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Results in Journal Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials: 79

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Mingdong Xu, Wenqiang Li, Shun Liu, Tao Zhang, Simin Yin, Sen Lai
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 5, pp 19-29; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v5i1.1409

Abstract:
In order to explore the influence of the ferroelectric surface on the structure and properties of semiconductor oxides, the growth of CdS nanocrystals was regulated and controlled by taking single-crystal perovskite PbTiO3 nanosheets as the substrate through a simple hydrothermal method. Through composition design, a series of PbTiO3-CdS nanocomposite materials with different loading concentrations were prepared, and their microstructure and photocatalytic properties were systematically analyzed. Studies show that in the prepared product, CdS nanoparticles selectively grow on the surfaces of PbTiO3 nanosheets, and their morphology is affected by the exposed surfaces of PbTiO3 nanosheets. There is a clear interface between the PbTiO3 substrate and CdS nanoparticles. The concentration of the initial reactant and the time of hydrothermal reaction also significantly affect the crystal morphology of CdS. Photocatalysis studies have shown that the prepared PbTiO3-CdS nanocomposite material has a significant degradation effect on 10 mg/L of Rhodamine B aqueous solution. The degradation efficiency rises with the increase of CdS loading concentration. When degrading 10 mg/L Rhodamine B aqueous solution, the PbTiO3-CdS sample with a mass fraction of 3% can reach a degradation rate of 72% within 120 min.
Huihui Liu, Baichuan Zhao, Congyun Zhang
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 5, pp 30-38; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v5i1.1412

Abstract:
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum has the characteristics of fast-detection, high-sensitivity and low-requirements for sample pretreatment. It plays a more and more important role in the detection of organic pollutants. In this study, MIL-101 and Au nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method and aqueous solution reduction method respectively, and MIL-101/Au composite nanoparticles were prepared by electrostatic interaction. The SERS properties of the composite substrate were optimized by adjusting the size of Au nanoparticles and the surface distribution density of MIL-101 nanoparticles. The detection limit of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) for the composite substrate with the optimal ratio was investigated, which was as low as 10–11 M. It is proved that MIL-101/Au composite nanoparticles have high sensitivity to probe molecules. When they are applied to the detection of persistent organic pollutants, the detection limit for fluoranthene can reach 10–9 M and for 3,3’,4,4’-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77) can reach 10–5 M.
Juan Lu, Yini Mao, Jun Yang
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 5, pp 10-18; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v5i1.1408

Abstract:
The Cu2–xSe nanoparticles were synthesized by high temperature pyrolysis, modified with aminated polyethylene glycol in aqueous solution and loaded with compound 2,2′–azobis[2–(2–imidazolin–2–yl)propane] dihydrochloride (AIPH). The obtained nanomaterials can induce photothermal effect and use heat to promote the generation of toxic AIPH radicals under the irradiation of near-infrared laser (808 nm), which can effectively kill cancer cells. A series of in vitro experiments can preliminarily prove that Cu2–xSe–AIPH nanomaterials have strong photothermal conversion ability, good biocompatibility and anticancer properties.
Yayun Ma, Mei Liu, Jiao Li, Xuanyi Li, Zongqi Yang
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 5, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v5i1.1407

Abstract:
In this paper, spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), rod-shape AuNPs and triangular AuNPs were synthesized using CTAB as the coating reagent, and their bactericidal properties against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were studied. By the plate count method and turbidity method, the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) and the minimum bacteriostasis concentrations (MIC) to the two kinds of bacteria were determined. The MIC of rod-shape AuNPs, triangular AuNPs and spherical AuNPs to E. coli were 0.65 μg/mL, 3.71 μg/mL, 21.21 μg/mL, and MBC were 1.30 μg/mL, 11.09 μg/mL, 21.21 μg/mL, respectively. The MIC to S. aureus were 0.26 μg/mL, 0.56 μg/mL, 2.65 μg/mL, while MBC were 0.52 μg/mL, 1.11 μg/mL, 2.65 μg/mL, respectively. The results showed that the bactericidal effect of rod-shape AuNPs on E. coli and S. aureus was higher than that of the other two forms, and the bactericidal effect of three different forms of AuNPs on S. aureus was better than that on E. coli.
S Vignesh Kumar, V Kavimani
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i2.1293

Abstract:
There are numerous studies reported on the usage of the sapindus emarginatus (SE) fruit in cancer and other treatments in the past few years. In this study, crude SE fruit extract was prepared and it was further used to synthesis gold nanoparticles (Au Nps). The synthesized Au Nps were left embedded in the SE fruit extract. The Au Nps embedded in the SE fruit extract (SE-Au Nps) were characterized using UV-Visiable Spectroscopy, Centrifugal Particle Size analyzer (CPS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). MTT assay was carried out for both SE fruit extract and SE-Au Nps on MCF7 breast cancer cell line and thus compared. The UV-Visible Absorbance for the SE-Au Nps was obtained at 543 nm. The centrifugal particle size analysis of the Au Nps embedded in SE fruit extract showed the size of the nanoparticles to be widely varying with higher fraction of particles between the size ranges of 15 to 20 nm. The morphology of the Au Nps embedded in SE fruit extract was observed using SEM. The presence of Au Nps in SE fruit extract was confirmed using FTIR. The results of the MTT assay on MCF7 breast cancer cell line proved that the % cell viability was less for SE-Au Nps than that of the SE fruit extract alone. Thus, the antiproliferative activity of the SE fruit extract was significantly enhanced by embedding it with Au Nps and it can be effectively used in therapeutic applications after further studies.
Mengxi Zhao, Zhongpei Lu, Lin Chen, Xuefan Jiang, Fan Yin, Gang Yang
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i2.1331

