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Results in Journal International Journal Bioautomation: 145

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Mariya Zaharinova
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 153-160; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.2.000859

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of alertness with reaction time test in Bulgarian sport students. Materials and methods: Our sample includes 25 sports student, mean age 19.92, recruited from different disciplines from National Sports Academy “Vassil Levski”, Sofia, Bulgaria. Reaction time has been assessed twice a day (once in the morning and once in the afternoon) to check if reaction time has a relationship with the level of alertness based on chronotype according to Morningness-eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Outcome measures include Vienna Test System (test form S7) and MEQ. Results: The moderate morning type had a faster reaction time both, in the morning and in the afternoon as compared to the intermediate and moderate evening type (reaction time with and without cue). Intermediate type had the worst reaction time and moderate evening type were in the middle. Conclusions: The main objective of this study is to find out if the reaction time depends on the level of alertness. It has been found that the participants, which are moderate morning type, indicating high alertness in the morning, have faster reaction time in the morning and in the evening (with or without cue).
Silvija Angelova, Emil Petrov, Plamen Raykov, Rositsa Raikova
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 161-174; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.2.000865

Abstract:
Many people have problems with elbow joint driving because of different diseases, sport trauma, road traffic injuries, etc. A good way for restoring elbow motions is a self-rehabilitation using an active orthosis. It has to be light, convenient for daily use, active, easy to control by patients, and safe. The paper presents a prototype of an active elbow orthosis. The plastic details were designed using a CAD system and were 3D printed. The joint was driven by a Dynamixel actuator. To increase the joint moment, a reduction gear-belt drive was constructed and applied. Experiments with six healthy subjects were performed using a Noraxon measuring system, aiming to investigate elbow joint angles in natural movements with four different velocities of elbow flexion and extension without and with a load of 0.5 kg in the hand. The four velocities (from very slow to very fast) were controlled by a specialized PC application. In order to achieve similar motions of the orthosis, the angle profiles were approximated so that the motion was between 10° and 120° because of electro/mechanical and software safety stoppers. Experiments were performed with the orthosis following the given angle profile without load and with a load of 0.5 kg. The results show that the orthosis’ forearm performs the given angle and angular speed profiles with enough precision.
Ivan Iliev, Inna Sulikovska, Elena Ivanova, Mashenka Dimitrova, Biliana Nikolova, Christina Andreeva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 141-152; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.2.000837

Abstract:
Phototoxicity is a chemically induced skin irritation in the presence of sunlight. Phototoxic substances after irradiation with sunlight absorb and convert light energy into chemical energy, leading to the formation of highly reactive oxygen species with toxic effects. Recently LED technologies made possible their application for novel effective solar simulators, to be used in biology and medicine. We study the possibilities of application of LED sunlight simulator (Helios-iO, model LE-9ND55-H – 5500K) for in vitro testing of synthetic and natural products for phototoxicity. Cytotoxicity/phototoxicity was assessed by validated BALB/3T3 clone A31 Neutral Red Uptake Assay. The morphological alterations in BALB/3T3 cells induced by the Radachlorin® and irradiated with dose 2.4 J, were analyzed by fluorescent microscopy. The physical characteristics of the lamp were determined and the intensity distribution of the LED light over a model of a 96-well plate at a distance of 25 cm from the lamp diode matrix center was estimated. The obtained results show that the light emitted by the solar simulator used is similar to the natural sun light. The biological testing results reveal the high efficiency of the solar simulator in an in vitro experimental system for phototoxicity testing.
Wei Wang, Bo Gao
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 175-192; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.2.000872

Abstract:
Cluster analysis is a principal approach to discover unknown tumor subtypes. Innovative and effective cluster analysis methods are of great significance for tumor diagnosis and malignant tumor treatment. Existing studies on the cluster analysis of tumor gene data generally have defects in aspects such as unsatisfactory performance in clustering high-dimensional and high-noise data, and insufficient accuracy in selecting cluster centers. To overcome these defects, this paper performed cluster analysis on tumor gene data based on an improved Density peaks clustering (DPC) algorithm. At first, this paper elaborated on the composition and storage format of tumor tissue samples used in the experiment, gave the tumor gene expression profile data in the matrix format, and introduced the preprocessing process of gene expression profile data. Then, this paper carried out feature selection of tumor gene expression profile data. At last, this paper innovatively divided the target gene density into two parts of K-nearest neighbor local density and neighborhood density, thereby completing the improvement of conventional DPC algorithm and expanding its application scenarios. Combining with experiment, the clustering results of the algorithm before and after introducing the idea of Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) were given, which had verified the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed in this paper.
Xiaojing Wang
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 193-208; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.2.000873

Abstract:
Although the existing protein recognition methods have improved the recognition accuracy of key proteins to a certain extent, they have ignored the biological features of the proteins. In view of this shortcoming, this paper constructed a high-order dynamic complex protein network for key protein recognition. At first, this paper presented a method for feature selection and candidate set evaluation of complex protein network; a weighted network was constructed based on the obtained topological features of the complex protein network and the semantic similarity of protein gene ontology annotations. Then, this paper proposed an algorithm for recognizing key proteins in high-order dynamic protein network based on a Fruit fly optimization algorithm. At last, the effectiveness of the proposed model was verified by experimental results.
Fathul Zannah, Mohamad Amin, Hadi Suwono, Betty Lukiati
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 131-140; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.2.000740

Abstract:
Diplazium esculentum is one of the medicinal plants used by Dayak tribes in Central Kalimantan to cure acne. The potential of D. esculentum can be proved through information on the active compounds of the extract obtained in decoction and infusa methods. Thus, a liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS)-based method is developed to identify the active compounds of D. esculentum extract in either decoction method or infusa method. The chemical compound potential of D. esculentum extract was then analysed using bioinformatics approach based upon the database of PASS online server. Results showed that the D. esculentum extract contained 81 chemical compounds in decoction method and 68 compounds in infusa method, in which the dominant compound was flavonoid. Moreover, PASS online web server analysis found 7 flavonoid compound groups potential as anti-acne containing antisebor, AR expression inhibitor and CYP1A1 inhibitor. This information could be very useful for designing a clinical test on plant natural compound potential for traditional drug development
Irina Angelova, Galina Yotova, Veronika Mihaylova,
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 241-254; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000833

Abstract:
Elevated concentrations of aluminium have been found at the outlets of the Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) of Sofia city, Bulgaria and in separate sampling points in the water supply network. Cluster analysis is performed for multivariate data interpretation of the distribution of aluminium (Al) concentrations during 2019 at 19 water sampling points (2 DWTPs outlets and 17 points within the city water supply system). Although the concentration of aluminium in the outlet of the treatment plants differ significantly, both of them fall into the same cluster, as the concentrations during the year change in the same manner. The formed cluster of both the treatment plants and most of the studied sampling points indicate the mixed origin of the purified water and proves that the concentration of Al in tap water is dominated by the qualities and quantities from the different sources of the supplied water, rather than by the secondary processes in the network for areas with predominant steel and polyethylene pipes. A distinct exception are the areas with old asbestos cement pipelines where potential release of the metal from the cement affects the Al distribution in the water supply system.
Liyuan Huang, Jie Liu
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 213-224; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000885

