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Raikan Ysmailova, Tolgonai Imankulova, Zamira Kalmamatova, Gulsina Zhakaeva, Sonaiym Kochkonbaeva, Zhypargul Abdullaeva, Zhyldyz Turgunbaeva, Dinara Salieva, Bekzada Adylbekova, Malinbu Zhusubalieva
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 1-9; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.111001

Abstract:
This article is investigating the development of the English language and its influence on global communication in the world. Globalization has both positive and negative effects on existing languages, integration between countries and cultures as it involves changes. Survey and interview methods are applied for the determination of various people’s level of foreign language knowledge and opinions about globalization. Practical implication in this work is to inform society about globalization through the foreign language expansion, the language transmission through lexicon or vocabulary, and the grammar.
Amir Dhami
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 105-123; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.113009

Abstract:
Diversity within the film industry is growing in popularity both from a social and economic standpoint. More studios are willing to invest in implementing diversity in film through both the crew and cast. Still, the diversity that is added into film is not always genuine and valued—sometimes it is added for financial incentives. This study aims to determine which genre of film has the least financial incentive for including diversity. The study employs a meta-analysis methodology combined with a survey component. Across the action, drama, horror, and comedy genres, the study will compare quantitative financial metrics against qualitative audience response metrics to answer which genre of film adds valued diversity as opposed to using it as a marketing tool. Within the context of the study, diversity in film is defined as passing two of seven chosen diversity tests, which are acknowledged by multiple publications as legitimate. Data sets of box office revenue, total tickets sold, and dollars spent per ticket are compared to generate a financial perspective. Additionally, data sets of share of voice and a Likert scale survey are compared to generate a general audience perspective. The results of the study yielded the horror genre as having the least financial incentive to include diversity in film. As a result of modern, diverse horror being valued by audiences while spending significantly less on average to market and produce the films, compared to its non-diverse counterpart, a thematic shift within the horror genre may occur within the upcoming decade.
Weihan Liu
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 25-31; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.111003

Abstract:
Between 1933 and 1941, approximately 30,000 Jewish refugees arrived on the coast of Shanghai. While some of them passed through to other countries for sanctuary, most of them stayed in Shanghai until the war ended. These refugees represented the Third Wave of Jewish migration into Shanghai. In the light of the Sino-Japanese war, the governing authorities in Shanghai tried to stem the influx of Jewish refugees. Despite this pressure, the Jewish refugees managed to not only enter Shanghai but quickly create thriving communities in the Tilanqiao area. This paper argues that they were able to do this because of extensive help provided by already established Jewish communities in Shanghai and overseas organizations such as the Joint Distribution Committee. The support provided by these entities is often underplayed in the official historical reports of this time. Using documentary evidence and refugee memoirs, this paper will argue that in the absence of this help from the Jewish communities and overseas organizations, the Jewish refugees would not have been able to enter Shanghai, escape Nazi persecution and thrive in the way that they did.
Maurizio Esposito, Elena Addessi
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 52-63; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.112005

Abstract:
Italy was reached by the pandemic 21 February 2020. Right away, Social Services launched initiatives to support and respond to the needs of vulnerable people, strengthening their professional experiences and changing, in a flexible manner, their ways of intervening. Social workers have woven the network, which now allows ensuring people the continuity of emergency interventions. By reorganizing their services, they have started innovative ways of being closer to people, to families and local communities, re-creating and strengthening relationships and social networks. In networking, social workers have a connecting role in creating links and synergies between various formal and informal resources in order to promote the well-being of the individual. The modus operandi of social workers is constantly evolving, as they are becoming promoters of the process of change and creators of new best practices that shape, with new professional awareness, the new social and historical context marked by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Rawnaq Ara Parvin, Shariful Islam, Mst. Sharmin Akter, Shaikh Shahriar Mohammod, Bokul Hossain, Sarawat Rashid
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 65-80; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.113006

Abstract:
As a developing nation, Bangladeshi people had to work during lockdown which is the result of a sudden outbreak of COVID-19. It creates different problems in day to day life of common people. The present study, therefore, attempts to understand the socio-economic crisis and mental stress in managing the family within the limited resources of Bangladesh during the lockdown period. The data was collected via a snowball sampling survey method by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Datasets were analyzed through different statistical tools like mean, standard deviation, and percentage. Research shows that female and aged people are much anxious about being affected. Petty business runners are much worried about their basic earning. Affording food to a family within a foreseeable economic crisis, brunt from job loss, the propensity of commodity’s high price, wariness for child’s academic career through e-learning led people distressed. Insomnia, fatigue, helplessness, distress are notable problems during the time of lockdown. Research finds that mental pressure results from insufficient sleep are creating short temper and chaos in the family and social life also. Strengthening the medical system, creating mass consciousness, implicating time-oriented policy with psycho-social upshots can mitigate the fragility of psychological stress.
Lucio Meglio
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 95-104; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.113008

Abstract:
The hypothesis of this research is that, although not explicitly stated, the attitude of the two pontiffs of youth against has been changed. A demonstration of this thesis was conducted a thorough analysis on the data provided by samples of papal speeches, using as a methodological tool program textual analysis Atlas.ti 5.0. Not only are there differences in the type of communication with young people established by the two popes, but also a different emotional tone is highlighted by the analysis of textual qualifiers. Even in some images there is a greater proximity compared to the previous public youth Pope John Paul II.
Jake Hart, Wen-Jui Han
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 33-51; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.112004