Abstract:
In this paper, a series of Li3V2(PO4)3/C composite nanofibers is prepared by a facile and environmentally friendly electrospinning method and calcined under different temperatures. The LVP nanofiber calcined under 900 ℃ exhibits the best electrochemical performance. The bicontinuous morphologies of LVP/CNF are the fibers shrunk and the LVP crystals simultaneously grown. At the range of 3.0–4.3 V, LVP/CNF obtained under 900 ℃ delivers the initial capacity of 135 mAh/g, close to the theoretical capacity of LVP. Even at high current density, the sample of LVP/CNF still presents good electrochemical performance.
Fangxin Tan, Shan Cong, Qinghua Yi, Zhida Han, Yushen Liu
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i2.1324

Abstract:
The electron/hole transport layer can promote charge transfer and improve device performance, which is used in perovskite solar cells. The nanoarray structure transport layers can not only further promote carrier transport but also reduce recombination. It also has a great potential in enhancing perovskite light absorption, improving device stability and inhibiting the crack nucleation of different structure layers in perovskite solar cells. This paper reviewed the research progress of perovskite solar cells with different nanoarray structure transport layers. The challenges and development directions of perovskite solar cells based on nanoarray structure transport layers are also summarized and prospected.
Duo Li, Nan Xu
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i2.1333

Abstract:
Due to its physicochemical properties, nanoparticles titanium dioxide (nTiO2) is being put into mass production and widespread applications, which inevitably results in their increasing exposure to the water body. After it entering the water body, the chemical properties of nTiO2 can be influenced by ion compositions, ion strength and pH, which affects their ecological risk. Excess of ammonium (NH4+) fertilizer has contaminated soil and water environments. In this paper, the Zeta potentials and hydrodynamic radius of nTiO2 were studied in NH4+ solution compared to those in Na+ solution. In addition, the sedimentation rate of nTiO2 was also investigated. The experiment results show that high pH inhibits the sedimentation of nTiO2. Moreover, NH4+ increases the stability of nTiO2 more than Na+ at the same IS, which was attributed the more negative Zeta potentials and the smaller hydraulic radius. Our results provide a theoretical basis for evaluating the ecological risk of nTiO2 in aqueous solution containing NH4+.
Yongjun Wu
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i2.1337

Abstract:
Branched micro/nano Se was prepared by the redaction of L-Cys•HCl and H2SeO3 in hydrothermal method, as β-CD was used as soft template. The structures of products were characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD. Some important factors influencing the morphology of products were studied and discussed, including the amounts of soft template, the reaction temperature and the reaction time. The results showed that external causes had a potent effect on the morphology of micro/nano Se. The uniform branched micro/nano Se prepared under the optimal reaction condition was rhombohedral trigonal selenium t-Se0, but its crystallinity degree was low.
Jiali Song, Xue Zhang, Xuefeng Wang, Jinfu Feng, Yushen Liu
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i2.1336

Abstract:
Based on the density-functional theory (DFT) combined with nonequilibrium Green’s function (NGF), this paper investigates the effects of either single aluminum (Al) or single phosphorus (P) atom substitutions at different edge positions of zigzag-edged silicene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) in the ferromagnetic state on the spin-dependent transport properties and spin thermoelectric effects. It has been found that the spin polarization at the Fermi level can reach 100% or –100% in the doped ZSiNRs. Meanwhile, the spin-up Seebeck effect (for -100% case) and spin-down Seebeck effect (for 100% case) are also enhanced. Moreover, the spin Seebeck coefficient is much larger than the corresponding charge Seebeck coefficient at a special doping position and electron energy. Therefore, the study shows that the Al or P doped ZSiNRs can be used to prepare the ideal thermospin devices.
S Mohanapriya, V Raj
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i2.1294

Abstract:
Nanoporous nickel has been prepared by electrodeposition using non-ionic surfactant based liquid crystalline template under optimized processing conditions. Physicochemical properties of nanoporous nickel are systematically characterized through XRD, SEM and AFM analyses. Comparison of electrocatalytic activity of nanoporous nickel with smooth nickel was interrogated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses. Distinctly enhanced electrocatalytic activity with improved surface poisoning resistance related to nanoporous nickel electrode towards methanol oxidation stems from unique nanoporous morphology. This nanoporous morphology with high surface to volume ratio is highly beneficial to promote active catalytic centers to offer readily accessible Pt catalytic sites for MOR, through facilitating mass and electron transports.
Chengbao Liu, Minjia Li, Xiaojie Liu, Zhigang Chen
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i2.1334

Abstract:
We reviewed the research on super-hydrophobic materials. Firstly, we introduced the basic principles of super-hydrophobic materials, including the Young equation, Wenzel model, and Cassie model. Then, we summarized the main preparation methods and research results of super-hydrophobic materials, such as the template method, soft etching method, electrospinning method, and sol-gel method. Among them, the electrospinning method that has developed in recent years is a new technology for preparing micro/nanofibers. Finally, the applications of super-hydrophobic materials in the field of coatings, fabric and filter material, anti-fogging, and antibacterial were introduced, and the problems existing in the preparation of super-hydrophobic materials were pointed out, such as unavailable industrialized production, high cost, and poor durability of the materials. Therefore, it is necessary to make a further study on the application of the materials in the selection, preparation, and post-treatment.
Yongjun Liu, Qiuyu Wu, Mingxin Zhang, Yi Wang
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i2.1335