Abstract:
Targeting 16 varieties of Camellia oleifera planted in different regions, this paper explores the influence of aluminum (Al) stress over several physiological indices, namely, root activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, proline content, and soluble sugar content and evaluates the overall Al tolerance of each variety. The purpose is to identify the difference between different C. oleifera varieties in physiological indices under Al stress, and to screen the varieties with relatively strong Al tolerance. The results show that: Al stress lowered the root activity and SOD activity, while enhancing MDA content, H2O2 content, proline content, soluble sugar content, and Al content. But the physiological indices of different C. oleifera varieties changed by vastly different amplitudes under Al stress. The variation amplitudes of root activity, MDA content, SOD activity, H2O2 content, proline content, soluble sugar content, and Al content were -47.06%-42.86%, 12.50%-133.33%,-8.33%%-26.28%, 11.11%-71.88%, 76.47%-420.00%, 4.97%-56.41%, and 23.43%-101.12%, respectively. Furthermore, the Al tolerance coefficients of the 16 C. oleifera varieties were analyzed comprehensively by membership functions. The results show that C. oleifera ‘Huajin’, C. oleifera ‘Huashuo’, and C. oleifera ‘Huaxin’ have relatively strong Al tolerance, while C. oleifera ‘Ganyou No.2’, C. oleifera ‘Ganxing No.48’, and C. oleifera ‘Ganzhou No.70’ have relatively weak Al tolerance.
Paulchamy Chellapandi, Jayachandrabal Balachandramohan
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 297-310; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000553

Abstract:
The ability to design efficient enzymes for a broad class of different reactions would be of tremendous practical interest in both science and industry. Computer-assisted designing is a novel approach to generating industrial enzymes for biotechnological applications. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to design an enzyme construct with diverse substrate-binding specificity based on the evolutionary conservation of archaeal vanadium-dependent phosphatases. Materials and methods: A rational 3D structural model of enzyme construct was developed from conserved sequence scratch encompassing a vanadium-binding site and functional domain. Substrate-binding specificity of the designed enzyme was computed with different myo-inositol polyphosphate analogous by a molecular docking program. Results: A designed enzyme has shown more substrate-binding specificity with 1D-myo-inositol 3, 4, 5, 6-tetrakisphosphate. Its catalytic function closely resembled myo-inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase and multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatases. Moreover, the enzyme construct was energetically stable with a low degree of conformational changes upon substrate-binding. Conclusion: Substrate specificity and catalytic competence of designed enzymes were computationally evaluated for further biotechnological applications.
Svetozar Stoichev, Avgustina Danailova, Ivan Iliev, Inna Sulikovska, Velichka Strijkova, Kirilka Mladenova, Tonya Andreeva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 225-240; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000843

Abstract:
The present study is focused on the construction and characterization of the morphology and biocompatibility of polysaccharide multilayered microcapsules (PMC) composed of natural polyelectrolytes (chitosan/alginate/hyaluronic acid), and on the effect of graphene oxide (GO) incorporation in the polymer matrix. The insertion of GO in the polymer matrix is an innovative and still evolving strategy used to modify the properties of the polyelectrolyte microcapsules. We have fabricated a number of hybrid GO-polysaccharide multilayered capsules by layer-by-layer assembling technique onto a CaCO3 core, followed by core decomposition in mild conditions. Hybrid microcapsules with different composition were constructed by varying the number or localization of the incorporated GO-layers. It was found that the thickness of the hybrid microcapsules, evaluated by atomic force microscopy, decreases after incorporation of GO nanosheets in the polymer matrix. Analysis of the viability and proliferation of fibroblasts after incubation with hybrid PMC revealed pronounced concentration-dependent cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect. Based on the results, we can conclude that the hybrid multilayered microcapsules made of natural polysaccharides and graphene oxide could be used for biomedical applications.
Muhamad H. N. Aziz, Radostin D. Simitev
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 255-272; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000832

Abstract:
Contemporary realistic mathematical models of single-cell cardiac electrical excitation are immensely detailed. Model complexity leads to parameter uncertainty, high computational cost and barriers to mechanistic understanding. There is a need for reduced models that are conceptually and mathematically simple but physiologically accurate. To this end, we consider an archetypal model of single-cell cardiac excitation that replicates the phase-space geometry of detailed cardiac models, but at the same time has a simple piecewise-linear form and a relatively low-dimensional configuration space. In order to make this archetypal model practically applicable, we develop and report a robust method for estimation of its parameter values from the morphology of single-stimulus action potentials derived from detailed ionic current models and from experimental myocyte measurements. The procedure is applied to five significant test cases and an excellent agreement with target biomarkers is achieved. Action potential duration restitution curves are also computed and compared to those of the target test models and data, demonstrating conservation of dynamical pacing behaviour by the fine-tuned archetypal model. An archetypal model that accurately reproduces a variety of wet-lab and synthetic electrophysiology data offers a number of specific advantages such as computational efficiency, as also demonstrated in the study. Open-source numerical code of the models and methods used is provided.
Ram Sewak Singh, Demissie Jobir Gelmecha, Satyasis Mishra, Gemechu Dengia, Devendra Kumar Sinha
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 273-296; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000786

Abstract:
In this research paper, authors present an automated system in this paper that integrates a ranking technique with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) and a 1-Norm Bidirectional Extreme Learning Machine (1-NBELM) to reliably classify normal and coronary artery disease groups. Twenty chaotic and non-linear attributes were hauling out from the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) signal to detect coronary artery disease groups. The HRV data for this study derived from a typical database of Normal Old (ELY), Young (YNG), and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) people. Fisher, Wilcoxon and Bhattacharya were used to compute the rankings of attributes. GDA then turned the ranking features into a new feature. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel was used to transfer original features to a high-dimensional feature space in GDA and PCA, and then it was deployed to 1-NBELM, which utilized the sigmoidal or multiquadric non-linear activation. Numerical experiments were performed on the combination of database sets as Young-ELY, Healthy-CAD, and Healthy ELY-CAD subjects. The numerical results show that ROC with GDA and 1-NBELM approach achieved an accuracy of 98.12±0.14, 96.21±0.12 and 99.87±0.28 for Young-CAD, Young-ELY and Healthy ELY-CAD groups with the use of sigmoidal and multiquadric activation function. The Fisher with GDA and 1-NBELM and Bhattacharya with GDA and 1-Norm Extreme Learning Machine (1-NELM) approach achieved an accuracy of 99.98±0.21 for all databases.
Lei Miao
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 67-82; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.1.000871

