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Published: 18 June 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020042

Abstract:
Ethical labelling has been shown to influence taste/flavour perception. Across two experiments, the present study examined how ethical labelling and moral self-image influenced both the expected (Experiment One) and perceived (Experiment Two) taste/flavour characteristics of beer. In Experiment One, 170 participants read either a ‘moral’ or ‘control’ label describing a brewery, after which they were presented with an image of a beer. Participants then completed a Beer Taste Perception Questionnaire and the Moral Self-Image Scale. In Experiment Two, 59 participants were exposed to either the moral or control label before tasting a beer and completing the same questionnaires from Experiment One. The results of Experiment One indicated that label type moderated the relationship between moral self-image and the intensity ratings of the beer. Specifically, in the presence of a control label, the expected intensity of the beer’s flavour increased as moral self-image increased. Experiment Two found no evidence that the moral label influenced the perceived taste of the beer. However, the results showed that as moral self-image became more positive the perceived refreshingness of the beer increased. This study provides novel evidence of the potential relationship between an individual’s moral self-image and the expected and perceived taste/flavour characteristics of beer.
Published: 17 June 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020041

Abstract:
Wine consumers’ willingness (wine neophilia) or reluctance (wine neophobia) to try new wines represent, respectively, an opportunity or barrier for product innovation and market development in the wine industry. Here, we first sought to validate and optimize the Wine Neophobia Scale (WNS) in a large sample of 1269 Canadian wine consumers. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that a seven-item scale was optimal. This modified WNS (mWNS) was then used to investigate demographic and behavioral correlates of wine neophobia. Using lower and upper quartile values, 316 neophiles and 326 neophobes were identified. Wine neophiles and neophobes did not differ with respect to gender or age; however, neophobes had lower household income, education, and wine involvement, and reported consuming fewer wine styles than neophiles. Interestingly, while neophiles drank wine considerably more frequently than neophobes—a finding that is mediated by wine involvement—total annual wine intake did not differ between the groups. Importantly, the price typically paid per bottle of wine also varied with wine neophobia. We recommend adoption of the modified mWNS as a useful tool for more fully understanding the drivers of wine behavior and providing guidance to wine marketers.
Published: 17 June 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020040

Abstract:
The current article is aimed at systematically reviewing the research methods used for food pairing with coffee, tea, wine, and beer. The primary aim of this review was to elucidate the state-of-the-art methods used for analysing food and beverage pairings with coffee, tea, wine, and beer; secondarily, to identify the basis of the selection criteria; and lastly, the method used to evaluate those pairings. The search was performed in three databases: Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. Criteria for inclusion were studies with an experimental design, a descriptive analysis (DA), and/or hedonic consumer analysis of beverage and food pairing. The outcome had to be measured on a hedonic Likert scale, a line scale, a just about right (JAR), or a modified JAR scale or other relevant scale measurement method for the given attribute. A total of 24 studies were included in this review—the majority aimed at finding good food and beverage pairings. Most pairings were based on suggestions from experts on popular/common, similar origin, or quality of beverages and foods. The outcomes were measured in several different scales, precluding a direct comparison. The 24 articles used in this review did not provide a so-called “golden standard” of the pairing method. Only three articles provided a more scientifically based approach to investigate why a food and beverage pairing is perceived as a good match, using aromatic similarity, the primary taste, and the sensation of koku as their experimental factors.
Published: 15 June 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020039

Abstract:
In Cameroon, alcoholic beverages represent one of the main consumed drinks. In northern regions, indigenous sorghum beers are very popular and widely consumed in an actively fermenting state by people. In this study, some physicochemical parameters of alcoholic sorghum beverages and correlations between them were evaluated during fermentation for 10 days. The indigenous white and red beers were produced at the laboratory scale assisted by experimental producers and some parameters (pH, total acidity, alcohol, sugars, density, total solids, temperature, and conductivity) were measured on the wort and fermented beverages. The pH decreased from 3.2 to 2.4 and 3.11 to 2.41; total acidity increased from 1.07 to 5.1 g/L and 0.5 to 4.6 g/L; alcohol was enhanced from 0 to 9.5% and 0 to 6.8% (v/v); total solids dropped from 13.6 to 5°P and 12.2 to 3.3°P, respectively, in the white and red sorghum beers. The multivariate analysis showed a good correlation between consumption of sugar, the decrease in total solids and density with the decrease in pH. Additionally, it was shown that a perfect link exists between the production of alcohol and organic acids. The hierarchical analysis showed that indigenous red beer samples fermented for one and two days and those fermented for four to 10 days were related and could be separate in two distinct groups, whereas white turbid beer samples were separated in three different groups, those fermented for one to four days, five to six days, and seven to 10 days. The results obtained could serve as a guide to better understand the fermentation process of indigenous alcoholic sorghum-based beverages.
Published: 9 June 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020037