Abstract:
An image adaptive noise reduction enhancement algorithm based on NSCT is proposed to perform image restoration preprocessing on the defocused image obtained under the microscope. Defocused images acquired under micro-nano scale optical microscopy, usually with inconspicuous details, edges and contours, affect the accuracy of subsequent observation tasks. Due to its multi-scale and multi-directionality, the NSCT transform has superior transform functions and can obtain more textures and edges of images. Combined with the characteristics of micro-nanoscale optical defocus images, the NSCT inverse transform is performed on all sub-bands to reconstruct the image. Finally, the experimental results of the standard 500nm scale grid, conductive probe and triangular probe show that the proposed algorithm has a better image enhancement effect and significantly improves the quality of out-of-focus images.
Aiming Zhao, Yanmao Dong, Qiuyang Ni, Zhiyu Bao
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i2.1332

Abstract:
Magnesium hydroxide/melamine phosphate borate (nano MH/MPB), a novel nano-composition intumescent flame retardant, was synthesized with the in-situ reaction method from MgCl2·6H2O sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and melamine phosphate borate (MPB) in the absence of H2O. The structure of the product was confirmed by EDAX IR and XRD. The effects of reaction temperature and time on the dimension of magnesium hydroxide were observed. The effects of mass ratio of magnesium hydroxide to MPB on the flame retardancy of nano-MH/MPB/EP were examined with the limiting oxygen test. The results show that the optimal condition of synthesis of MH/MPB is mMH/mMPB = 0.25, reacting under 75 ℃ for 30 minutes. Finally, the mechanism for flame retardancy of nano-MH/MPB/EP was pilot studied by means of IR of char layer and TG of MH/MPB.
Yujun Fang, Xiaofang Su, Wei Wang, Wei Wu
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.1330

Abstract:
The Olefin aromatization is an important method for the upgrade of catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline and production of fuel oil with high octane number. The nano-ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized via a seed-induced method, a series of modified nano-ZSM-5 zeolite samples with different Ga deposition amount were prepared by Ga liquid deposition method. The XRD, N2 physical adsorption, SEM, TEM, XPS, H2-TPR and Py-IR measurements were used to characterize the morphology, textural properties and acidity of the modified ZSM-5 zeolites. The catalytic performance of the Hexene-1 aromatization was evaluated on a fixed-bed microreactor. The effects of Ga modification on the physicochemical and catalytic performance of nano-ZSM-5 zeolites were investigated. The Ga species in the modified nano-ZSM-5 zeolites mainly exist as the form of Ga2O3 and GaO+, which provide strong Lewis acid sites. The aromatics selectivity over Ga modified nano-ZSM-5 zeolite in the Hexene-1 aromatization was significantly increased, which could be attributed to the improvement of the dehydrogenation activity. The selectivity for aromatics over the Ga4.2/NZ5 catalyst with suitable Ga deposition amount reached 55.4%.
Nali Lu, Yao Li, Lei Zhang, Yong Fang, Bin Qian, Zhida Han, Xuefan Jiang
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.1325

Abstract:
In recent years, nanoporous alloys have presented the advantages of a large specific surface area, low density, and simple operation, and they have been widely used in the fields of catalysis, magnetism, and medicine. Nanoporous Pt-Si alloy was prepared by melt-spun and chemical dealloying, and was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. Pt-Si alloys possess a three-dimensional bicontinuous structure and an average size of 5 nanometers. Compared with commercial Pt/C catalysts, nanoporous Pt-Si alloys exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability in ethanol-catalyzed oxidation reactions. It is taken into consideration to be a promising catalyst in direct ethanol fuel cells.
Gang Feng, Nan Xu, Zuling Li, Yuhe Cao, Keqing Sun
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.1328

Abstract:
We studied Zeta potentials of nanoparticles titanium dioxides (nTiO2) in different concentration of NaNO3 and phosphate (P) solutions. In addition, the effect of flow rate on the transport of nTiO2 in P was investigated at pH=6.5. Experimental results show that the Zeta potential of nTiO2 is compressed with the increasing ion concentration (IC) of NaNO3 at pH=6.5. The negative charge increases with the augment of P. Therefore, the high P and low NaNO3 induce the stabilization of nTiO2 aggregates. The transport experiments suggest that the rapid flow rate is favorable for the transportability of nTiO2 and soluble phosphate. The breakthrough transport curves (BTCs) of nTiO2 in sand columns can be fitted well with two-site kinetic attachment model. The modeling results suggest that the values of first-order attachment rate coefficients (k2) and detachment rate coefficients (k2d) on site 2 and first-order attachment rate coefficients (k1) on site 1 are responsible to the attaching efficiency of nTiO2 on sands and their transportability.
S Vignesh Kumar, V Kavimani
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4, pp 51-57; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.1293

