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Results in Journal Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology: 366

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Jennifer Au, Catherine Frenette
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Volume 1, pp 75-78; doi:10.14218/JCTH.2013.00008

Abstract:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a rapidly rising cause of liver-related death worldwide. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, when systemic therapy is the only viable option for treatment. Significant strides have been made in the molecular understanding of HCC development and growth stimulation. The c-Met pathway has been found to be an important pathway in half of all patients with HCC. HCC tumors with high c-Met activation are associated with an aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. Tivantinib is a MET receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with a broad spectrum of anti-tumor effects currently being studied for the treatment of HCC. Phase I and II data are available for tivantinib in the treatment of solid tumors, including HCC. There appears to be an adequate safety profile, with the main side-effect being neutropenia. In HCC patients with elevated c-Met activity, tivantinib results in an improved time to progression of 2.7 months, compared with 1.4 months in placebo-treated patients. Further studies are ongoing, but early data suggest that tivantinib is a therapy that deserves close attention in the coming years for patients with HCC.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Volume 1, pp 33-38; doi:10.14218/JCTH.2013.004XX

Abstract:
Exploration of naturally occurring chemical structures for medicinal uses has received significant interest in drug discovery and development research in the past few decades. None have had more success or products of greater clinical efficacy than synthetic analogs of nucleosides and nucleotides, especially as antiviral drugs. Nucleos(t)ide antivirals are synthetic analogs of the natural building blocks of DNA or RNA. This review focuses on the developmental path of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), a prodrug of a nucleotide analog and its clinical applications as a first-line antiviral for chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
Kristin L. MacArthur, Robert Smolic, Martina V. Smolic, Catherine H. Wu, George Y. Wu
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Volume 1, pp 9-21; doi:10.14218/JCTH.2013.007XX

Abstract:
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects nearly 170 million people worldwide and causes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The search for a drug regimen that maximizes efficacy and minimizes side effects is quickly evolving. This review will discuss a wide range of drug targets currently in all phases of development for the treatment of HCV. Direct data from agents in phase III/IV clinical trials will be presented, along with reported side-effect profiles. The mechanism of action of all treatments and resistance issues are highlighted. Special attention is given to available trial data supporting interferon-free treatment regimens. HCV has become an increasingly important public health concern, and it is important for physicians to stay up to date on the rapidly growing novel therapeutic options.
Rolf Teschke, Axel Eickhoff, Johannes Schulze
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Volume 1, pp 59-74; doi:10.14218/JCTH.2013.D002X

Abstract:
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury (HILI) are typical diseases of clinical and translational hepatology. Their diagnosis is complex and requires an experienced clinician to translate basic science into clinical judgment and identify a valid causality algorithm. To prospectively assess causality starting on the day DILI or HILI is suspected, the best approach for physicians is to use the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale in its original or preferably its updated version. The CIOMS scale is validated, liver-specific, structured, and quantitative, providing final causality grades based on scores of specific items for individual patients. These items include latency period, decline in liver values after treatment cessation, risk factors, co-medication, alternative diagnoses, hepatotoxicity track record of the suspected product, and unintentional re-exposure. Provided causality is established as probable or highly probable, data of the CIOMS scale with all individual items, a short clinical report, and complete raw data should be transmitted to the regulatory agencies, manufacturers, expert panels, and possibly to the scientific community for further refinement of the causality evaluation in a setting of retrospective expert opinion. Good-quality case data combined with thorough CIOMS-based assessment as a standardized approach should avert subsequent necessity for other complex causality assessment methods that may have inter-rater problems because of poor-quality data. In the future, the CIOMS scale will continue to be the preferred tool to assess causality of DILI and HILI cases and should be used consistently, both prospectively by physicians, and retrospectively for subsequent expert opinion if needed. For comparability and international harmonization, all parties assessing causality in DILI and HILI cases should attempt this standardized approach using the updated CIOMS scale.
Kapil Dev Jamwal, Rakhi Maiwall, Manoj K. Sharma, Guresh Kumar, Shiv K. Sarin
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Volume 7, pp 1-8; doi:10.14218/jcth.2018.00059

Abstract:
Background and Aims: The management of post-endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) bleeding ulcers (PEBUs) is currently based on local expertise and patients liver disease status. The present retrospective study investigated associations between the endoscopic morphology of PEBUs and patient outcomes.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Volume 1, pp 79-86; doi:10.14218/jcth.2013.00015

Abstract:
JCTH,Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology; doi:10.14218/jcth

Abstract:
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology (JCTH) publishes high quality, peer-reviewed studies in the clinical and basic human health sciences of liver diseases.
Saleh Daher, Muhammad Massarwa, Ariel A. Benson, Tawfik Khoury
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Volume 6, pp 1-10; doi:10.14218/jcth.2017.00031

Abstract:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. The principal treatment is surgical resection or liver transplantation, depending on whether the patient is a suitable transplant candidate. However, in most patients with HCC the diagnosis is often late, thereby excluding the patients from definitive surgical resection. Medical treatment includes sorafenib, which is the most commonly used systemic therapy; although, it has been shown to only minimally impact patient survival by several months. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally ineffective. Due to the poor prognosis of patients with HCC, newer treatments are needed with several being in development, either in pre-clinical or clinical studies. In this review article, we provide an update on the current and future medical and surgical management of HCC.
Mohammed Saadi, Christine Yu, Mohamed O. Othman
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Volume 2, pp 45-52; doi:10.14218/JCTH.2013.00021

Abstract:
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic and progressive cholestatic liver disease that often leads to the development of cirrhosis. Complications of PSC include pruritus, fatigue, vitamin deficiencies, metabolic bone disease, dominant biliary strictures, gallstones, and hepatobiliary malignancies, most commonly cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Despite the presumed autoimmune etiology of PSC, a clear benefit from immunosuppressive agents has not yet been established, and their use is limited by their side effects. Endoscopy is required in evaluation of biliary strictures in PSC to rule out the possibility of CCA. Liver transplantation is currently the only life-extending therapy for patients with end-stage disease. However, disease recurrence can be a source of morbidity and mortality as transplanted patients survive longer. Further studies are needed to develop an optimal therapeutic strategy for patients with PSC to decrease the incidence of complications of the disease, to decrease the need for transplantation, and to extend life expectancy.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, Volume 2, pp 31-36; doi:10.14218/JCTH.2013.00029

Abstract:
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes of death by cancer worldwide. Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma is determined by characteristics of the tumor and the surrounding cirrhotic liver. Several molecular signatures reflecting tumor biology and derived from tumor analyses predict early tumor recurrence and survival. In contrast, molecular signatures from cirrhotic non-tumor samples are enriched in immunity/inflammation related genes and could predict late tumor recurrence. Moreover, combination of clinical, pathological, and molecular features may refine prognosis prediction in these patients. Finally, molecular signatures from both tumor and non-tumor tissues will be helpful in the future to guide treatments in different clinical settings.
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