Abstract:
Knowledge mapping of medicinal plants enable ordinary people to differentiate between medicinal plants and learn their pharmacological effects, provide assistances and instructions to medical workers during the use of medicinal plants, and support intelligent queries of the properties of traditional medicinal plants. This paper innovatively introduces artificial neural network to the knowledge mapping of medicinal plants, and provides a practical and valuable reference for scientific development and reasonable use of medicinal plants. Firstly, the entity relationships were designed for medical knowledge map, and the definitions, scales, and examples were given for each type of data in the proposed knowledge map of medicinal plants. Next, the authors detailed the ideas of multi-source knowledge fusion, and the acquisition and storage strategies for entity information of medicinal plants. Then, the attention-based bidirectional gated recurrent network was combined with convolutional neural network to detect the genetic relationships between medicinal plants from the angles of semantics and texts. Finally, this paper explains the semantic retrieval algorithm for medicinal plants, and visualizes the knowledge map. The proposed model and semantic retrieval algorithm were proved effective and superior through experiments. It is concluded that: The smaller the batch size, the higher the recognition accuracy of plant entities, and the better the recognition effect. The research findings provide a reference for knowledge mapping in other fields.
Ivan Dotsinsky
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 83-92; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.1.000848

Abstract:
The ECG signals acquisition is usually corrupted by presence of Power-Line Interference (PLI) induced by the electromagnetic field around us. Many methods for PLI suppression/elimination have been developed over the years. The easy to apply traditional notch filters suppress unacceptably the ECG spectrum around the rated PL frequencies of 50 or 60 Hz and their deviations, which are restricted by the standards within the range of ± 0.5 Hz. The changes are very slow but the current PL frequency has to be continuously checked to allow start and performance of adequate PLI suppression during any ECG recordings including the 24 hours Holter monitoring. According to the proposed approach, the corrupted ECG recording is bi-directional band-pass (BP) filtered. The resulting sinusoidal BP waves differ in amplitude from the PLI but their zero crossing points remain identical. The two out-sample distances located at both ends of each current sinusoidal curve are calculated and aided to the inter-sample distances. The obtained fractal wave period is converted into current PL frequency and used for bi-directional notch filtration with narrow stop-band. The results obtained demonstrate a very successful PLI suppression in ECG signals. The errors committed are within a few μV, except for the edges of the recordings due to the transition processes.
Naoual Tchich, Abdel-Ilah Aziane, Souad Hammoutou, Mohamed Ouhssine, Mohamed El Yachioui, Abdelaziz Chaouch
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 93-108; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.1.000727

Abstract:
Due to the composition and their impact on the environment, landfill leachate is a serious environmental and public health problem. Our physicochemical and microbiological study has shown that leachate is highly loaded with minerals including iron, Mg, Cd, etc.) and pathogenic microorganisms hence the need for effective and sustainable treatment. Our present study enters this preoccupation we have highlighted a biological process allowing the transformation of leachate by way of fermentation, being based on leaven having fermenting, acidifying and antimicrobial power. Microbiological analysis showed that almost all the pathogenic flora was removed showing the biological treatment efficacy. In addition, the stable product obtained after 15 days of fermentation was used as a base in a formula of a bio-fertilizer. Application trials in different crops (wheat, peas, corn, etc.) have shown satisfactory results.
Deyan G. Mavrov, Veselina Bureva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 5-18; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.1.000880

Abstract:
The paper presents FireGrid, an application software program for performing two-dimensional fire spread simulation using Atanassov's Game Method for Modelling (GMM). The software implements a model of fire spread with one or more starting points of ignition onto a planar grid of square cells that represent an idealized terrain of flammable areas of vegetation, and inflammable areas of rocks and water basins. The applications allows also locating a fire's starting point(s) by subtracting the initial configuration from the final one and decrementing all affected and adjacent cells by one. In addition to the preliminary defining the pattern of fire spread, manual control of the spread is allowed during simulation by selecting the cells that are to burn on the next iteration.
Hamdia Murad Adem, Abel Worku Tessema, Gizeaddis Lamesgin Simegn
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 109-125; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.1.000849

Abstract:
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease that affects a wide range of productive individuals worldwide. The common approach to diagnose PD is through clinical assessment of the patient, which is highly subjective and time consuming. Electromyography (EMG) can be taken as a cheap way of PD diagnosis. However, highly experienced experts are required to interpret the signals. The manual procedures are complex, time-consuming, and prone to error resulting in misdiagnosis. In this research, an automatic system for detection and classification of PD stages using EMG signals acquired from different upper limb movements is proposed. In addition, effective upper limb movement for the identification of PD has been investigated. The data required for training and testing the system was collected from flexor carpi radialis and biceps brachii muscles of 15 PD patients and 10 healthy control subjects at Jimma University Medical Center. The raw EMG signal was preprocessed and frequency and time-domain features were extracted. A multiclass support vector machine model was then trained for four-class classification (normal, early, moderate, and advanced PD levels). The performance of the system was evaluated using different performance evaluators and a promising result has been obtained. 90%, 91.7%, 95%, and 96.6% overall classification accuracies were obtained for elbow flexion by 90-degrees without load, elbow flexion by 90-degrees with load, touching the shoulder, and wrist pronation, respectively. A user-friendly interface has been also developed for ease of use of the automatic PD classification system.
Fei Wang
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 19-36; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.1.000870

Abstract:
Accurate gene-disease association prediction results are the basis for effective diagnosis and treatment of complex genetic diseases. However, existing studies related to this topic generally face problems in two aspects: large volume of original data and diverse data type, and data fusion difficulty. Therefore, this paper studied a gene-disease association prediction algorithm based on multi-source data fusion. At first, it processed the multi-dimensional gene phenotype data, analyzed the gene-disease associations of different phenotypes, and completed the selection of disease gene loci under multi-dimensional phenotypes. Then, this paper fused the multi-source data containing the gene expression data, gene sequence data, gene interaction data, and transcriptome sequencing data, and established the corresponding gene-disease association prediction model. At last, the effectiveness of the constructed prediction model was verified by experimental results. The research results obtained in this paper can improve the low utilization of gene datasets, restored the main features of the datasets to the greatest extent, reasonably processed the data noise, effectively enhanced the robustness of the model, and further improved the classification accuracy of the prediction of disease-causing genes.
Iskren Garvanski, Mikhail Matveev, , Todor Stoyanov, Iana Simova
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 37-66; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.1.000869

Abstract:
The aim of the study is to identify and evaluate predictors of recurrent paroxysms of atrial fibrillation (AF) paroxysms based on data from the preprocedural period among personal indices, history, comorbidities, ultrasound examination, and morphological components of f-waves, such as spectral amplitude and frequency. 39 patients with antral pulmonary vein isolation using radiofrequency or cryoenergy were included. Spectral analysis of f-waves was performed by fast Fourier transform of the ECG signal after suppression of the T-wave and QRS-complex. The performed U-test for the difference between the amplitude and frequency indicators in the groups without and with recurrence of AF shows a significant difference between the amplitude values in the two studied groups of patients. Through a stepwise discriminant analysis of a total of 14 indicators, 5 reliably separated groups without and with recurrence were determined: Echo LV-EF, spectral amplitude of f-waves, heart failure, Stroke/TIA, diabetes. The discriminator synthesized on these indicеs classified among the 39 patient – 25 without relapse (group 1) and 14 with relapse (group 2), 3 patients wrong from group 1 to group 2 (false positive), or 12%, and 1 patient was wrong from group 2 to group 1 (false negative), or 7.1%. These results give grounds to accept the hypothesis that it is possible to develop a decision rule for determining the degree of risk of post-procedural recurrence of AF from pre-procedural period data.
Milka Mileva, Lyudmila Dimitrova, Milena Popova, Vassya Bankova, Dimo Krastev, Hristo Najdenski, Zhivko Zhelev, Ichio Aoki, Rumiana Bakalova-Zheleva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 315-330; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.4.000795