Abstract:
As labor markets have become increasingly volatile, more workers are susceptible to conditions that threaten their economic security. COVID-19 has further laid bare such economic insecurity with far-reaching implications for coping skills and strategies. Using a cross-sectional dataset collected in May 2020 in the United States, we examined how precarious jobs were associated with alcohol or substance use among parents during the pandemic and if mental distress could explain such a link. Our multivariate regression analysis confirms that holding a job with precarious characteristics, such as feeling defenseless to authoritarian treatment at the workplace, was significantly associated with mental distress and doubled the probability of using alcohol or substance amid COVID-19. And mental distress might help explain such an association. Our analysis underscored the vulnerability faced by our workforce and how a public health crisis magnified the dire consequences of precarious employment on risky health behaviors.
Abbas Sadeghi, Shaghayegh Einaky
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 10-24; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.111002

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological hardiness and resilience with mental health in athletic students of Guilan Provincial University. This research is a correlation study and the population includes all athletic students of Guilan Applied Science and Technology University. Sampling was done randomly from among the climbers in Rasht city (61 people). We used the Conner and Davidson Resource Scale(CD-RISC) questionnaire, Iran and the Ahvaz Hardiness questionnaire and also GHQ questionnaire for collecting information. There was a significant relationship between psychological hardiness and resiliency with mental health (p P s this variable can explain the research sample alongside the variable of mental health changes. Ultimately, the higher the tenacity of a person, the mental health also increases. The findings of this study showed the importance of psychological hardiness and resiliency in maintaining and improving mental health of students. Psychological hardiness and resilience can explain the variability of mental health in students.
Gregory C. Leavitt
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 81-94; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.113007

Abstract:
The incest taboo has been the subject of much curiosity since the mid-19th century. While the taboo and its violation have consumed much attention especially concerning the abuse of children, other scholars have focused on the origin of the incest taboo. This focus on origin created a division between those who ascribed to Darwin’s selection theory and those who recognized environmental conditions. In the latter case what has been underdeveloped is an understanding of materialist-environmental theory as a powerful explanation for understanding complex human behaviors. In the following article I will examine the nature of materialist-environmentalism and its efficacy in explaining sociocultural evolution of human society, the specific evolution of the Hindu taboo against eating beef, and the general sociocultural evolution of the incest taboo, as powerful examples of material-environmental theory. In conclusion I will survey specifically the origin of the incest taboo through environmental theory.
Ph.D Steven Gerardi
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 82-85; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.102007

Abstract:
This effort will suggest that Durkheim argued that suicide is a function of the levels of Social Integration into the Conscience Collective of the social group. Consistent with his hypothesis, Durkheim identified four forms of suicide and their related levels (high/low) of social integration affecting the personal act of suicide. Lastly, this effort is not a traditional research project, as was mentioned above; rather is reevaluation of a classical sociological theory.
Haotian Zheng, Briana Starks, James Ellis, Megan O’Brien, William Elliott
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 165-186; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.103011

Abstract:
Even though ownership of a Children’s Savings Account (CSA), children’s academic achievement, and parental college expectations are potentially key components for closing the inequality gap in education, the interdependence of these elements is not yet fully understood. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we utilize structural equation modeling (SEM) in this cross-sectional study to examine the mediating role of parental college expectations on the relationship between ownership of a Harold Alfond College Challenge (HACC) account and parents’ perception of children’s math and reading abilities by the level of household income. Although it is currently a universal, opt-out CSA program available to all babies born in Maine, HACC started in 2008 as an opt-in program, and it is this timeframe that is the focus of the current study. SEM models utilizing survey data from a sample of Maine parents reveal a positive association between the Alfond Grant enrollment and parental college expectations among low-to-moderate income families. Moreover, parental expectations are found to be a complete mediator between having a HACC account and parental perceptions of children’s math ability (but not reading ability) among low-to-moderate income students. No findings were significant for high income families. Correlational evidence from this study suggests that HACC may complement schools’ academic objectives in Maine, particularly about improving parents’ perceptions of their child’s math performance among low-to-moderate income families. This study highlights the need for more rigorous research on HACC and its potential effects on children’s educational attainment.
Charity Perry, Rick Fraser
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 55-69; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.102005

Abstract:
The current qualitative research study enhances the understanding of new norms on transition days for researchers and clinicians who focus on marriage and family issues among stepfamilies or blended families. Thirteen family members (biological parents, stepparents) who were in various stages of stepfamily formation were assessed. The current study explicated a main theme: New Norms. After further analysis, two subthemes emerged that families must navigate on transition day: Cohesive New Family and New Children. The researchers also describe the positives and negatives of new norms. By gaining a more in-depth understanding of the challenges blended families face during transition days, immediate assistance may be provided to families. The results of the study are applicable to any individual, clinician, or researcher who desires a deeper understanding of stepfamily narratives.
AnaO Zhang, Zibei Chen, Kaipeng Wang, William Elliott, So’Phelia Morrow
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 1-14; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.101001

Abstract:
Children’s Savings Accounts (CSAs) are interventions designed to build educational assets for school-age children. The positive effects of having a CSA has been established for mental health and developmental outcomes, yet no studies to date have examined how CSAs affect children’s physical health. This study uses data from Harold Alfond College Challenge, the oldest and one of the most well-known CSA programs in the United States, to evaluate the association between a CSA and children’s physical health status measured by parent-rated children’s health. Results indicate CSA ownership is associated with a greater chance of reporting excellent or very good health than those families who did not receive a CSA. Implications on research and CSA programs are discussed.
Maurizio Esposito
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 19-34; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.101003