Abstract:
Consumers often identify “taste” as an important factor when selecting alcoholic beverages. Although it is assumed that reduced alcohol consumption in PROP super-tasters is due to a greater dislike of the nominally aversive sensations that they experience more intensely (e.g., bitterness) when compared to PROP non-tasters, this question has not been specifically asked to them. Therefore, we examined consumers’ self-reported aversion towards specific sensory attributes (bitter, hot/burn, dry, sour, sweet, carbonation) for four alcoholic beverage types (white wine, red wine, beer, spirits) using a convenience sample of U.S. wine consumers (n = 925). Participants rated 18 statements describing different combinations of sensory attributes and alcoholic beverages on a 5-point Likert scale (e.g., Beer tastes too bitter for me). Individuals who tended to agree more strongly with the statements (i.e., they were more averse; p(F) < 0.05) tended to (i) consume less of all beverage types, (ii) consume a higher proportion of white wine (p(r) < 0.05), and (iii) were more likely to be female or PROP super-tasters. The results suggest that self-reported aversion to specific sensory attributes is associated with not only lower overall intake of alcoholic beverages, but also a shift in the relative proportions of beverage type consumed; a key finding for studies investigating how taste perception impacts alcohol consumption.
Published: 7 June 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020036

Abstract:
This is a literature review of the most commonly available wine packaging categories. This includes glass bottles, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET), bag-in-box (BIB), aluminum cans, and Tetra Pak. This review includes a description and history of each category. In addition, the market share and environmental impacts of each category are discussed. Special attention is paid to the reported impact on packaged wine flavor and aroma for each packaging type. Finally, the potential impacts on consumer preference are discussed. While glass is still the dominant packaging material within the wine industry and by consumer demand, economic and environmental concerns are driving the industry and consumers to investigate and adopt alternative packaging materials.
Published: 4 June 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020035

Abstract:
Consumers look for unique wines, offering pleasant experiences. Wine producers need to open new markets and are targeting countries with fewer traditions in drinking red and complex wines, such as Poland, Russia and Germany. The use of less popular aging vessels (e.g., clay-tinajas) will help in creating unique wines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aging vessel on the volatile and sensory profiles and consumer acceptance of red wine in Spain and Poland (model of potential new markets). Three wines were studied: (i)wine A, aged in a clay-tinaja with non-permeable coating); (ii)wine B, aged in clay-tinaja without coating; and (iii)wine C, aged in oak barrels (control). The key families in the volatile profiles were esters (wines B and C) and organic acids and terpenes (wine A). Wine A was described as sour and bitter, wine B had a distinctive mineral note, and wine C had a complex profile with typical wood notes. Finally, wines C and A were the preferred ones for Spanish and Polish consumers, respectively. Clay-tinajawine A can be a good option to introduce clay-tinaja wines in Polish and similar markets because it is a unique product and fulfills the sensory demands/habits of Polish consumers.
Published: 3 June 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020033

Abstract:
Functional beverages can be a valuable component of the human diet with the ability to not only provide essential hydration but to deliver important bioactive compounds that can contribute to chronic disease treatment and prevention. One area of the functional beverage market that has seen an increase in demand in recent years are beverages that promote relaxation and sleep. Sleep is an essential biological process, with optimal sleep being defined as one of adequate duration, quality and timing. It is regulated by a number of neurotransmitters which are, in turn, regulated by dietary intake of essential bioactive compounds. This narrative review aimed to evaluate the latest evidence of the sleep promoting properties of a selection of bioactive compounds (such as L-theanine and L-tryptophan) for the development of a functional beverage to improve sleep quality; and the effectiveness of traditional sleep promoting beverages (such as milk and chamomile). Overall, the bioactive compounds identified in this review, play essential roles in the synthesis and regulation of important neurotransmitters involved in the sleep-wake cycle. There is also significant potential for their inclusion in a number of functional beverages as the main ingredient on their own or in combination. Future studies should consider dosage; interactions with the beverage matrix, medications and other nutraceuticals; bioavailability during storage and following ingestion; as well as the sensory profile of the developed beverages, among others, when determining their effectiveness in a functional beverage to improve sleep quality.
Published: 3 June 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020034