Abstract:
Burkitt’s lymphoma is a highly aggressive type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, linked to the Epstein-Barr virus, which induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in the infected cells. We investigated the cytotoxicity and redox-modulating ability of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts from Geum urbanum L. roots and aerial parts on Burkitt`s lymphoma cells (BLC), to elucidate their impact on oxidative stress and cell survival. BLC Raji was treated with EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts to analyze: cell viability; induction of apoptosis; hydroperoxides and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein assay; superoxide by dihydroethidium assay; total antioxidant capacity by TAC assay. All extracts suppressed cell growth and induce apoptosis. n-BuOH extracts possessed higher cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic activity compared to EtOAc. The fractions decreased the hydroperoxides and RNS levels. There was no correlation between the DCF fluorescence in the treated cells and their viability (R = -0.3722; p > 0.05). Root extracts decreased the superoxide level, while the leaf extracts did not. There was a good correlation between the dihydroethidium fluorescence in the treated cells and their viability (R = 0.9843; p < 0.01). All extracts increased the TAC of BLC. G. urbanum extracts serve as redox-modulators and anti-inflammatory compounds, decreasing the intracellular level of “oncogenic” superoxide and cell proliferation.
Numan S. Dawood, Ruwaidah A. Mussttaf, Mayyadah Hasan Rhaif Al-Sahlanee
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 343-352; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.4.000824

Abstract:
Background: Accurate measurement of a patient’s height and weight is an essential part of diagnosis and therapy, but there is some controversy as to how to calculate the height and weight of patients with disabilities. Objective: This study aims to use anthropometric measurements (arm span, length of leg, chest circumference, and waist circumference) to find a model (alternatives) that can allow the calculation of the height and the body weight of patients with disabilities. Additionally, a model for the prediction of weight and height measurements of patients with disabilities was established. Method: Four hander patients aged 20-80 years were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups, 210 (52.5%) male and 190 (47.5%) female. Result: A significant correlation was noted between body height and arm span, as well as between body height and length of leg in all study groups. The body weight and the ratio of arm span or leg length to the sum of chest and waist circumferences were found to have a negative significant correlation. Model equations were derived to estimate the height and body weight according to anthropometric measurements. Conclusion: Anthropometric measurements can be used to create a model for calculating the body height and body weight of patients with disabilities and which can be considered an alternative to measurements that can be made on otherwise healthy subjects.
Charilaos Xenodochidis, Milena Draganova-Filipova, George Miloshev, , Plamen Zagorchev
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 331-342; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.4.000819

Abstract:
Due to their effects, similar to low-intensity therapy light sources such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and broadband spectrum lamps have recently become commonly used in the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative pathologies, cancer, as well as ageing. Despite the proven positive effects of such therapies, deeper understanding of the light therapies’ biological effects remains unclear. Even more, the molecular mechanisms through which different neurotransmitters, namely serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), mediate the organism’s response to radiation are yet indistinct. In this paper, we present the design and development of a specialized system for irradiation of biological objects, which is composed of LED 365 nm and LED 470 nm and a broadband lamp source of UVA/B (350 nm) with intensity, power density and direction, which can be optimized experimentally. The system, named a “water organ bath (wob)”, is used in the current work to irradiate smooth muscle stomach strips of rats. The obtained results prove that the modulation of the spontaneous contractile smooth muscle activity and the potentiation of the effects of major neurotransmitters are executed by the emitted light. The probable explanation for the neurotransmitters photoactivation is that it is the resultant effect of electromagnetic radiation on intracellular enzymes signaling systems.
Veronika Atanasova-Georgieva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 299-314; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.4.000820

Abstract:
The main objective of this work is focused on improving some technical deficiencies of existing laparoscopic executive instruments to robots. For this reason two main problems have been overtaken: i) to perform a kinematic-structural analysis of existing executive instruments by structural and kinematic criteria, to estimate their engineering characteristics, motivating the need to develop new ones and ii) to develop functionally operating model of an executive tool, with simplified kinematics of actuation of end-effectors, with higher reliability and easier support of the sterility of the instrument. In contrast to daVinchi robot system which includes structures with three orthogonal rotations this study describes other decision with combination of perpendicular and parallel rotations. The design is simplified, no additional transmission mechanisms of the executive links are required, which in turn facilitates the process of control of the device and proved higher reliability.
Inam Ur Rehman, Hasan Raza, Nauman Razzaq
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 249-270; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.3.000781

Abstract:
Cardiac signals are often corrupted by artefacts like power line interference (PLI) which may mislead the cardiologists to correctly diagnose the critical cardiac diseases. The cardiac signals like high resolution electrocardiogram (HRECG), ultra-high frequency ECG (UHF-ECG) and intracardiac electrograms are the specialized techniques in which higher frequency component of interest up to 1 KHz are observed. Therefore, a state space recursive least square (SSRLS) adaptive algorithm is applied for the removal of PLI and its harmonics. The SSRLS algorithm is an effective approach which extracts the desired cardiac signals from the observed signal without any need of reference signal. However, SSRLS is inherited computational heavy algorithm; therefore, filtration of increased number of PLI harmonics bestow an adverse impact on the execution time of the algorithm. In this paper, a parallel distributed SSRLS (PD-SSRLS) algorithm is introduced which runs the computationally expensive SSRLS adaptive algorithm parallely. The proposed architecture efficiently removes the PLI along with its harmonics even the time alignment among the contributing nodes is not the same. Furthermore, the proposed PD-SSRLS scheme provides less computational cost as compared to sequentially operated SSRLS algorithm. A comparison has been drawn between the proposed PD-SSRLS algorithm and sequentially operated SSRLS algorithm in term of qualitative and quantitative performances. The simulation results show that the proposed PD-SSRLS architecture provides almost same qualitative and quantitative performances than that of sequentially operated SSRLS algorithm with less computational cost.
António Pedro Aguiar, Oussama Hadj-Abdelkader
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 225-248; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.3.000776

Abstract:
This paper addresses the state estimation problem of a bioreactor in wastewater treatment processes. The state variables of this process are the concentrations of the organic pollutants and of the bacteria inside the bioreactor. A specific growth rate function is used to describe the variation of the bacteria concentration when the amount of pollutants increases. This rate can also represent the speed of the biological degradation of the pollutants. Most research work in this field uses only deterministic models that do not conveniently account for uncertainties. These models are often obtained using several simplifications during the modeling procedure such as neglecting the measurement noises. In this paper, we consider stochastic models and study the state estimation problem using three approaches: the Extended Kalman filter, the Unscented Kalman filter and the Particle filter. These methods are adapted to the models in study and compared to understand which is the most adequate for this type of processes considering their slow evolution, discrete time measurements and high-intensity noises. Further, we also apply a Multiple Model Adaptive method which adapts the filters to the correct growth rate type. This method is also used to automatically choose the most efficient estimation method for this type of biological processes.
Jianxia Guo, Fang Chen, Xue Wen
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 283-294; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.3.000818