Abstract:
The article deals with the importance of practicing physical activity and sport in prisons, not only from a health and physical point of view but especially from a social and relational point of view. A prodromal examination of the sense of punishment between a security paradigm and a treatment paradigm opens up the analysis of the sense of practicing physical activity in prison. From a brief description of the main codes and rules in context and of some Memorandum of Understandings at a comparative level, it will then go on to outline the case studies of some social projects conducted in Italian prisons, as an example of good practices in the sector. The official data, provided by Italian Ministry of Justice, referring to the year 2017, show the absolute and relative rates of the participation of prisoners in sports activities, data which show a relatively low participation in them, especially regarding female prisoners. The conclusion attests that sport is not enough: only with the transformation of total institution in a social institution, prison can become the place where prevention strategies can offer the possibility to prevent the prisoner, once released, returns to his community with even greater problems than those who lived before entering the institute, with all possible consequential damages in terms of recidivism and social security.
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 86-126; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.102008

Abstract:
This study examines the backgrounds of the winners of the MacArthur Fellowship grants from 1981 to 2018, from the conceptual framework of the term “genius”. The study finds that of the 1014 Fellows, Whites account for over eight out of every ten; minorities account for almost 20%; men account for almost 63%; White men account for 51.3%; Blacks account for 12.5%; Asians account for 5.9%; and Native Americans account for 1.2 percent. Of 965 terminal or highest degrees earned by 928 Fellows, 540 (56%) are doctorates, with the Ph.D. accounting for 514 (53.3%). White men earned the majority of all degrees (50.8%). Harvard University awarded the highest number of degrees, 119: Yale University, 61; University of California, Berkeley, 51; Columbia University, 44; and Princeton University, 41. All eight Ivy league institutions awarded 306 (31.7%) degrees to 300 (32.3%) Fellows. The 2020 U.S. News and World Report Top 25 institutions combined awarded 522 degrees (54.1%) to 514 Fellows (55.5%). There is a link among earned doctoral degrees, foreign-born males, and the overall gender gap in the study.
Eric Herring, Peter Campbell, Mustafe Elmi, Latif Ismail, Sandra McNeill, Abdi Rubac, Asma Saed Ali, Amel Saeed, Mohamed Shidane
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 200-221; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.104013

Abstract:
The research explored the educational and broader social impacts of COVID-19 control measures and efforts to compensate for those measures in the education sector (e.g. by online teaching) in Somalia/Somaliland. It did so through 131 interviews and four focus group discussions with forty government educational officials, educators and the public with a wide range of educational experiences, including no education ever. Positive views of the general availability and quality of education were based on comparisons with the past period of civil war and state collapse. Nearly all participants agreed that education had been harmed severely by COVID-19 control measures. They also tended to agree the educational inequalities that disadvantaged girls, the poor and rural populations had been exacerbated by COVID-19 control measures and by education provision to compensate for educational institution closures. Building back better in education as a response to COVID-19 is not happening when looked at overall, as even the positive efforts, while laudable in themselves, are exacerbating inequalities. The findings were similar for both locations. The research highlights the need and potential support for a more inclusive approach to responding to COVID-19 in the education sector.
Steven Gerardi
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 222-225; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.104014

Abstract:
With the onset of COVID-19 pandemic in the USA many schools closed and were replaced with in-home computer instruction. This action, required Computers, Internet, and WIFI to access the daily lessons. This effort will suggest that many of the poor/working class parents of many of these students will be unable to afford the luxuries of Computers, Internet, and WIFI. Hence, these students/children will be unable to access the class sessions and assignments, negatively affecting their intellectual and social growth.
Steven Gerardi
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 15-18; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.101002

Abstract:
Consistent with the Social Behaviorist’ theories of G.H. Mead and C.H. Cooley are Einstein’s Scientific Quantum Entanglement (QE) and Nagarajuna’s (Eastern Philosopher) concepts of Sunyata which emphasized the importance of society’s affirmation of nature. This effort will suggest that the Social Behaviorist mentioned above (Mead & Cooley) were profoundly influenced by the concepts of Nagarajuna and Einstein in creating the “Looking Glass Self” and the “Social Self” both theories are both based in the need for society to observe, recognize, and understand the natural and socialphenomenon (Sunyata).
Christian Etzrodt
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 35-53; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.101004

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to reconceptualize the classical problem of social order in Thomas Hobbes and Talcott Parsons by utilizing the tool of game theory, and thereby to formulate its motivational and institutional solutions as the basis of a theoretically guided construction of major cultural types. An analysis of the social-order problem shall be presented based on the insight that three aspects (the nature of the cooperation problem as well as motivational and institutional solutions) of Hobbes’s and Parsons’s approach are important. Finally, the three motivational solutions (habits, morality, and altruism) can be combined with the three institutional solutions (rituals, markets, and bureaucracies) in order to form three ideal-types of cultures (one traditional and two modern types), which allows the perception of different types of modernities.
Barend Pieter Venter, Baoyi Guo, Yan Chen
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 70-81; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.102006

Abstract:
This paper investigates the motivations and the forms of practicing CSR in art and culture in China, which is increasingly conducted but still not sufficiently studied. According to cases and interviews, philanthropic responsibility, business results contribution, and corporation reputation enhancement are some core motivations driving corporations in China to practice CSR in art and culture, and they positively correlate with involvement levels in art and culture resources. However, corporate nature and industrial nature own stronger power in corporation CSR decision-making under the instructions of the Chinese government. Therefore, corporations are recommended to ponder their motivations and involvement level of art and culture resources before their actions, and new research perspectives and methodology of CSR studies pertaining to the business context in China deserve a revision as well.
S. Nyock Ilouga, A. C. Moussa Mouloungui, Adalgisa Battistelli
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 127-148; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.103009

