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Results in Journal Social Psychological Bulletin: 85

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Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 13; doi:10.5964/spb.v13i2.26138

Abstract:
Doliński (2018, this issue) deplores the near absence of “real behavior” in social and personality studies and attributes to that omission several problems in our research. We concur in the depiction of problems but take issue with the diagnosis. In a sense, most we ever study is behavior (the definition of the concept is quite broad). The problems are better understood as those of validity, generalizability and consequentiality in contemporary social/personality research and they stem from the “double whammy” of (occasionally unwarranted) IRB restrictions on social/personality research and unrealistic perfectionism that constrain our efforts.
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 13; doi:10.5964/spb.v13i2.26076

Abstract:
Dolinski (2018, this issue) argues that Social Psychology may hardly be considered a science of behaviour anymore, given the rarity of published studies in which the dependent measures involve behaviours other than the completion of surveys, pressing of keys on a computer keyboard, or clicking a mouse. In the present, we comment on this void of empirical studies in which “real” human behaviours are examined to put forward the following points: i) Key-pressing can be a human behaviour as meaningful as any other more complex behaviour (i.e., behavioural complexity is not a good criterion for meaningfulness), ii) Lessons learned from past research in social psychology have shown us that studying “real” behaviour introduces a number of well-known complications, iii) Improvement in the comprehension of human behaviour depends more on a strong theoretical lens constrained by results obtained via rigorous experimentation than on the complexity of people’s observed actions.
Klaus Fiedler
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 13; doi:10.5964/spb.v13i2.26079

Abstract:
In this comment to Doliński’s (2018, this issue) challenging paper, I express my agreement with his basic ideas and with his concerns about the alienation of social psychology. However, I also present some critical thoughts that amount to a slightly different diagnosis of the present situation. Rather than concluding that our discipline has ceased to study real behaviors, I provide positive counter-examples of substantial behavioral science and argue that the major problem is not to distinguish between measures of “real” and “non-real” behaviors. The problem core, rather, lies in the widespread tendency to mistake statistical and technical indices (latencies, model parameters, fMRI indices, etc.) for measures of meaningful behavior. When technical means become ends in themselves, Doliński’s metaphor applies that “the tail wags the dog”.
Karl Halvor Teigen
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 13; doi:10.5964/spb.v13i2.26110

Abstract:
In the target article, Doliński (2018, this issue) showed that empirical studies of “real” behaviour are an almost extinct species of research, judged from articles published in the most recent volume of JPSP (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology). This finding continues a trend identified by Baumeister and colleagues ten years ago. The reliance on self-reports and rating scales can hardly be explained as an aftermath of the cognitive revolution in psychology, or a preoccupation with measurements and advanced statistical analyses, as Doliński suggests, but is more compatible with the ease of collecting questionnaire data, combined with the pressure to publish large multi-study papers and to obtain approval from ethical review boards. This development is further strengthened by the accessibility of online participant pools. An informal count showed that students participating for course credit were in 2006 involved more than 90% of empirical JPSP studies, as against 22.5% in 2017. In contrast, Amazon Mechanical Turk workers, non-existent in 2006, participated in 55.3% of the empirical studies published in the most recent volume. Parallel to this development the number of participants per study and the number of studies per article have vastly increased.
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 13; doi:10.5964/spb.v13i2.27578

Abstract:
Interest in issues surrounding work–life balance has increased in recent years. Some studies stress the consequences of work–life balance, while others put emphasis on the ways in which people manage to keep the balance. We decided to combine both points of view. The presented study focuses on personal strategies for combining family and work roles and their consequences for maintaining the work–family balance and satisfaction with work and quality of life. There were 289 participants in the study. The instruments used were Work–Family Linkage Questionnaire, Work–Family Fit Questionnaire, Satisfaction of Life Scale and Job Satisfaction Scale. The procedure of adapting the Work–Family Linkage Questionnaire (WFLQ) into Polish was conducted to enable the use of the tool in Poland for the first time. Good psychometric properties of WFLQ were confirmed. The results showed that the individual strategy for combining family and work roles determines the work–home balance, as well as satisfaction with life and career. For example, the amount of negative spillover from home and from work was correlated positively with role conflict and negatively with satisfaction with life, while the amount of positive spillover correlated positively with facilitation and experienced satisfaction with life.
Bertram Gawronski, Galen V. Bodenhausen
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 13; doi:10.5964/spb.v13i3.28024

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Yoav Bar-Anan, Tal Moran
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 13; doi:10.5964/spb.v13i3.28761

Abstract:
Simple firstis our name for a set of hypotheses that we have found useful in our research on evaluative learning. The hypotheses are: (1) It is easier to encode and retrieve information that two concepts are linked than information about how they are linked; (2) It is easier to store and retrieve information than to make an inference based on that information; (3) When people encounter an object and memory activates valence that is mentally linked to that object, they consider the activation valid evidence that the activated valence characterizes the object. We demonstrate how these hypotheses generate useful assumptions about Evaluative Conditioning, and open paths for further research on evaluative learning and evaluation.
Arie W. Kruglanski
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 13; doi:10.32872/spb.v13i4.27449

Abstract:
The phenomenon of violent radicalism/extremism is portrayed as a consequence of a mechanism that fosters extremism in general. This is the process of motivational imbalance or “prepossession”, a state wherein a given need becomes dominant to the point of inhibiting other needs. In the case of violent extremism, the dominant need is the quest for significance, the desire to matter and have self and others’ respect. Whereas the “hydraulic” domination-inhibition process that underlies extremism can be observed across levels of phylogeny, the motivational imbalance in those cases is typically brief in duration. In the case of humans, however, participation in violent extremism can be long lasting, due to its facilitation by a compelling narrative” that ties violence to the attainment of significance, and is embraced by a “network” of trusted others (individuals’ friends and relatives) who validate the narrative and bestow significance on individuals who implement its dictates.
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 13; doi:10.32872/spb.v13i4.25612

Abstract:
Three studies were carried out to examine how place attachment and collective action tendency are related and what role self-expansion and social interactions play in this relationship. In the first study (N = 156) we found that a more active form of attachment – place discovered – is a significant predictor of tendency to engage in collective action in favor of one’s neighborhood. In the second study (N = 197), we focused on frequency of social interactions in one’s neighborhood as the antecedent of place attachment and collective action tendencies. We found that inhabitants who declared more frequent social interactions in one’s neighborhood, expressed stronger place discovered, and this attachment is related to collective action tendencies. In the third study (N = 153), we tested if self-expansion mediates this relationship. We found that stronger place discovered was related to the feeling of self-expansion that resulted from contact with neighbors. Moreover, self-expansion was related to the tendency to engage in collective action.
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 13; doi:10.32872/spb.v13i4.25660

Abstract:
Studies of social influence in large groups show that leaders are crucial in infecting followers with new ideas and that it requires time. This reflects social impact models based on Nowak, Szamrej, and Latané’s dynamic theory (1990), which are still being presented, modified and developed in the literature. However, recent mass events, e.g., the Arab Spring, 15-M Movement, protests in the Gezi Park in Turkey, Polish democratic movements (KOD, AkcjaDemokracja), do not seem to fit the aforementioned models: changes happened rapidly and without the presence of opinion leaders. In a series of simulation studies, we propose that global communication (Internet, mobiles, social media) is responsible for the difference between the theoretical model and recent mass events. Our results indicate that global communication dramatically decreases the role of leaders, increases the speed of spreading new ideas in the population, increases the influence of followers on the speed of social transformation, and that leaders who use the Internet can change their attitudes as quickly and as often as followers do.
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