Abstract:
Pinus armandi franch is a special local plant in China and its seed oil is a nice resource of linoleic acid (LA) and linolenic acid. This study investigated the effects of enriching the mouse diet with the ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), LA (18:2 ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3 ω-3) different ratios (ω-6/ω-3) on total lipids in Pinus armandi franch seed oil (PAFO), and immune evaluation indexes in plasma, lymph nodes, and spleen from isolated immune cells. Kunming mice were fed a commercial chow. PAFO with a certain ratio (ω-6/ω-3) could promote the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes induced by ConA in mice and the optimal ratio was 4 or 6. PAFO with different ratios (ω-6/ω-3) could increase the spleen index and thymus index and there were significant differences between PAFO group and control group (p < 0.01). The results indicate that the ratio of ω-6 PUFA: ω-3 PUFA is 4 or 6 improve some of the indices of the mice immune status and that a moderate increase in the level of ω-6 PUFA in the mice diet does not suppress the immune system.
Kadhum Audaa Jehhef, Ali Jalal Ali
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 209-224; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.3.000762

Abstract:
In order to fully understand the interaction between the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) and the arterial bifurcations interface it is important to attain more detailed information on blood hemodynamics stresses by using an accurate and real model of the vascular system of the human. In this study, a computer simulation, which integrates dinically acquired of 73-year-old male patient with saccular AAA MR angiograms image is considered. The numerical predictions for 2D of two models (with and without saccular AAA) – axisymmetric, rigid wall Newtonian and non-Newtonian Carreau blood model are presented. The finite volume method performed by ANSYS-Fluent Package was used to model this problem. The blood hemodynamics is considered as steady state condition in two values of Reynolds numbers of laminar flow condition. Blood hemodynamics is calculated for an improved set of dimensionless values pointer parameters include the pressure dimensionless, dimensionless Wall Shear Stress (WSS) and flow velocity. The results show that at the turbulent flow, velocity is with highest fluctuation profile and generate some vortices near the inner wall of AAA. The highest WSS levels are obtained downstream of AAA and at bifurcation apex. The presence of AAA in flow path will increase blood velocity of the distal by 35% for laminar and about 42% for turbulent. Finally, the velocity profile was compared with previous literature and give good agreement at the same computational condition.
Didik Priyandoko, Wahyu Widowati, Mawar Subangkit, Diana Jasaputra, Teresa Wargasetia, Ika Sholihah, Jenifer Aviani
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 271-282; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.3.000796

Abstract:
The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly from its origin in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, to the rest of the world. The efficacy of herbal treatment in the control of contagious disease was demonstrated during the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Natural compound used for this study were isoflavone and myricetin. Molecular docking was performed to analyze binding mode of the compounds towards 12 proteins related to COVID-19. The prediction shows that isoflavone and myricetin have moderate probability of antiviral activity. All of the docked compounds occupied the active sites of the proteins related to COVID-19. Based on QSAR and molecular docking, interactions were predicted with 10 out of 12 potential COVID-19 proteins for myricetin and with 9 out of 12 proteins interactions for isoflavone. A potential disease alleviating action is suggested for isoflavone and myricetin in the context of COVID-19 infection.
Khalil Ur Rehman, Xiang Lin Zhu, Bo Wang, Muhammad Shahzad, Hussain Ahmad, Muhammad Abubakar, Muhammad Ajmal
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 145-158; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.2.000783

Abstract:
It is difficult to measure the key biological process variables of photosynthetic bacteria fermentation in real-time, and offline measurement has a large time lag and cannot meet the needs of real-time optimization control. In this paper, a soft sensor model based on least square support vector machine with an improved bat algorithm (IBA-LSSVM) was proposed. The velocity equation of the bat algorithm (BA) was improved and the random variation operation in differential evolution algorithm was introduced into BA algorithm. Thus, the diversity of the population can be increased, and the global and local searching ability of the BA algorithm can be enhanced. Furthermore, the IBA-LSSVM soft sensor model was established for the living cell concentration and compared with BA-LSSVM soft sensor model. Finally, the simulation results show that the improved model was the better learning ability and prediction performance than BA-LSSVM, the measurement error is 0.1358. The improved model could provide accurate guidance for the photosynthetic bacteria fermentation control optimization. This model has certain practical value.
Mounaim Aqil, Atman Jbari, Abdennasser Bourouhou
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 183-204; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.2.000770

Abstract:
The baseline wander is among the artifacts that corrupt the ECG signal. This noise can affect some signal features, in particular the ST segment, which is an important marker for the diagnosis of ischemia. This paper presents a study on the effectiveness of several methods and techniques for suppressing the baseline wonder (BW) from the ECG signals. As a result, a new technique called moving average of wavelet approximation coefficients (DWT-MAV) is proposed. The techniques concerned are the moving average, the approximation of the baseline by polynomial fitting, the Savitzky-Golay filtering, and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The comparison of this techniques is performed using the main criteria for assessing the BW denoising quality criteria such mean square error (MSE), percent root mean square difference (PRD) and correlation coefficient (COR). In this paper, three other criteria of comparison are proposed namely the number of samples of the ECG signal, the baseline frequency variation and the time processing. Two of these new indices are related to possible real time ECG denoising. To improve the quality of BW suppression including the new indices, a new method is proposed. This technique is a combination of the DWT and the moving average methods. This new technique performs the best compromise in terms of MSE, PRD, coefficient correlation and the time processing. The simulations were performed on ECG recording from MIT-BIH database with synthetic and real baselines.
Merilin Al Sharif, Petko Alov, Vessela Vitcheva, Antonia Diukendjieva, Denitsa Aluani, Virginia Tzankova, Ilza Pajeva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 117-132; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.2.000792

Abstract:
Triterpenoids are well known metabolic syndrome (MetS) modulators. One of the suggested molecular mechanisms of action involves peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activation. In this study we aimed to: (i) develop a virtual screening (VS) protocol for PPARγ weak partial agonists, (ii) predict potential metabolic transformations of naturally-derived triterpenoids, and (iii) perform VS of the triterpenoids and their metabolites. The NIH PubMed system was searched for publications about naturally-derived oleanane triterpenoids which are agonists or up-regulators of PPARγ. Structure- and ligand-based methods were combined in the development of the VS protocol. Metabolites were predicted using Meteor Nexus expert system (Lhasa Limited). Two in-house virtual libraries of PPARγ weak partial agonists and naturally-derived triterpenoids with their predicted metabolites were compiled. The pharmacophore-based docking protocol was applied for VS of the collected triterpenoids. Most of the docking poses reproduced the binding mode of caulophyllogenin (a weak partial agonist) in a complex with PPARγ (PDB ID 5F9B). Our results contribute to the mechanistic explanation of the effects of triterpenoids suggesting possible weak partial agonistic activity toward PPARγ. This research can direct further studies on triterpenoids’ role in MetS modulation. The developed protocol can be applied for VS of any PPARγ weak partial agonists.
Nora Kostova, Albena Staynova, Ljubomira Popova-Hadjiiska, Dimka Georgieva, Ilonka Ivanova, Rositsa Hristova
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 159-168; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.2.000794