Abstract:
The lack of validated evaluation tools on African continent is detrimental to the development of action research, particularly in entrepreneurship. The challenge is to reinforce existing mechanisms that can promote entrepreneurial behavior and at the same time capture the personal dynamics involved in transforming entrepreneurial intention into action. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate measurement tools to evaluate the opinions of Cameroonians in the face of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial occupation. The results, obtained from a sample of 2552 students, self-made men and women, revealed a three-dimensional scale (factor 1: Benefactor, 36.68% of the variance; factor 2: Commitment and capacities, 25.7% of the variance; factor 3: availing, 16.64% variance) whose internal validity (.89) and the stability of the factor structure ensure good psychometric qualities to the tools.
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 226-268; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.104015

Abstract:
This study examines the rapid growth of Africa’s population in the post-World War II era. The study finds that Africa’s population increased by over 1 billion, from 228.7 million in 1950 to 1.341 billion in 2020: 431 million in Eastern Africa; 404 million in Western Africa; 247.5 million in Northern Africa; 193.5 million in Middle Africa; and 64.5 million in Southern Africa. There are four countries in Africa with populations of 100 million or more: 214 million in Nigeria; 108 million in Ethiopia; 104 million in Egypt; and 101.8 million in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Of the 1.341 billion people in Africa in 2020, 755.92 (56.4%) million are aged 24 and younger; and 533.5 (39.8%) million are under the age of 15. Some factors cited for this phenomenon are: high birth rates; high fertility rates; childbirth at a young age; low rates of contraceptive use; decline in infant mortality rates; decline in overall deaths rates; decline in maternal mortality rates; increase in life expectancy; and decline in HIV/AIDS related deaths. Some implications cited as a result of this phenomenon include increase in GDP and GDP per Capita in Africa; increase in the numbers of billionaires and millionaires in Africa; increase in political influence of African nations in the international community; and increase in the number of educated Africans, including those enrolled in college and college graduates. Finally, the study recommends that African nations should make the African Union a fully-fledged federal entity to be responsible for providing healthcare for the entire continent. The African Union should also represent all member states in the international community, including negotiating trade contracts or agreements.
Meta Lavrič, Vanja Gomboc, Nina Krohne, Tina Podlogar, Vita Poštuvan, Nuša Zadravec Šedivy, Diego de Leo
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 187-199; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.104012

Abstract:
Background: On 12 March 2020, Slovenia formally declared the presence of a pandemic of COVID-19 disease, followed by measures to stop the spread of the virus. Scope: The aim of this study was to explore how people experienced the progress of events related to the COVID-19 epidemic. Method: We conducted a general adult population survey by an online questionnaire that included—among others—three open-ended questions. Thematic analysis was applied for each question separately to identify key patterns in the data. Results: The first topic (questions about the epidemic) resulted in four core themes: concerns about the disease, concerns about the future, concerns about measures, and concerns about well-being and daily life. The second topic (positive changes during the epidemic) resulted in three core themes: changes in oneself, changes in close relationships, and changes in the environment and society. Lastly, the third topic (requests for psychological support during the epidemic) resulted in three core themes: direct help and support, information and awareness raising, and media activity. Conclusion: Overall, the themes that emerged from our study provide information that can help in understanding how people perceive the influence on their mental health and well-being of the negative and (some) positive effects of the COVID-19 epidemic. This may be helpful in the general preparedness to a feared second wave of the pandemic.
A. Olu Oyinlade, David Finch, Zachary Christo
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 149-164; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.103010

Abstract:
Students of sociology first encounter an analysis of relations among social structures in the introductory sociology class where they learn that social realities are the products of social structures. And, throughout their academic journey in the acquisition of knowledge in the discipline, sociology students are expected to develop a deep understanding of the nature of the relationships among social structures and the consequences of such relationships to human realities. In this endeavor, students learn the causal relations of substructures and superstructures proffered by Karl Max (deterministic economic infrastructure) and Max Weber (deterministic ideological infrastructure). In both economic and ideological determinisms, one particular social structure is determinant of all other social structures and human social realities. In this study, the ideas of both Marx and Weber are critiqued for causal reductionism or the fallacy of a single cause which is antithetical to sociological reasoning of multi-factor causality. For a better understanding of causal relations among social structures and social realities, this study offers the Multi-Institutional Substructure-Superstructure Model (MISSMOD) as a more comprehensive causal explanation of society’s infrastructure and superstructure relations, which nullifies the distinction (claimed by Marx and Weber) between the infrastructure and the superstructure.
Felicia I. Nwalutu
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 151-167; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.93011

Abstract:
The main purpose of the 2003 first Minister on Health Care Renewal Accord was to ensure that Canadians received accessible, sustainable and portable healthcare. In spite of these provisions, the health of immigrants in Canada living in various provinces continues to fall through the cracks. How does the labor market situation of unemployment and underemployment affect the mental health conditions of immigrants and their access to healthcare? What role do gender, race, and income play in getting access to quality and specialized health care in the provinces? This paper examines the impact of unemployment, underemployment and Term employment on the mental health of immigrants in Canada. The paper uses the author-ethnographic narrative, Spirituality and Healthcare model, anti-racist and anti-colonial theories to foreground immigrants’ experiences in Canada. It concludes that the difficulty of navigating through and penetrating the Canadian labor market for immigrants with foreign training especially the minority groups, grossly limits their integration into the economic mainstream and consequently, their optimal productivity to the society. Failure to secure decent jobs after retraining, with the hope of being accepted by Canadian employers, often leads to depression and other health issues.
Mario Ignacio Aguilar
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 114-126; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.91007

