the non-violent nature of the transition to democracy for granted – due to “the hindsight bias.” Taking into account that the alternatives were probably worse may contribute to undermining conspiracy theories about “dirty dealings” between the parties, and commemorating the legacy of the Round Table Talks as an inspiring moment in history.
Sabina Čehajić-Clancy
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.v14i4.2325

Abstract:
When we think of human history, it is easy to conclude that violent conflicts are unavoidable. Furthermore, in remembering history, we usually recall violent times and are less likely to remember peaceful societal change. Given the way we remember our history, it is easy to lose sight of the existence of peaceful conflict resolutions or other positive societal changes. The Polish Round Table Talks (RT) that took place in 1989 at times of growing political and economic instabilities serve as an example of peaceful and effective negotiation between two opposing and, one might argue, exclusive ideologies. These talks resulted in an agreement between the Communist government of Poland and the opposition movement Solidarity and paved the road towards the present, democratic and independent Polish state. In this commentary I am going to extrapolate some important socio-psychological mechanisms in the light of contributions made by Janusz Reykowski and Janusz Grzelak - both social psychologists. More specifically, I would like to discuss a specific perception of the other negotiating partner that was activated, formed and maintained during the negotiation, which facilitated the successful outcome. I will argue that the perception of shared morality (perceptions of similarity between the in-group and the out-group on the dimension of morality) was an important socio-psychological mechanism that enabled a stream of other positive psychological processes such as development of trust, as well as cooperative and common-oriented goal tendencies.
Janusz Grzelak
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.v14i4.2307

Abstract:
Poland in 1988 was on the edge of economic, social and political collapse. The two antagonistic entities – the communist party and the government on one side and the Solidarity movement on the other - were each too weak to overcome the crisis by itself. Undertaking negotiations appeared to be the last chance to solve the crisis peacefully. There was a number of external circumstances and opportunities that supported undertaking the Talks, including Michail Gorbachev's perestroika in the East, Ronald Reagan's anti-communist policies in the West, the support of the Catholic Church and the support of the vast majority of Polish society. The whole Round Table story can be viewed as a transformation from a zero-sum game to a cooperative non zero-sum game with the solution close to a Pareto optimal solution. The processes included, among others: concentration on problems rather than people; building a mutual trust; creating the idea of the common good; and partitioning negotiations into many teams thereby creating a decision-making structure that was both hierarchical and flexible. After thirty years, both democracy and the rule of law are at stake again in Poland. Unfortunately, however, it does not seem that today’s socio-political situation is capable of fostering negotiation methods for solving the nation’s problems.
Stephen Reicher
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.v14i4.2631

Abstract:
In this introductory piece to the special issue, I seek to establish the importance of the topic under discussion: that is, the psychology of the 1989 Polish Round Table Talks. I start by underlining the unique opportunity to gain insight into this topic given that two of the main protagonists, Janusz Reykowski on the Government side and Janusz Grzelak on the Solidarity side, are social psychologists. Next, I argue for both the world-historical significance of the Round Table Talks and for the necessity of a psychological dimension to the analysis of what happened. I then address what Psychology provides for an understanding of the Round Table process and what the Round Table process contributes to an understanding of Psychology. Specifically, this turns on the need for a more complex and historical conceptualisation of intergroup relations in which the very nature of the groups in relation may be transformed. I conclude by pointing to further research opportunities on this key question of the configuration and reconfiguration of social groups.
Janusz Reykowski
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.v14i4.2311

Abstract:
The Round Table (RT) Talks in Poland in February-April 1989 initiated rapid transition from an authoritarian political system and a centralized, state-controlled economy to democratic capitalism. They also triggered a cascade of changes across the whole of Eastern Europe (the former Soviet block). In this paper I analyze the psychological factors that contributed to success of the talks. During the RT talks, the representatives of the ruling party in Poland („communists”) negotiated with the representatives of „Solidarity” (“democratic opposition”) - the very broad socio-political movement representing Polish aspirations to democracy and sovereignty, separate from the Soviet Union. The paper describes the organization of the negotiations (a complex structure with about 700 participants) and the sources of an initial deep antagonism between the two sides. It addresses the main psychological factors that made it possible for this antagonism to be overcome and for the development of an agreed plan to democratize the Polish political system. This includes an analysis of: the general approach to negotiations; the initial definitions of the negotiating situation and the ways in which these definitions changed; the psychological characteristics of the negotiating situation which fostered cooperative attitudes amongst the negotiations, including in particular the role of group forces. The paper also discusses more generally the relationship between psychological factors and objective conditions in achieving (or impeding) positive outcomes to negotiations around entrenched, seemingly untractable, political conflicts.
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