Abstract:
Curcumin is a component of natural spice Curcuma longa. It is known that this polyphenol has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The mechanism of curcumin effectiveness on both healthy and cancer tissues is still unclear. Aims: In vitro assessment of curcumin effect on both double-strand breaks and chromosomal translocations frequency, after γ-irradiation. Methods: Human peripheral blood samples were pre-treated with different concentrations of curcumin (0.5 µg/ml; 10 µg/ml; 20 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml). Thereafter they were exposed to 60Co γ-rays using various irradiation doses (0.05 Gy; 0.5 Gy; 1 Gy and 2 Gy). Both γ H2AX/53BP1 foci assay and FISH analysis were used to evaluate DNA double-strand breaks and translocation frequencies. Results: Curcumin pre-treatment exhibited significant lower γ-H2AX/53BP1 foci appearance and reduced translocations frequency in irradiated compared to untreated lymphocytes. At 1 Gy irradiation and 10 µg/ml curcumin, the reduction of total translocations frequency was 42%. We found that at 2 Gy irradiation, the most protective concentration was 0.5 µg/ml curcumin. In this case, translocations declined almost twofold compared to curcumin non-treated cells. Conclusion: The present in vitro study demonstrates that curcumin reduces both γ-H2AX/53BP1 foci and translocations occurrence in peripheral blood lymphocytes, after γ-irradiation.
F. A. K. Al-Saffar, M. Z. S. Al-Khayyat
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 133-144; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.2.000721

Abstract:
Nitrogen fixation is carried by an enzyme complex called nitrogenase which consists of two main components, a dinitrogenase that is encoded by nifD and nifK and an iron containing reductase, also called Fe protein which is encoded by nifH. Nitrogen-free medium was used to detect the ability of nitrogen fixation by Klebsiella pneumonia, then DNA was extracted and overlap extension polymerase chain reaction of nifH, nifD and nifK. To obtain nucleotide sequences of these genes, sequencing of the PCR products was one. The reverse sequence of nifH and the forward sequences of nifD and nifK were converted into amino acids using online translation tool. Homology modeling was carried out using SWISS-MODEL. The modeled amino acids sequences was validated using ERRAT and PROCHECK. The modeled sequences were reliable and of quality higher than 90%. The two subunits of Fe protein were constructed and tertiary structure was predicted together with the binding sites for prosthetic group and ADP molecule in Fe protein. The following amino acids Asp11, Lys13, Asn157, Ser158, Val183, Pro184, Arg185, Asp186, Val189, Gln190 and Glu193 seem to participate in the ADP binding. The complexity of this enzyme makes it difficult to be cloned in plants.
, Galina Yotova, Veronika Mihaylova, Svetlana Lazarova, Stefan Tsakovski
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 169-182; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.2.000823

Abstract:
Data analysis of wastewater samples at the outlets of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Pazardzhik, Plovdiv and Svilengrad, which discharge into the Maritsa River is presented. Total monthly loads for 2017 at the outlets are calculated using the monthly averages for the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen (TN) and the monthly averages for the flow rates. The contributions of the WWTPs to the total river loads emphasize that the impact of WWTPs of Pazardzhik and Plovdiv is significantly greater than WWTP of Svilengrad. Additionally, river water samples were collected before and after the discharge points of the WWTPs in August 2018 and analyzed for water quality parameters listed in Directive 75/440/EEC. Comparison between the river concentrations before the outlet of WWPT - Pazardzhik and after the last sampling point (the outlet of WWTP - Svilengrad) indicates an increase for all the studied parameters, except for Al and Cu. Based on the results obtained for TN, the category of the surface water is significantly deteriorated after discharge of the WWTP - Plovdiv. Wastewater effect on the river surface water is also estimated by using a battery of ecotoxicological tests. The results are presented and compared by the classical approach using categorization based on water quality indicators.
Zhengwen Shen, Jun Wang, Zaiyu Pan, Kai Yang
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 5-12; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.1.000597

Abstract:
Hand-dorsa vein recognition using a convolutional neural network is presented. Our network contains five convolutional layers and three full connected layers, which have high recognition and more robust. The experimental results on the self-established database with the proposed CNN achieves 98.02% in training part and 97.65% in testing part, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed CNN.
Alexander Kroumov, Fabiano Scheufele, Maya Zaharieva, Aparecido Módenes, Daniela Trigueros, Carlos Borba, Fernando Espinoza-Quiñones, Hristo Najdenski
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 53-72; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.1.000793

Abstract:
The article presents deep and complex analysis based on the changes of life of human society during the COVID-19 pandemic. The World as never before has a global common enemy and everyone is in danger doesn’t matter where he lives and what is the occupation. The life new dimensions are considered as an 8-coordinate system where the new 4 coordinates – coronavirus, “virus” of poverty, “virus” of chronically ill people and scientists as new leading factor of the world. It means, a simple solution for prevention and regulation of pandemic doesn’t exist. Countries and outbreaks are represented by 4 everlasting coordinates – three for space and for time measurement. The life of human society is conditionally divided of 4 hierarchic levels. Interactions between them have to be studied by scientists from all areas in order to win this word challenge where all humans are on the same side of the barricade. The presented analysis could be extremely useful for explanation the errors made by leaders and to show them that the new reality requires relevant and effective decisions based on scientific complex analyzes and taking into account the four hierarchic levels of knowledge.
Zabir Al Nazi, A. B. M. Aowlad Hossain, Monirul Islam
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 13-24; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.1.000611

Abstract:
Classification of electroencephalography (EEG) signals for brain-computer interface has great impact on people having various kinds of physical disabilities. Motor imagery EEG signals of hand and leg movement classification can help people whose limbs are replaced by prosthetics. In this paper, random subspace ensemble network with variable length feature sampling has been proposed for improving the prediction accuracy of motor imagery EEG signal classification. The method has been tested on eight different subjects and a hybrid dataset of two subjects data combined. Discrete wavelet transform based de-noising scheme has been adopted to remove artifacts from the EEG signal. For sub-band selection, dual-tree complex wavelet Transform has been employed. Mutual information scoring has been used for univariate feature selection from the feature space. A comparative analysis has been carried out where random subspace ensemble network outperformed other classification models. The maximum accuracy obtained by the model was 90.00%. Furthermore, the model showed better performance on the hybrid dataset with an average accuracy of 86.00%. The findings of this study are expected to be useful in artificial limb movements through brain-computer interfacing for rehabilitation of people with such physical disabilities.
Elena Mermeklieva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 73-86; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.1.000805