Abstract:
Mother Teresa of Kolkata remains one of the adopted figures of the old Indian capital in that after her arrival to be a teacher in a well-to-do school in Kolkata she took to the slums and the service of the “poorest of the poor” within an independent India. While there are several works published about her life after she opened Nirmal Hriday Ashram, a home for the destitute and the dying in Kolkata, less has been researched on the female Hindu symbolic associations of Kolkata with the feminine, as well as the challenges that Mother Teresa faced when as a Christian and as a woman decided to open Nirma Hriday Ashram. This paper examines the significance of Kālighāt for Kolkata and Hinduism and the issues of (in) purity that were triggered by Mother Teresa’s opening of a place for the dying within a property that previously was part of the Kālighāt. This paper suggests that a socio-historical understanding of Kolkata is central to any understanding of the work of the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata in later periods and their ongoing cooperation with Hindus and Muslims within Kolkata. Thus, ritual purity is not an isolated understanding within a synchronic moment but a generational challenge to ongoing diachronic changes within the City of Kolkata.
Steven Gerardi
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 127-129; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.91008

Abstract:
This effort provides a sociological analysis of the current social/political dichotomy in the United States of America (USA). This analysis will be drawn from two opposing sociological theorist, Talcott Parsons (Functionalism), and Raf Dahrendorf (Conflict View).
Yuan Yuan, Kun Fu, Barend Pieter Venter, Thomas Hainey
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 135-150; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.93010

Abstract:
Citizen morality reflects civilization and is significant to society. Ethics education for improving morality, especially in China, may fail because of its reliance on lecture-based teaching. Game-based learning presents an innovative approach to ethics education. This paper identifies problems in tertiary ethics education and reviews relevant game design principles before establishing a framework for designing educational games that may assist in ethics education. It then proposes a game design model for teaching ethics.
Janan Faraj Falah
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 290-301; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.94019

Abstract:
The present study examines attitudes of Druze adolescent in Israel toward Druze women. It was conducted through questionnaires containing questions and statements. Some items related to relative’s women, others to women in general. Some items expressed attitudes towards men. It tests the hypothesis that demographic variables influence attitudes toward women. Specifically, the study examined the influence of gender, parent’s education, parent’s profession, number of siblings, and religion on social status, education, and profession. The study assumed that community composition and particularly the percentage of Druze population within a community influences attitudes of Druze Adolescence toward women. The questionnaires were delivered to 100 Druze 12th graders. They hailed from three villages: “Yarka, Pqein, and Abo Snan”. The research findings indicate that there is a difference between the attitude of boys and of girls toward the status of women regarding education. Both groups, however, ranked education as more important than social status and profession. Residence influences attitude toward the women’s status regarding education. Conclusions: 1) The Druze religious leaders (men not Women) influence the status of women and attitudes toward women. Influence varies among the villages. 2) The percentage of Druze in the settlement effects women’s status. 3) Girls were more interested than boys in advancing attitudes towards women regarding social status, profession and education.
Janan Faraj Falah
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 273-289; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.94018

Abstract:
In cases of intermarriage, both spouses profess different religions. For 50 years, this trend is rising constantly; naturally, it has not skipped the Druze community, even though its religious laws prohibit intermarriage, up to the point of being outcast from the community. The current study focuses on the extent of adjustment to the other society from the perspective of the Druze married men. The study is made by the qualitative method, the data is gathered through interviews of 5 Druze men, who are married to non-Druze women. The findings indicate that young Druze men meet their non-Druze spouses in the course of working in the city or during their military service. After being married, the Druze men integrate in the new culture, at the same time of being outcast from their Druze family. Over time, they experience disillusionment and enter the phase of nostalgia, yet, they cannot come back home as long as they are married to non-Druze women. The third phase is the phase of integrating between the identities or assimilating the two previous phases, if this phase is not completed properly, the Druze man would leave his non-Druze wife and children at a later age and would try to return to his Druze family and village, or would remain outcast forever.
Yosef Maman, Yosi Yaffe, Janan Faraj Falah
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 207-221; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.93014

Cristina Gomes
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 17-41; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.91002

Abstract:
This article describes the formation of the traditional elite of Brazil from the colonial period, and the main ruptures affecting the republic during short democratic periods in which changes were observed in the composition of their elite. The most recent change is historically contextualized by the formation of a new elite, in the form of the governments of Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff, who were never part of the political-military-hereditary lineage of traditional elites. This was the scenario of the 2014 elections and the impeachment that once again broke away from the democratic system. The historical practices of the traditional elite of Brazil showed themselves to be caught in a vicious circle around the coup d’état to return to power, confronting the responses of the new progressive elite that had resulted from elections during the short periods of democracy. A qualitative methodology of bibliographic review is applied for the construction of the conceptual and analytical framework, and the collection of information from the media for recent facts has still been little analyzed with content analysis, and is complemented with two interviews with people who occupied high government posts, both before and during the coup. The results indicate that the new government elite undervalued the process of financial globalization and promoted the strengthening of representatives of international networks and their entry into the decision-making process, where they formed parallel command structures and networks contrary to government decisions and facilitated the rupture of democracy.
Michelle Cook, Joyce Levingston, Stanley Ebede, Brian Hadley, Younis Al-Hassan, Dong Yub Back, Marie Adebiyi, Christopher R. Edginton
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 1-16; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.91001