Abstract:
In 2015, Italian Grape Ale (IGA) beers have been included as a new provisional sub-category of special-type fruit beers by the Beer Judge Certification Program, including those products whose brewing process is carried out in presence of determined quantities of grape must. However, information on the effects of these additions on the composition of final beers are still scarce. This work is hence focused on the chromatic, volatile, phenolic and sensory characterization of IGA beers obtained with the addition of grape musts during brewing process. To this aim, different amounts of must (5, 10 and 20%) from cv. Lambrusco red grapes were added to a lager wort before primary fermentation. Beers were then characterized by HPLC-MS, GC-MS and sensory analysis in order to determine phenolic and aroma compounds along with their sensory attributes. Results confirmed the addition of must from cv. Lambrusco grapes capable to enrich beers in color, acids, phenolic (up to 7-folded increased) and volatile compounds, while giving complexity to beers. These results, which were confirmed by a trained sensory panel, are among the very first insights on the impact of red grape must in brewing, both from a compositional and sensory point of view.
Published: 2 June 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020032

Abstract:
Most people tend to think that healthy foods do not taste good. This view could have a negative impact on the taste of the food that people eat for health. However, if health-related information is provided to avoid negative aspects, acceptability may improve. Thus, this study investigated changes in consumers’ sensory perception of thickened beverages before and after the provision of dysphagia-related health information. Sixty young (19–39 years old) and middle-aged (40–64 years old) consumers participated in two experiment sessions conducted one week apart. The first session proceeded without any information and the second provided information about dysphagia and the need for dietary modification before evaluation. Three beverages (orange juice, red bean water, and sports drink) were used in nectar-like (51–350 cP) and honey-like (351–1750 cP) forms; original beverage samples (0%) were used as the control. Consumers were asked about acceptability, liking the flavor, intensity, and general health interest (GHI). An analysis of variance was performed to show the change in flavor rating and acceptability between the two sessions. Although there were age-related differences in response to the samples, thickened beverages were rated as more acceptable, in terms of their characteristics (swallowing, viscosity, and mouthfeel) after the information was provided. There were no significant differences for the 0% samples. The mean GHI values were 3.97 ± 0.85 and 4.81 ± 0.68 for the young and middle-aged groups, respectively. High and low GHI groups were analyzed. The high GHI group showed significant differences in acceptability in the informed evaluation, whereas the low GHI group was not influenced by the information.
Published: 31 May 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020031

Abstract:
Acrylamide is probably carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer, group 2A) with major occurrence in heated, mainly carbohydrate-rich foods. For roasted coffee, a European Union benchmark level of 400 µg/kg acrylamide is of importance. Regularly, the acrylamide contents are controlled using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). This reference method is reliable and precise but laborious because of the necessary sample clean-up procedure and instrument requirements. This research investigates the possibility of predicting the acrylamide content from proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra that are already recorded for other purposes of coffee control. In the NMR spectrum acrylamide is not directly quantifiable, so that the aim was to establish a correlation between the reference value and the corresponding NMR spectrum by means of a partial least squares (PLS) regression. Therefore, 40 commercially available coffee samples with already available LC–MS/MS data and NMR spectra were used as calibration data. To test the accuracy and robustness of the model and its limitations, 50 coffee samples with extreme roasting degrees and blends were additionally prepared as the test set. The PLS model shows an applicability for the varieties Coffea arabica and C. canephora, which were medium to very dark roasted using drum or infrared roasters. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 79 µg/kg acrylamide (n = 32). The current PLS model is judged as suitable to predict the acrylamide values of commercially available coffee samples.
Published: 28 May 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020030