Abstract:
The aim of the study is to present the different electrophysiological methods (EF) for study the retinal function and to highlight their importance in the diagnosis of hereditary retinal dystrophies (HRDs). EF methods are objective methods including the different types of electroretinography (ERG) and electrooculography (EOG). They are “the golden standard” in the diagnosis of retinal dystrophies. EF are especially valuable in the initial stages of the diseases and in asymptomatic forms. They are also particularly important for monitoring the changes in dynamics, which is very important for the diseases prognosis. HRDs are a heterogeneous group of diseases with a relatively low frequency in the human population, characterized by involvement of different retinal layers, most often the complex retinal pigment epithelium-photoreceptors and causing severe visual impairment - loss of night vision, visual field, color vision and visual acuity in the initial stages and leading to progressive and severe loss of visual function by altering the retinal anatomy and function. By EF studies can evaluate the function of the retina in patients with these “rare eye diseases”. EF methods are most important in the diagnosis of HRDs. They are also important in the differential diagnosis between the different retinal dystrophies. A major challenge for the ophthalmologists is to identify the diseases in the early stages. There is an urgent need for more knowledge and practical use of these methods for accurate diagnosis which is a prerequisite for a proper therapy.
Galina Yotova, Svetlana Lazarova, Veronika Mihaylova,
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 25-40; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.1.000778

Abstract:
Surface water samples in Ogosta River, Bulgaria and wastewater samples at the inlet and outlet of WWTP–Montana were tested for the traditional parameters and ecotoxicological effect. The river and Dam surface waters comply with category A1 of Directive 75/440/EEC for pH, EC, COD, TSS, NO3–, Cl–, SO42–, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn; with category A2 for BOD5, NH4+–N and Fe; and with category A3 for TNb and As. The average annual concentrations of Al, Cr (III), Cr (VI) and U are lower than the set limits in the Water Framework Directive. Arsenic concentration in all the samples exceeds the maximum allowed concentration, a results from natural processes. All the levels of the studied parameters in the outlet wastewater samples are lower than the limits, set in Directive 91/271/EEC and in the complex permit of the WWTP. The results of the biotest Phytotoxkit F™ show low ecotoxicity of the water samples. Optimization of the sample pretreatment prior to this ecotoxicological test is analyzed and discussed.
Svetozar Stoichev, Stefka Taneva, Avgustina Danailova, , Tonya Andreeva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 101-111; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.1.000746

Abstract:
Opiorphin (Oph) is a naturally produced endogenous peptide with a strong analgesic effect, superior to that of morphine, and without the severe side effects that morphine and morphine-like drugs exert. However, despite its strong therapeutic potential, the short duration of action, probably due to its low chemical stability and rapid degradation by the peptidases in the bloodstream, represents a serious obstacle to the Oph use into clinical practice. In this work a novel approach to construct Oph-loaded particles as a platform for its delivery has been developed. Gel beads loaded with Oph were synthesized from alginate, a naturally occurring biodegradable anionic polysaccharide, and coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers (from natural polyelectrolytes (chitosan and hyaluronic acid) and synthetic polyelectrolytes (poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(styrene sulfonate)) or hybrid polyelectrolyte-graphene oxide multilayers. All coated Oph-loaded alginate beads show prolonged drug release compared to the non-coated ones, but the extent of the prolongation depends on the type of the coating. We expect that the successful encapsulation of opiorphin in biodegradable particles will provide an opportunity for the development of adequate drug delivery system with effective and prolonged analgesic activity and will offer a new alternative for pain management.
Meng Gao, Haodong Wang, Weizheng Shen, Zhongbin Su, Huihuan Liu, Yanling Yin, Yonggen Zhang, Yi Zhang
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 87-100; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.1.000812

Abstract:
In dairy herd management, it is significant and irreplaceable for veterinarians to make rapid and effective diagnosis of dairy cow diseases. Based on electronic medical records, deep learning (DL) has been widely used to support clinical decisions for humans. However, this method is rarely adopted in veterinary diagnosis. In addition, most DL models are driven by large datasets, failing to utilize the knowledge acquired by veterinarians in subjective experience, which is critical to disease diagnosis. To address these problems, this paper proposes a DL method for disease diagnosis of dairy cow: convolutional neural network (CNN) based on knowledge graph and transfer learning (KGTL_CNN). Firstly, the structural knowledge was extracted from a knowledge graph of dairy cow diseases, and treated as part of the inputs to the CNN based on knowledge graph (KG_CNN). Then, the model performance was enhanced through pre-training by transfer learning. To verify its performance, experiments were carried out on dairy cow clinical datasets. The results show that our model performed satisfactorily on disease diagnosis: the KG_CNN and KGTL_CNN achieved an F1-score of 85.87% and 86.77%, respectively, higher than that of typical CNN by 6.58% and 7.7%. The research results greatly promote the effective, fast, and automatic clinical diagnosis of dairy cow diseases.
Daniela Dimitrova, Biliana Nikolova, Vanya Bogoeva, Bozhil Robev, Iana Tsoneva, Stanislav Dimitrov, Boris Kadinov
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 25, pp 41-52; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2021.25.1.000788

Abstract:
Mistletoe (Viscum album L., VA) lectins (MLs) are plant lectins with potent anticancer activity. Although wide use of VA extracts in curing cancer, the effects of purified MLs on human vasculature in term of possible side effect of the lectin has not yet been reported. The present study was aimed to investigate isometric contractions of isolated human mesenteric arteries during MLs application. The contractile response of arteries was studied using Mulvany-Halpern myograph and the isometric contractions under MLs’ treatment were examined in artery segments with either intact endothelium or after endothelium removal. Furthermore, the effect of the lectin was assessed in arterial preparations in basal tension, in arteries precontracted with 42 mM KCl as a depolarizing stimulus or endothelin-1 (ET-1) as a potent receptor-operated agonist of vascular smooth muscle contraction. The results showed that MLs (1 to 100 nM) failed to affect the high K+-induced contractions of both endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded arteries. The contractions of tissue preparations without endothelium in basal tone or after ET-1 (1 nM) treatment were also not affected by the application of MLs. The observed mild effect of MLs on the contractility of human vasculature may potentially be beneficial with MLs-based anticancer therapy without vascular side effects.
Veronika Ivanova, Ditchko Batchvarov, Ani Boneva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 24, pp 403-417; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2020.24.4.000723

Abstract:
The main target of everyone engineering work associated with minimally-invasive surgery is to provide adequate tool-tissue force information to the surgeons so that they can regain the sense of touch that has been lost through laparoscopic surgery. In this context the main objective of the work design novel family laparoscopic tools with better technical characteristics, and incorporation of force and other sensors and elements in construction of tools for restore sense of touch in the process of laparoscopy. Thus it is improving some technical side of this laparoscopic instruments. In contrast to daVinchi robots by Intuitive Surgical Incorporation which instruments are designed for manipulation and imaging we offer family tools with additional functions such as diagnosis and therapeutics tasks. Therefore we decide two main problems: i) we designed and produced an original construction of an adequate experimental module for robots, where was incorporated two force sensors to provide tool-tissue information (some of which was described and discussed at previous works); and ii) we realized hardware and program resources for control and monitoring of this module which is the object of this work. The computer program includes information about various measurements of the tip tool – surface contact interactions and data obtained from the experimental module that is used to find the difference between date from previous measuring and received information in real time. Another signification advantage of the proposed program solution is the graphical visualization of the measuring and comparing the results. Therefore, the surgeon can give the adequate command to force interaction between the instrument and tissue. For verification of the functionality and working capacity of the experimental module with force feedback capabilities for robots were conducted different experiments with the designed control system.
Zainab Bibi, Aqsa Khalid, Iqra Iftikhar, Muhammad Rizwan, Azhar Mehmood, Sajid Khan, Anum Munir
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 24, pp 349-358; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2020.24.4.000600