Abstract:
There are numerous studies reported on the usage of the sapindus emarginatus (SE) fruit in cancer and other treatments in the past few years. In this study, crude SE fruit extract was prepared and it was further used to synthesis gold nanoparticles (Au Nps). The synthesized Au Nps were left embedded in the SE fruit extract. The Au Nps embedded in the SE fruit extract (SE-Au Nps) were characterized using UV-Visiable Spectroscopy, Centrifugal Particle Size analyzer (CPS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). MTT assay was carried out for both SE fruit extract and SE-Au Nps on MCF7 breast cancer cell line and thus compared. The UV-Visible Absorbance for the SE-Au Nps was obtained at 543 nm. The centrifugal particle size analysis of the Au Nps embedded in SE fruit extract showed the size of the nanoparticles to be widely varying with higher fraction of particles between the size ranges of 15 to 20 nm. The morphology of the Au Nps embedded in SE fruit extract was observed using SEM. The presence of Au Nps in SE fruit extract was confirmed using FTIR. The results of the MTT assay on MCF7 breast cancer cell line proved that the % cell viability was less for SE-Au Nps than that of the SE fruit extract alone. Thus, the antiproliferative activity of the SE fruit extract was significantly enhanced by embedding it with Au Nps and it can be effectively used in therapeutic applications after further studies.
S Mohanapriya, V Raj
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4, pp 58-68; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.1294

Abstract:
Nanoporous nickel has been prepared by electrodeposition using non-ionic surfactant based liquid crystalline template under optimized processing conditions. Physicochemical properties of nanoporous nickel are systematically characterized through XRD, SEM and AFM analyses. Comparison of electrocatalytic activity of nanoporous nickel with smooth nickel was interrogated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses. Distinctly enhanced electrocatalytic activity with improved surface poisoning resistance related to nanoporous nickel electrode towards methanol oxidation stems from unique nanoporous morphology. This nanoporous morphology with high surface to volume ratio is highly beneficial to promote active catalytic centers to offer readily accessible Pt catalytic sites for MOR, through facilitating mass and electron transports.
Sailu Xu, Yuxin Du, Meiqi Hui, Zichen Wang, Junfeng Zhao, Gang Yang
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.1327

Abstract:
The porous carbon/Ni nanoparticle composite was prepared by a freeze-drying method using NaCl as the template. It was applied in the effect of the concentration, adsorption time, and temperature of adsorption on the adsorption behavior. The kinetic model and the adsorption isothermic fitting results show that the adsorption behavior fits with the pseudo-secondary dynamics and the Langmuir isothermal model, indicating that the adsorption process is monolayer adsorption. Thermodynamic results indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous physicochemical adsorption. The fitting showed that the porous carbon/Ni nanoparticle composites reach 217.17 mg·g-1, at 313 K indicates good adsorption for Congo red.
Yushen Liu, Jinfu Feng, Xuefeng Wang
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.1323

Abstract:
Based on first-principles methods, the authors of this paper investigate spin thermoelectric effects of one-dimensional spin-based devices consisting of zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs), carbon chains and graphene nanoflake. It is found that the spin-down transmission function is suppressed to zero, while the spin-up transmission function is about 0.25. Therefore, an ideal half-metallic property is achieved. In addition, the phonon thermal conductance is obviously smaller than the electronic thermal conductance. Meantime, the spin Seebeck effects are obviously enhanced at the low-temperature regime (about 80K), resulting in the fact that spin thermoelectric figure of merit can reach about 40. Moreover, the spin thermoelectric figure of merit is always larger than the corresponding charge thermoelectric figure of merit. Therefore, the study shows that they can be used to prepare the ideal thermospin devices.
Yan Lv, Feng Chen, Yuanzheng Tang, Zhigang Chen
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.1329

Abstract:
The electrospinning precursor solution was prepared by dissolving polyvinyl pyrrolidone as template, tetrabutyl titanate as titanium source, and acetic acid as inhibitor. The TiO2 nanofilms were prepared by precursor solution electrospinning and subsequent calcination. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize and analyze the samples. The influence of technological parameters on spinning fiber morphology was also studied. The results indicate that the TiO2 nanofibers morphology is good when the parameters are as follows: voltage 1.4×104 V,spinning distance 0.2 m,translational velocity 2.5×10-3 m·s-1, flow rate 3×10-4 m·s-1, and needle diameter 3×10-4 m. The diameter of the fibers is about 150 nm. With the 1×10-4 mol·L-1 methylene blue solution used as simulated degradation target, the degradation rate is 95.8% after 180 minutes.
Yuanyuan Zhang, Chi Huang, Li Sun, Xueying Wang
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.1326

Abstract:
Ce4+-doped nanometer ZnO powder was synthesized by so-l gel method. The microstructures and properties of the samples were characterized through XRD, UV-Vis and FTIR. The results indicated that the Ce4+ was successfully incorporated into ZnO, and the diameter of the nanometer was about 10.7nm. It induced the redshifting in the UV-Vis spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated using methylene blue (MB) as the model reaction under irradiation with ultraviolet light. The results showed that the doping of Ce4+ could increase the photocatalytic activities of ZnO nanopowders and that the best molar ratio of Ce4+ was n(Ce)/n(Zn) = 0.05, that the surfactant was sodium dodecyl sulfate, and that the nanometer ZnO was calcinated at 550 ℃ for 3 hours. Meanwhile, it inspected the effect of photocatalytic efficiency through the pH of MB, the amount of catalyst, and illumination time. The experimental results revealed that the initial mass concentration of MB was 10 mg/L, that the pH value was 7-8, that the dosage of Ce4+/ZnO photo-catalyst was 5 g/L, that the UV-irradiation time was 2 h, and that the removal rate of MB reached above 85%. Under the optimized conditions, the degradation rate of real dye wastewater was up to 87.67% and the removal efficiency of COD was 63.5%.
Sule Aytas, Sabriye Yusan, Senol Sert, Cem Gok
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4, pp 26-39; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.1291