Abstract:
The purpose of this article was to gain the voices of youth and to help community leaders from youth service organizations developing an understanding of the concerns and issues facing young people in today’s ever changing society. Youth voices are a valuable resource for community agencies who serve the population. Through implementing the World Café methodology, an environment was constructed to create meaningful conversation in a comfortable, mutually respectful and engaging environment. This qualitative study recruited 43 individuals (14 males and 29 females, age: 14 - 18) to discuss the following seven questions: 1) Can you discuss the ways you think the community can enhance the empowerment of youth? 2) How can we help young people live a life of meaning? 3) What do you see as a barrier or obstacle in reaching your post high school goals and how can we help? 4) In what ways do you think social media can be employed to understand the issues and concerns of youth? 5) What specific concerns in our community do young people face? What can we do to help you handle these concerns? 6) What do you think the community can do to enhance your wellbeing? And 7) What can the community do to assist young people in finding employment? Ultimately, the findings urge that program planners, government officials and policy makers as well as the citizenry, should continuously provide a respectful, meaningful and professional platform for youths to contribute their voice. As youth leaders, the sense of responsibly to appropriately lead young people should not minimize the importance of providing that sense of place to the youth. The five major themes that have emerged include: 1) empowerment and the need for expression; 2) the importance of living a meaningful life; 3) improving ways of knowing and awareness of opportunities; 4) lack of a gathering places; 5) the impact of social media; and 6) need to promote wellness. Conclusion and implications are discussed.
Michael Onyedika Nwalutu
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 86-94; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.91005

Abstract:
This piece examines the Igbo as a nation of many indigenous egalitarian societies and critically, albeit succinctly reviews contributions of renowned scholars, historians, and socio-cultural custodians, from historical and socio-political perspectives, and within the context of colonization; in order to tease out the cardinal cultural pillars upon which the Igbo enwe eze aphorism is anchored. This submission is critical to the understanding of Igbo as a people and how colonization and neo-colonial vestiges had corroded (and therefore weakened) and continues to erode the cultural norms, values and mores that are pivotal to the peoples’ socio-cultural epistemic saliencies (lived experiences). The submission foregrounds the current “weakness” in the Igbo peoples’ political dynamics in Nigeria or elsewhere in the world, in the denotation of the esoteric usage, Igbo enwe eze.
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 316-349; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.94021

Abstract:
This paper examines U.S. immigration policies in the Trump era. By 2017, there were over 250 million international migrants in nations across the world. The world has progressed substantially primarily due to this phenomenon. The GDP of the world increased from $22.6 trillion in 1990 to $80.738 trillion in 2017. The number of billionaires in the world increased from 140 in 1987 to 2153 in March 2019. The number of millionaires in the world in 2017 was 42.155 million. The paper claims that the United States has played an important leadership role in not just hosting the largest share of international migrants, but it has also encouraged other wealthy nations to accept more immigrants. The paper points out, however, that all of this progress is now being undermined by President Donald Trump and his administration by implementing immigration policies that are sharply reducing the number of immigrants entering the United States during his presidency and also calling for European nations to sharply reduce immigration. Immigrant and non-immigrant visas to the United States have all experienced a sharp decline during the Trump presidency. Among the causes of international migration are, fleeing violence, family reunification, education, and job/employment. Among the implications of the Trump administration’s immigration policies are loss of skilled immigrants, decline in U.S. innovation, decline in the U.S. economy, negative effects of family separation, and the stagnation or decline of the U.S. population.
Michael O. Nwalutu, Felicia I. Nwalutu
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 168-182; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.93012

Abstract:
In this work we have argued that the post-independent WeppaWanno patriarchal system has evolved not from its cultural past but as influenced by the duo cultural tragedies implicated in Nupe Islamic invasion and the British/Christian colonial rule. Thus stirring the trajectory from the familiar approach of Western-focused critic of pre- and post-colonial Africa, this paper views the evolving manifestations of feminine and gender-roles in WeppaWannoland as flexible and varied with the positioning of community’s cultural and socio-political experiences through the spectrum of Arabic, and Western colonial influences. The paper demonstrates using qualitative analysis, post-structural leaning, field interviews, and archival records, that while gender and class categories may be critical constituents of WeppaWannocosmology, flexibility of gender as a thought construct was far more important in most part of Africa in the definition of power, although such factors as achievement and ascription were essential.
Ann Curry-Stevens, Gerald Deloney, Matt Morton
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 183-206; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.93013

Abstract:
Racial disparities in social, education and health services continue unabated despite efforts to address them. At the margins of the service delivery system are lesser-known and minimally researched programs known as “culturally specific organizations” that have been developed by and with communities of color. These are organizations that have been developed by a specific community of color and continue to serve that same community of color. This article shares the insights of three leaders in racial equity, who have been immersed in Portland-based organizations for many years: two as organizational leaders and one as an academic research partner. The paper details the organizational assets, the research that provides emerging evidence of their contributions, and the resistance faced by its advocates. Additionally, original qualitative research contributes to this article: insights of the lived experience of leaders of color, and notes gathered over the years of presentations and dialogues in the region have been analyzed. Three additional assets are identified, adding to the seven assets that emerged in the literature. The article closes by identifying the implications that such organizations hold for education, research and practice.
Asafa Jalata
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 95-113; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.91006

Abstract:
The main objective of this paper is to identify and critically examine the main cultural and political prerequisites that the Oromo nation needs to achieve its objectives of political sovereignty and egalitarian democracy and to protect its national interest. First, the paper briefly provides background information on the Oromo cultural and institutional foundations. Second, it identifies and explains the major challenges that Oromo nationalists need to overcome to fulfill the objectives of the Oromo national movement. Third, the piece deals with the current cultural and political strengths and challenges and the main ideological and political roadmaps, which are necessary to fully achieve the political objectives of the Oromo nation and to protect the Oromo national interest.
Steven Gerardi
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 131-133; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.92009