Abstract:
Hypothetical proteins (HPs) are those whose sequence is present but nothing is known about their structural and functional annotations. Elucidation of structural and functional insights would be effective enough in perceiving the protein interactions and their involvement in various pathways and networks. Ananas comosus is considered as third most essential tropical fruit and is given more consideration from the commercial point of view; therefore, in this research, it is taken for analysis using different approaches of bioinformatics. On the basis of subcellular localization and secondary structure analysis, it was suggested that HP is the nuclear protein consisting of α helices and more abundant coils. Homology modeling has been done through Swiss Model to determine their template structure but template identity score is not enough which uncover the fact that the protein OAY63476.1 is unpredicted in-vitro. In order to predict the 3D structure of protein, Phyre 2 server is utilized. Results are validated by different strategies revealing the stability of the developed model. The quality factor of this protein is 45.28. Functional analysis and domain identification have been performed by using NCBI-CDD and Pfam which suggested that protein contains ring variant domain. Comparative genome analysis has been performed with other proteins of plants which demonstrate that the selected protein has the highest similarity. This study paves the way in order to determine the structural and functional annotations of other uncharacterized proteins and effective in exploring other novel proteins along with their functions in the same way as that of this research study.
Ivan Dotsinsky, Todor Stoyanov, Georgy Mihov
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 24, pp 381-392; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2020.24.4.000802

Abstract:
The acquired ECG signals are often contaminated by residual Power-line Interference (PLI). A lot of methods, algorithms and techniques for PLI reduction have been published over the last few decades. The so called subtraction procedure is known to eliminate almost totally the interference without affecting the signal spectrum. The goal of our research was to develop a heuristic version of the procedure intended for ECG signals with high Sampling Rate (SR) up to 128 kHz. The PLI is extracted from the corrupted signal by technique similar to second order band-pass filter but with practically zero phase error. The sample number as well as the left and right parts outside the samples belonging to a current sine wave, which is extracted from the contaminated signal, are counted and measured. They are used to compensate the error arising with the shift between the moving averaged free of PLI signal samples and their real position along the linear segments (usually PQ and TP intervals having frequency band near to zero). The here calculated PLI components are appropriately interpolated to ‘clean’ the dynamically changed in amplitude and position contaminated samples within the non-linear segments (QRS complexes and high T waves). The reported version of the subtraction procedure is tested with 5 and 128 kHz sampled ECG signals. The maximum absolute error is about 20 μV except for the ends of the recordings. Finally, an approach to PLI elimination from paced ECG signals is proposed. It includes pace pulse extraction, signal re-sampling down to 4 kHz and subtraction procedure implementation followed by adding back the removed pace pulses.
Krasimira Prodanova
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 24, pp 337-348; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2020.24.4.000593

Abstract:
For the multiple drug administration from therapeutic reasons it is important to maintain the concentration in the blood plasma in an appropriate range. In the present paper an optimization approach is developed to determine drug dosage regimen to achieve the desired plasma concentrations after application from depot, i.e. oral, muscular, subcutant. The developed methodology allows the optimization of both the dose and the dosage interval. Performance of the developed methodology is evaluated by computing bias and precision of the estimated trough and peak drug concentrations that are reached after dosage regimen determinations. This article focuses on an optimal impulsive control of compartment model to individualise dosage regimens of Amikacin in the context of extended dosage intervals. Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections.
Kapka Mancheva, Teodora Vukova, Georgi Atanasov, Andon Kossev
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 24, pp 393-402; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2020.24.4.000755

Abstract:
Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from first dorsal interosseous muscle of non-dominant hand in response to contralateral transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in seven right-handed healthy volunteers during relaxed muscles (without electromyorgaphic activity and zero force production), isometric index finger abduction (20% of individual measured maximum voluntary contraction in direction of abduction) and co-activation of antagonist muscles (simultaneously activated antagonist muscles, matching level equal to 20% of individual measured maximum voluntary contraction in direction of abduction by increasing the angle stiffness without producing of external force). The excitability of motor cortex was assessed by the amplitudes of MEPs recorded in response to increasing stimulation intensity: 100%, 110%, 120%, 130%, 140% of individually measured motor threshold at relax. The aim of the present study was using the method of transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the effect of different types of muscle activity in non-dominant hand. The secondary purpose was to compare new collected data with our previous data about dominant hand. At non-dominant hand we found significant changes between relax condition and each of the two active motor tasks almost at all five investigated TMS intensities. Also, we found that MEP amplitudes during abduction were significantly bigger than MEP amplitudes during co-activation of antagonist muscles, both in non-dominant hand and in dominant hand. We observed changes between MEP amplitudes of non-dominant and dominant hand during the performance of the same motor task.
Ensiyeh Sokhanvar, Ataollah Askari Hemmat
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 24, pp 359-370; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2020.24.4.000634

Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a Galerkin method based on Legendre multiwavelet functions to obtain approximate solutions of a fractional model for HIV infection of CD4+T cells corresponding to a class of systems of nonlinear fractional differential equations. The method converts the model problem into a system of nonlinear algebraic equations. A numerical example is included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the technique and the results are compared with those obtained by existing methods.
Mohammed Assam Ouali, Asma Tinouna, Mouna Ghanai, Kheireddine Chafaa
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 24, pp 323-336; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2020.24.4.000549

Abstract:
An efficient method for Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal denoising based on synchronous detection and Hilbert transform techniques is presented. The goal of the method is to decompose a noisy ECG signal into two components classified according to their energy: (1) component with high energy representing the dominant component which is the clean ECG signal, and (2) component with low energy representing the sub-dominant component which is the contaminant noise. The investigated approach is validated through out some experimentations on MIT-BIH ECG database. Experimental results show that random noises can be effectively suppressed from ECG signals.
Lyudmila Todorova, Valentina Ignatova, Jivko Surchev, Multiprofile Hospital For Active Treatment – National Heart Hospital Clinic Of Neurology
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 24, pp 371-380; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2020.24.4.000754

Abstract:
Cognitive dysfunction is a leading cause of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is associated with unemployment, need of assistance with daily activities and poor quality of life. The introduction of neuropsychological testing and monitoring of cognitive status as part of the overall evaluation of MS patients in parallel with clinical and paraclinical parameters is highly recommended. Recent studies have demonstrated a better perception and preference for computerized cognitive tests than classic variants, with no significant difference in results. In accordance with global trends, a bilingual computer system CogniSoft for assessment and rehabilitation of cognitive status in persons with MS has been developed, including: 1) a set of diagnostic tests for evaluation of memory and executive functions based on the nature of Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS); 2) a set of games for cognitive rehabilitation. Questionnaire for depression (Beck Depression Inventory – BDI-II) will be filled before conduction of the neuropsychological tests for differentiation of possible depression which could interfere with the results. The CogniSoft information system will incorporate two approaches for evaluation of neuropsychological results which will allow early detection of cognitive impairments in these patients, which will initiate timely cognitive rehabilitation.
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