Abstract:
Magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposites (M-GO) were successfully synthesized by partial reduction co-precipitation method and used for removal of Sr(II) and Cs(I) ions from aqueous solutions. The structures and properties of the M-GO was investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and N2-BET measurements. It is found that M-GO has 2.103 mg/g and 142.070 mg/g adsorption capacities for Sr(II) and Cs(I) ions, respectively. The adsorption isotherm matches well with the Freundlich for Sr(II) and Dubinin–Radushkevich model for Cs(I) and kinetic analysis suggests that the adsorption process is pseudo-second-ordered.
Jian-Jun Wang, Zhong-Hui Shen, Wen-Ying Zhou, Yang Shen, Ce-Wen Nan, Qing Wang, Long-Qing Chen
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4, pp 40-50; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.1292

Abstract:
Heat removal has become an increasingly crucial issue for microelectronic chips due to increasingly high speed and high performance. One solution is to increase the thermal conductivity of the corresponding dielectrics. However, traditional approach to adding solid heat conductive nanoparticles to polymer dielectrics led to a significant weight increase. Here we propose a dielectric polymer filled with heat conductive hollow nanoparticles to mitigate the weight gain. Our mesoscale simulation of heat conduction through this dielectric polymer composite microstructure using the phase-field spectral iterative perturbation method demonstrates the simultaneous achievement of enhanced effective thermal conductivity and the low density. It is shown that additional heat conductivity enhancement can be achieved by wrapping the hollow nanoparticles with graphene layers. The underlying mesoscale mechanism of such a microstructure design and the quantitative effect of interfacial thermal resistance will be discussed. This work is expected to stimulate future efforts to develop light-weight thermal conductive polymer nanocomposites.
Deepa Sharma, Neena Jaggi
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4, pp 10-25; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.996

Abstract:
First principles simulation studies using the density functional theory have been performed on (9, 0) Zigzag Singlewalled Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) to investigate its electronic, optical and thermodynamic properties using CASTEP (Cambridge Sequential Total Energy Package) and DFTB (Density Functional based Tight Binding) modules of the Material Studio Software version 7.0. Various functionals and sub-functionals available in the CASTEP Module (using Pulay Density Mixing treatment of electrons) and various eigen-solvers and smearing schemes available in the DFTB module (using smart algorithm) have been tried out to chalk out the electronic structure. The analytically deduced values of the band gap obtained were compared with the experimentally determined value reported in the literature. By comparison, combination of Anderson smearing scheme and standard diaogonalizer produced best results in DFTB module while in the CASTEP module, GGA (General Gradient approximation) functional with RPBE (Revised-perdew-Burke-Ernzerh) as Sub-functional was found to be the most consistent. These optimized parameters were then used to determine various electronic, optical and thermodynamic properties of (9, 0) Singlewalled Nanotube. (9, 0) Singlewalled Nanotube, which is extensively being used for sensing NH3, CH4 & NO2, has been picked up in particular as it is reported to exhibit a finite energy band gap in contrast to its expected metallic nature. The study is of utmost significance as it not only probes and validates the simulation route for predicting suitable properties of nanomaterials but also throws light on the comparative efficacy of the different approximation and rationalization quantum mechanical techniques used in simulation studies.
Hari Prasad Reddy Kannapu, Young-Woong Suh, Veeralakshmi Vaddeboina, Anand Narani, David Raju Burri, Seetha Rama Rao Kamaraju
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 4, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v4i1.523

Abstract:
The article aims at developing an efficient and stable catalysts for simultaneous hydrogenation of o-chloronitrobenzene to o-chloroaniline and 1,4-butanediol dehydrogenation to γ-butyrolactone. A series of CoO-Cu-MgO catalysts, composed of 10 wt% of copper, various amount of cobalt loadings (1, 5 and 10 wt%) and remaining of MgO were developed by co-precipitation followed by thermal treatment. o-Chloroaniline and γ-butyrolactone were the main products with high yield of 85% and 90%, respectively. The advantage of the coupling process is that the hydrogenation reaction was conducted without external hydrogen, demonstrating minimize the hydrogen consumption known as hydrogen economy route. From N2O characterization results, the high activity of 5CoO-10Cu-MgO was found that it has high amount of Cu species (Cu0/Cu+1) which govern the stable activity and selectivity on time on stream study in presence of cobalt in Cu-MgO.
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i3.523

Abstract:
Aiming at developing an efficient catalysts for simultanoius hydrogenation of o-chloronitrobenzene to o-chloroaniline and 1,4-butanediol dehydrogenation to γ-butyrolactone. A series of CoO-Cu-MgO catalysts, composed of 10 wt% of copper, various amount of cobalt loadings (1, 5 and 10 wt%) and remaining of MgO were developed by co-precipitation followed by thermal treatment. o-Chloroaniline and γ-butyrolactone were the main products with high yield of 85% and 90%, respectively. The advantage of the coupling process is that the hydrogenation reaction was conducted without external hydrogen, indicating minimise the hydrogen consumption which is also known as hydrogen economy route. From N2O characterization results, the high activtiy of 5CoO-10Cu-MgO was found to have high amount of Cu species (Cu0/Cu+1) species and govern the stable activity and selectivity on time on stream study in presence of cobalt in Cu-MgO.
Nikolay Inokent’Evich Pliusnin
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i2.1069

Abstract:
A classification of low-dimensional nanomaterials is given, and a new type of these nanomaterials – subnanophase coatings is proposed. Experimental results on the formation of a wetting layer of a transition metal on a silicon substrate by physical deposition in vacuum and results of this layer identification by the EELS method are given. Based on these results, a new approach to the formation of subnanophase coatings has been proposed by creation of a interface stresses which structuring WL. The possible properties and application prospects of subnanophase coatings are considered.
Nikolay Plusnin
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2, pp 54-59; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i2.835