Abstract:
This effort will examine Fredrick Engels’ The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State, and, Margret Mead’s Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies for the genesis of gender roles (patterns of behavior found in males and females in society). Both social scientists view gender roles based in a different social process, and not a biological function.
Michael Onyedika Nwalutu
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 258-272; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.94017

Abstract:
This paper uses personal tragedy theory and social model to interrogate two contextual narratives depicting how disability manifests and is made to manifest in labeled bodies. In the analysis, disability discourses provide a lens through which to understand how disability is done in everyday life, and in different socio-cultural contexts. It reveals how bodies are made to disappear and dys/appear when confronted with social normative constructs of the dominant class. Domba’s transplanted kidney, as well as the bodies of the segregated students enlisted to Room two zero two of an Ontario school remains both sites of oppressive subjectivity, spaces of contradictions and negotiations at which we learn how bodies relate with the world, and following this relationships the bodies are changed, providing means for these bodies to speak back to the world. Coming to terms with this theorizing helps us to visualize Domba’s body and those of the students living with learning disabilities as sites of political and socio-cultural struggle aimed at establishing supremacy and dominance, and as a corporeal reality in which bodies and commodified body parts simultaneously represent symbols of subjective hegemony of the dominant social class, and a platform for interrogation, negotiation and assimilation between the two social structures.
Caimiao Liu
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 247-257; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.94016

Abstract:
The goal of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which Stalin has used the ideology of communism to promote feminism in Soviet Union in the 1930s and early 1940s. In order to do so, this paper focuses on one of the central notions of Stalin’s domestic policies, the “New Soviet Woman.” This concept stresses on two major elements, industrial productivity and reproductivity at home, and praises women’s roles as workers and mothers. After a series of study on the propaganda Stalin has used and the legislations he has enabled to fulfill these two goals, I come to a conclusion that Stalin uses the emancipation of women as a pretense to mobilize women mainly for economic development and military preparation. To prove that Stalin has failed to promote feminism, the paper is structured as followed. First, there is a specific definition of feminism, which is constituted of two parts: equality and freedom. For each of them, the paper lists out some of Stalin’s policies that are evidence of positive but limited feminist progress to explain the definition and also to qualify the main argument. Then, there are two major sections, which correspond to the two focuses of the “New Soviet Woman.” Within each part, there are two subparts that discuss how Stalin’s policies have violated the two fundamental principles of feminism, equality and freedom, respectively. With this paper, I distinguish opportunities from equality, prove that public expectations restrict freedom, and thus challenge the conventional view of the absolutely positive relationship between a communist regime and the growth of feminism under it.
Michael Onyedika Nwalutu, Felicia Ihuoma Nwalutu
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 66-85; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.91004

Abstract:
The United Nation’s Technical Specialist for Adolescents and Youth at the UN Population Fund, Sylvia Wong reveals that young adults currently represent the largest proportion of transnational migrants (Wong, 2009). Migrant youth, and in this context, female African migrants are being subjected to very difficult transit experiences both at transnational borders (Toasije, 2009; Brachet, 2012) and in the receiving societies (Ki-moon, 2009; Solimano, 2010). Our work disturbs existing notion of free movement of individuals across transnational borders to accentuate the effect of Western media representations on Europe-bound female youth migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa. We foreground the pervasive border-restrictions, oppressive treatments, and involuntary deportations experienced by these female migrants in neo-colonial surveillance systems, and tropes of racist securitization masking the interlocking systems of oppression the female migrants have to deal with. The work uses textual analysis to speak to earlier research-report from regimented qualitative field-study conducted in 2013 in the Republic of Malta. It argues that labeling and criminalization of young African female migrants by the European media results in negative public opinions, and subsequently, severe restrictive and oppressive practices against these migrants both at EU borders and in the host societies.
S. Nyock Ilouga, A. C. Moussa Mouloungui, J. Machin
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 42-65; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.91003

Abstract:
We cannot understand the psychological dynamics of the individual at work if we are not interested in the complex interaction between his or her individual trajectories and organizational practices. In this perspective, our research consisted in showing that the reproduction of the Caledonian complexity of self-identification within SLN determines the perception of organizational culture and mediates the effects of hierarchical status on the commitment towards the company. In this regard, we combined ethnological approaches and the analysis of individual behaviors to interview 450 SLN employees. Our results reveal that at SLN, community membership offers keys to understand identity attributes that employees use to be hired, evolve in the company, and justify the rank they occupy. While employees of metropolitan origin express an emotional attachment to SLN, Kanak employees maintain a relationship of interest with SLN, which they consider a source of wealth and employment.
A. M. M. Chandrika
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 302-315; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.94020