Abstract:
The problem of the synthesis of new type nanomaterials in the form of nano-coatings with sub-nanometric heterogeneity has been formulated. It has been presented an analysis of influences of physical vapor deposition in ultrahigh vacuum on the process of intermixing a film with a substrate, including the results, which has been obtained under the formation of transition metal – silicon interface. The generalization of the obtained experimental results develops an approach to the development of new nano-coatings with low-dimensional heterogeneity. The principles of constructing such low-dimensional nano-coatings, their properties and possible applications are considered.
Zhiya Dang, Duc Anh Dinh
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2, pp 67-77; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i2.813

Abstract:
Lead halide perovskites are the new rising generation of semiconductor materials due to their unique optical and electrical properties. The investigation of the interaction of halide perovskites and light is a key issue not only for understanding their photophysics but also for practical applications. Hence, tremendous efforts have been devoted to this topic and brunch into two: (i) decomposition of the halide perovskites thin films under light illumination; and (ii) influence of light soaking on their photoluminescence (PL) properties. In this review, we for the first time thoroughly compare the illumination conditions and the sample environment to correlate the PL changes and decomposition of perovskite under light illumination. In the case of vacuum and dry nitrogen, PL of the halide perovskite (MAPbI3–xClx, MAPbBr3–xClx, MAPbI3) thin films decreases due to the defects induced by light illumination, and under high excitations, the thin film even decomposes. In the presence of oxygen or moisture, light induces the PL enhancement of halide perovskite (MAPbI3) thin films at low light illumination, while increasing the excitation, which causes the PL to quench and perovskite thin film to decompose. In the case of mixed halide perovskite ((MA)Pb(BrxI1-x)3) light induces reversible segregation of Br domains and I domains.
Aslı Katmıs, Serap Fide, Seyma Karaismailoglu, Serap Derman
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2, pp 60-66; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i2.791

Abstract:
This review provided a detailed overview of the different synthesis and characterization methods of polymeric nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are defined as solid and colloidal particles of macromolecular substances ranging in size under 100 nm. Different types of nanoparticles are used in many biological fields (bio-sensing, biological separation, molecular imaging, anticancer therapy, etc.). The new features and functions provided by nano dimensions are largely different from their bulk forms. High volume/surface ratio, improved resolution and multifunctional capability make these materials gain many new features.
Levan Chkhartishvili
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i2.761

Abstract:
Theoretically, within the diatomic model, there is studied the relative stability of most abundant boron clusters B11, B12, and B13 with planar structures in neutral, positively and negatively charge-states. According to the specific (pet atom) binding energy criterion, B12+ (6.49 eV) is found to be the most stable boron cluster, while B11– + B13+ (5.83 eV) neutral pair is expected to present the preferable ablation channel for boron-rich solids. Obtained results would be applicable in production of boron-clusters-based nanostructured coating materials with super-properties such as lightness, hardness, conductivity, chemically inertness, neutron-absorption, etc. making them especially effective for protection against cracking, wear, corrosion, neutron- and electromagnetic-radiations, etc.
D. Abayli, Nilgün Baydogan
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2, pp 42-48; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i2.627

Abstract:
ZrO2 thin film samples were produced by the sol-gel dip coating method. Four different absorbed dose levels (such as ~ 0.4, 0.7, 1.2 and 2.7 Gray-Gy) were applied to ZrO2 thin films. Hence, the absorbed dose of ZrO2 thin film was examined as physical dose quantity representing the mean energy imparted to the thin film per unit mass by gamma radiation. Modification of the grain size was performed sensitively by the application of the absorbed dose to the ZrO2 thin film. Therefore the grain size reached from ~50 nm to 87 nm at the irradiated ZrO2 thin film. The relationship of the grain size, the contact angle, and the refractive index of the irradiated ZrO2 thin film was investigated as being an important technical concern. The irradiation process was performed in a hot cell by using a certified solid gamma ray source with 0.018021 Ci as an alternative technique to minimize the utilization of extra toxicological chemical solution. Antireflection and hydrophilic properties of the irradiated ZrO2 thin film were slightly improved by the modification of the grain size. The details on the optical and structural properties of the ZrO2 thin film were examined to obtain the optimum high refractive index, self-cleaning and anti-reflective properties.
Aparna M Joshi, Anjali A Athawale
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2, pp 49-53; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i2.644

Abstract:
In this paper, electrically conductive composites comprised of silicone rubber and titanium diboride (TiB2) were synthesized by conventional mixing methods. Fine particles of TiB2 (in micron size) and 10 parts per hundred parts of rubber (phr) proportion of carbon black (XC-72) were used to make the composites with HTV silicone rubber. The composites were cured at appropriate temperature and pressure and the effect on the electrical properties was studied. The resistance of the silicone rubber is ~ 1015Ω which decreases to 1–2 kΩ in case of composites with negligible effect of heat ageing. The hardness increases by ~ 35% simultaneous to the decrease of ~ 47% in the tensile strength. Morphological characterization indicates the homogeneous dispersion of the fillers in the composite.
Skripkiunas Gintautas
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v0i0.1098

Abstract:
The nanoparticles and nanostructures such as nano silica, nano metakaolin, titanium dioxide and aluminium oxide nanoparticles, graphite nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes are used for modification of composite materials in construction industry. The considerable attention of researchers is focused on the investigation of cement systems modified by carbon nanotubes (CNT). The present research describes the generalized data about modification of cement systems by CNT suspension in fresh and hardened state. The influence of carbon nanotubes on setting time of cement paste, rheological and mechanical properties of nanomodified cement systems are demonstrated in the present research.
Duraibabu Dhanapal, Alagar Muthukaruppan, Ananda Kumar Srinivasan
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i1.736

Abstract:
Attempts were made in the present study to design and develop skeletally modified ether linked tetraglycidyl epoxy resin (TGBAPSB), which is subsequently reinforced with different weight percentages of amine functionalized mullite fiber (F-MF). The F-MF was synthesized by reacting mullite fiber with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as coupling agent and the F-MF structure was confirmed by FT-IR. TGBAPSB reinforced with F-MF formulation was cured with 4,4’-diamino diphenyl methane (DDM) to obtain nanocomposite. The surface morphology of TGBAPSB-F-MF epoxy nanocomposites was investigated by XRD, SEM and AFM studies. From the study, it follows that these nanocomposite materials offer enhancement in mechanical, thermal, thermo-mechanical, dielectric properties compared to neat (TGBAPSB) epoxy matrix. Hence we recommend these nanocomposites for a possible use in advanced engineering applications that require both toughness and stiffness.
Tatyana Avdjieva
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i1.650

Abstract:
This work is a part of research on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-Ni-Si steels after various thermal treatments [1, 2]. The need to minimize damage and losses caused by emerging failures in complex engineering facilities such as nuclear, thermal and hydroelectric power stations, and gas and oil pipelines necessitates the creation of materials of high strength, plasticity, welding and high rigidity.
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i1.659

Abstract:
A theoretical investigation of the effect of an inverse parabolic potential on third harmonic generation in cylindrical quantum wires is presented. The wave functions are obtained as solutions to Schrödinger equation solved within the effective mass approximation. It turns out that peaks of the third harmonic generation susceptibility (THGS) associated with nanowires of small radii occur at larger photon energies as compared to those associated with quantum wires of larger radii. The inverse parabolic potential red-shifts peaks of the THGS, and suppresses the amplitude of the THGS. THGS associated with higher radial quantum numbers is diminished in magnitude and blue-shifted, as a function of the photon energy. As a function of the inverse parabolic potential, the THGS still characterized by peaks, and the peaks shift to lower values of the potential as the photon energy increases.
Ahmet Tursucu, Mehmet Haskul, Asaf Tolga Ulgen
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i1.562

Abstract:
In the current work, it was investigated to the K X-ray fluorescence efficiency and chemical effect on vacancy transfer probability for some tin compounds. We used Br2Tin, TinI2, SeTin, TinF2, TinSO4, TinCl2, TinO and TinS compounds for experimental study. The target samples were irradiated with 241Am annular radioactive source at the intensity of 5 Ci which emits gamma rays at wavelength of 0.2028 nm. The characteristic x-rays emitted because of the excitation are collected by a high-resolution HPGe semiconductor detector. It has been determined that the experimental calculations of the tin (Sn) element are compatible with the theoretical calculation. In addition, we have calculated the experimental intensity ratios, fluorescence yields and total vacancy transfer probabilitiesfor other Sn compounds.
Sara Sadat Parhizgar, S. Sibouyeh
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i1.552

Abstract:
In this paper silver nanoparticles (NPs) which are synthesized by a simple plasma arc discharge method, that is a kind of electrochemical methods, are examined. The method is very simple and silver NPs are obtained very fast by means of two polished silver plates and electrochemical cell. The effects of changing some terms of the experiment including using Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), temperature and the medium of experiment on oxygen percent and crystalline structure of silver NPs have been studied by transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectrophotometery, and X-ray diffraction. Water medium gets larger nanoparticles with less oxygen content compare to air medium. The size of synthesized nanoparticles become smaller and they also become more spherical by using H2O2 in air medium. In water medium, the size and concentration of the silver crystallite increase by temperature growth and adding H2O2 respectively.
Sajad Hussain Din
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i1.875

Abstract:
Nanocomposites are high performance materials which reveal rare properties. Nanocomposites have an estimated annual growth rate of 25% and fastest demand to be in engineering plastics and elastomers. Their prospective is so prominent that they are valuable in numerous areas ranging from packaging to biomedical applications. In this review the various types of matrix nanocomposites are discussed highlighting the need for these materials, their processing approaches and some recent results on structure, properties and potential applications. Perspectives including need for such future materials and other interesting applications. Being environmentally friendly, applications of nanocomposites propose new technology and business opportunities for several sectors of the aerospace, automotive, electronics and biotechnology industries.
MousalrezaFaramarzi Palangar, Mohammad Mirzaie
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v2i1.541

Abstract:
In this paper, an improved mathematical model for flashover behavior of polluted insulators is proposed based on experimental tests. In order to determine the flashover model of polluted insulators, the relationship between conductivity and salinity of solution pollution layer of the insulator is measured. Then, the leakage of current amplitude of four common insulators versus axial, thermal conductivity and arc constants temperature was determined. The experimental tests show that top leakage distance (TLd) to bottom leakage distance (BLd) ratio of insulators has a significant effect on critical voltage and current. Therefore, critical voltage and current were modeled by TLd to BLd ratio Index (M). Also, salinity of solution pollution layer of the insulators has been applied to this model by resistance pollution parameter. On the other hand, arc constants of each insulator in new model have been identified based on experimental results. Finally, a mathematical model is intended for critical voltage against salinity of solution pollution layer of different insulators. This model depends on insulator profile. There is a good agreement between the experimental tests of pollution insulators obtained in the laboratory and values calculated from the mathematical models developed in the present study.
Nikolay Plusnin
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v0i0.1036