Abstract:
Study of women’s socio-economic and political liberation in the academic arena is significant theme with continuous feminists’ ideas in the modern world. Focusing the Asian patriarchal society like Sri Lanka, women’s liberation is decided by gender disparities which emerged through socialization process, internalizing social norms, cultural values and expectations. Hence, in the traditional society, women were discriminated from high positions in society, political leadership, decision making and economic top management. However, with the spreading out of feminist ideas and changes that took place in Sri Lanka after independence of the country, some educated women started to address women’s issues and developed a discourse regarding women’s liberation in the contemporary society. The major objective of this study is to examine what are the challenges that women face in getting their socio-economic and political liberation in Sri Lanka, and to investigate how feminists contribute to achieve equal rights for women in the country. The study was based on secondary data gathered from literature surveys which are directly related to the issues addressed in this study. The study revealed that the factors affect discrimination of women from socio-economic and political sectors in contrast to males in the society. In Sri Lanka, traditional women have much less social, economic and political and domestic power than men. However, after independence, successive governments have devoted greatly to education, health and welfare programs. Due to this situation, the status of women in Sri Lanka has changed dramatically. At the same time, feminist scholars are showing that, women play a significant role in the family as homemakers and working women’s contribution to the economic development of the country. Furthermore, they have emphasized the importance of equal rights of women in socio-economic and political sectors as well as women’s liberation against the patriarchal views in the society. However, women are still facing several problems due to unequal opportunities of political participation, labor force and decision making in the country. To overcome this situation, it is important to increase feminist activities and should change their direction to empower women in all sections through policymakers in the country.
A. Amu-Mensah Marian, B. Kendie Stephen, K. Barima Antwi, K. Amu-Mensah Frederick, Farhad Analoui, Mireku Dickson, Amu-Mensah Saraphina
Sociology Mind, Volume 09, pp 222-245; doi:10.4236/sm.2019.93015

Maurizio Esposito
Sociology Mind, Volume 08, pp 46-69; doi:10.4236/sm.2018.81004

Abstract:
The article deals with the problem of suicidal risk in Italian prisons. Beginning with a general analysis of the concept and the sociological approaches to suicide, we analyze the main studies on suicide in Italian penal institutions. We present updated Italian prisoners suicide statistics (2002-2015), which we then analyze and discuss both in absolute numbers and in percentage terms. The results indicate that the situation is critical: suicide is the leading cause of death in Italian prisons. The problem mainly affects Italian elder prisoners, the weakest group for mental and physical health. The trend data for female detainees reveal that the ability to adapt to prison life appears more difficult than for male detainees. In addition, suicide among foreign detainees has risen in recent years; a probable contributing factor is the inability to use alternative measures such as house arrest. The conclusion attests a need to provide health policies with treatment options for the cure and care of prisoners in difficulty, with a total approach responding not only to the specific symptoms or to risk behaviors but also to the whole person in a holistic sense.
Abbas Sadeghi, Zahra Khedmati, Aram Yousefi
Sociology Mind, Volume 08, pp 83-94; doi:10.4236/sm.2018.82006

Abstract:
Family is a social unit, an organization, a group and also a small society that, in sociologists’ view, is the first structured unit in a social system. A healthy society requires a healthy family and marital adjustment is one of its requirements. On this basis, this study aimed to identify the effect of job orientation and job stress on marital adjustment among Guilan Office of Education staff. Statistical population of this study was Guilan Office of Education staff in 2015 that 100 people were selected with random sampling method. Results: this study showed that there is a significant relationship between life orientation and job stress with marital adjustment. Also, life orientation and job stress could predict 21% of variances in marital adjustment. Conclusion: according to these findings it can be said that higher optimism in life and less job stress lead to higher marital adjustment among couples.
Tony Carton
Sociology Mind, Volume 08, pp 143-153; doi:10.4236/sm.2018.82012

Abstract:
The idea that clinicians who are in recovery from addiction or substance abuse working as addiction practitioners seems deeply counter-intuitive. Compounding this is the problem that many have incurred criminal records, so the idea seems, at best nonsensical. Yet the cold hard essentialisms of professionalization and medicine gives way at times to the sophistry and serendipity of empiricism. These former sufferers know what they are talking about. The result is that there is an extremely high success rate in securing employment at practitioner, supervisor and management level as well as popularity with clients, due to them having a high affinity with lay experiences. This is an exploratory sociological article intended to raise some issues that present with the employment and training of recovering people as addiction practitioners. The tentative conclusions are that counsellors in recovery have a sophisticated awareness of the idiosyncrasies of the addiction field. However, of much more impact is the issue that they face challenges, related to matters of professionalization, stigma and the associated ongoing gentrification of the addiction field. There is a need for further research and emerging themes given the changing and reconfiguring nature of the health field and the wider neo-liberal political arena. They also possess a resilient and strength based wisdom not located in the over accessible neo-liberal vocabulary around these precepts but have experiences of the encounter with the Gethsemane understanding of deficit and purgatory; thereby the right to take back the stolen neo-liberal appropriation of resilience. They also importantly have access to alternative proven yet marginalised discourses that have stood the test of time.
Caterina Galluccio
Sociology Mind, Volume 08, pp 107-113; doi:10.4236/sm.2018.82008

Abstract:
Is subjective well-being within organizations a top-down or a bottom-up process? In other words, who is responsible for it? A number of theories exist and many support the principle of well-being driven by good leadership. This work takes a different tack. It develops a model of well-being where well-being is seen as the final result of a process that involves all the individuals who work in an organization at each level of the hierarchical structure. The paper argues that subjective well-being within organizations cannot be reduced to a psychological question, instead, it is, above all, a sociological, logical and epistemological issue. For this reason, it is suggested that it cannot depend on a single manager or even on a group of them. The argument finds its roots in the theory of methodological individualism; dispersed and tacit knowledge (F. Hayek and M. Polanyi); the fallibility of human nature (K. Popper); bounded rationality (H. Simon); the distribution of power within organizations (M. Crozier).
Antonella Colonna Vilasi
Sociology Mind, Volume 08, pp 114-122; doi:10.4236/sm.2018.82009

Abstract:
The Israeli Intelligence Community is made up of Aman (military intelligence), Mossad (overseas intelligence) and Shin Bet (internal security). This analytical, theory-building article examines the Israeli Intelligence, the jurisdiction, organization and Departments from a different perspective, evaluating the culturally transmitted factors that influence political and military elites, security communities, and decision-makers.
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