Abstract:
A classification of low-dimensional nanomaterials is given, and a new type of these nanomaterials – subnanophase coatings is proposed. Experimental results on the formation of a wetting layer of a transition metal on a silicon substrate by physical deposition in vacuum and results of this layer identification by the EELS method are given. Based on these results, a new approach to the formation of subnanophase coatings has been proposed by creation of a interface stresses which structuring WL. The possible properties and application prospects of subnanophase coatings are considered.
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v1i3.659

Abstract:
A theoretical investigation of the effect of an inverse parabolic potential on third harmonic generation in cylindrical quantum wires is presented. The wave functions are obtained as solutions to Schrödinger equation solved within the effective mass approximation. It turns out that peaks of the third harmonic generation susceptibility (THGS) associated with nanowires of small radii occur at larger photon energies as compared to those associated with quantum wires of larger radii. The inverse parabolic potential red-shifts peaks of the THGS, and suppresses the amplitude of the THGS. THGS associated with higher radial quantum numbers is diminished in magnitude and blue-shifted, as a function of the photon energy. As a function of the inverse parabolic potential, the THGS still characterized by peaks, and the peaks shift to lower values of the potential as the photon energy increases.
Ahmet Tursucu, , Asaf Tolga Ulgen
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v1i3.562

Abstract:
In the current work, it was investigated to the K X-ray fluorescence efficiency and chemical effect on vacancy transfer probability for some tin compounds. We used Br2Tin, TinI2, SeTin, TinF2, TinSO4, TinCl2, TinO and TinS compounds for experimental study. The target samples were irradiated with 241Am annular radioactive source at the intensity of 5 Ci which emits gamma rays at wavelength of 0.2028 nm. The characteristic x-rays emitted because of the excitation are collected by a high-resolution HPGe semiconductor detector. It has been determined that the experimental calculations of the tin (Sn) element are compatible with the theoretical calculation. In addition, we have calculated the experimental intensity ratios, fluorescence yields and total vacancy transfer probabilitiesfor other Sn compounds.
Tatyana Avdjieva
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v1i3.650

Abstract:
This work is a part of research on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-Ni-Si steels after various thermal treatments [1, 2]. The need to minimize damage and losses caused by emerging failures in complex engineering facilities such as nuclear, thermal and hydroelectric power stations, and gas and oil pipelines necessitates the creation of materials of high strength, plasticity, welding and high rigidity.
Sara Sadat Parhizgar, S. Sibouyeh
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v1i3.552

Abstract:
In this paper silver nanoparticles (NPs) which are synthesized by a simple plasma arc discharge method, that is a kind of electrochemical methods, are examined. The method is very simple and silver NPs are obtained very fast by means of two polished silver plates and electrochemical cell. The effects of changing some terms of the experiment including using Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), temperature and the medium of experiment on oxygen percent and crystalline structure of silver NPs have been studied by transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectrophotometery, and X-ray diffraction. Water medium gets larger nanoparticles with less oxygen content compare to air medium. The size of synthesized nanoparticles become smaller and they also become more spherical by using H2O2 in air medium. In water medium, the size and concentration of the silver crystallite increase by temperature growth and adding H2O2 respectively.
MousalrezaFaramarzi Palangar, Mohammad Mirzaie
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v1i3.541

Abstract:
In this paper, an improved mathematical model for flashover behavior of polluted insulators is proposed based on experimental tests. In order to determine the flashover model of polluted insulators, the relationship between conductivity and salinity of solution pollution layer of the insulator is measured. Then, the leakage of current amplitude of four common insulators versus axial, thermal conductivity and arc constants temperature was determined. The experimental tests show that top leakage distance (TLd) to bottom leakage distance (BLd) ratio of insulators has a significant effect on critical voltage and current. Therefore, critical voltage and current were modeled by TLd to BLd ratio Index (M). Also, salinity of solution pollution layer of the insulators has been applied to this model by resistance pollution parameter. On the other hand, arc constants of each insulator in new model have been identified based on experimental results. Finally, a mathematical model is intended for critical voltage against salinity of solution pollution layer of different insulators. This model depends on insulator profile. There is a good agreement between the experimental tests of pollution insulators obtained in the laboratory and values calculated from the mathematical models developed in the present study.
Duraibabu Dhanapal, Alagar Muthukaruppan, Ananda Kumar Srinivasan
Characterization and Application of Nanomaterials, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.24294/can.v1i3.736

Abstract:
Attempts were made in the present study to design and develop skeletally modified ether linked tetraglycidyl epoxy resin (TGBAPSB), which is subsequently reinforced with different weight percentages of amine functionalized mullite fiber (F-MF). The F-MF was synthesized by reacting mullite fiber with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as coupling agent and the F-MF structure was confirmed by FT-IR. TGBAPSB reinforced with F-MF formulation was cured with 4,4’-diamino diphenyl methane (DDM) to obtain nanocomposite. The surface morphology of TGBAPSB-F-MF epoxy nanocomposites was investigated by XRD, SEM and AFM studies. From the study, it follows that these nanocomposite materials offer enhancement in mechanical, thermal, thermo-mechanical, dielectric properties compared to neat (TGBAPSB) epoxy matrix. Hence we recommend these nanocomposites for a possible use in advanced engineering applications that require both toughness and stiffness.
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