Abstract:
The role of yeast in wine quality is very important. The use of selected autochthonous yeasts is becoming more and more frequent in enology, not only to obtain a diversification of wines, but also as a link between the wine and its territory of origin. The objectives of this work were to test two indigenous yeasts in a cellar on a pilot scale. The yeasts were a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a strain of Saccharomyces paradoxus previously isolated in a vineyard in Piedmont (Italy). Studying the oenological characteristics of S. paradoxus is of particular interest, as it is rarely found in the cellar–vineyard environment. Molecular biology methods confirmed the predominance of the strain inoculated in the various fermentation tests. Additionally, products of yeast metabolism, including volatile compounds, were quantified at the end of the alcoholic fermentation and sensory profile of wines was tested by a trained panel of tasters. Our results indicated that both strains have good characteristics to be used as starter in winemaking; S. paradoxus was characterized by a high production of glycerol and the ability to degrade malic acid, together with a lower production of ethanol and a low volatile acidity, while S. cerevisiae conferred to the wine a pleasant smell of rose, as highlighted in the sessions of sensory analysis.
Published: 25 May 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020028

Abstract:
Although relatively small, the Australian cider industry has experienced significant growth in recent years. One of the current challenges in the industry is the lack of research specific to Australian ciders. Establishing baseline volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles of Australian cider is paramount to developing a better understanding of the industry. This understanding may ultimately be utilized for both the categorization and authentication of existing ciders, and the targeted modification of cider volatiles for the development and improvement of cider quality. This study utilized gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry, to identify key VOCs present in 14 ciders sourced from four different manufacturers in Queensland, Australia. A total of 40 VOCs were identified across the ciders, with significant variation depending on the flavor and manufacturer. Principal component analysis indicated that the ciders were well-separated based on the manufacturer, supporting the prospect of using the volatile composition to discriminate between cider manufacturers. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis highlighted the commonalities and differences in cider composition between different manufacturers, which may be indicative of the varying ingredients and manufacturing processes used to create the ciders. Future studies profiling the volatile composition of larger numbers of Australian ciders are recommended to support the use of this analytical technique for authentication purposes. Likewise, exploration of the relationship between specific processes and VOCs is recommended to fortify an understanding of how to optimize cider production to improve consumer satisfaction.
Published: 25 May 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020029

Abstract:
Sauvignon blanc is the most important grape cultivar within the New Zealand wine industry, and wines from the Marlborough region are renowned for their intense aromas including tropical, passionfruit, and green capsicum. Quality Sauvignon blanc wines are usually made from free run juice, although press fractions can be included. The chemical aroma composition and sensory profiles of two wine sets made from three press fractions (free run, light press and heavy press) were compared. The compounds 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate were found to decrease between free run and heavily pressed wines while hexyl acetate, hexanol, and benzyl alcohol increased. The accompanying sensory analysis showed that free run wines were marked by aromas of Passionfruit/sweaty, Boxwood and Fresh green capsicum, while the heavy pressed wines were described by French vanilla/bourbon, Floral and Banana lolly attributes, consistent with the aroma chemical composition.
Published: 24 May 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020027

Abstract:
Nemea and Mantinia are famous wine regions in Greece known for two indigenous grape varieties, Agiorgitiko and Moschofilero, which produce high quality PDO wines. In the present study, indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains were isolated and identified from spontaneous alcoholic fermentation of Agiorgitiko and Moschofilero musts in order to evaluate their oenological potential. Random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) recovered the presence of five distinct profiles from a total of 430 yeast isolates. The five obtained strains were evaluated at microvinifications trials and tested for basic oenological and biochemical parameters including sulphur dioxide and ethanol tolerance as well as H2S production in sterile grape must. The selected autochthonous yeast strains named, Soi2 (Agiorgitiko wine) and L2M (Moschofilero wine), were evaluated also in industrial (4000L) fermentations to assess their sensorial and oenological characteristics. The volatile compounds of the produced wines were determined by GC-FID. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of using Soi2 and L2M strains in industrial fermentations for Agiorgitiko and Moschofilero grape musts, respectively.
Published: 20 May 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020025

Abstract:
The increases in consumer awareness of the potential health benefits of green tea have driven global demand for green tea products. This study investigated the effect of post-harvest processing and storage of Japanese-styled green tea (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) grown in NSW, Australia. Harvested material underwent a processing delay of 6, 12, 18 or 24 h at temperatures of 0, 5 and 25 °C. Targeted green tea constituents: theanine, caffeine and catechins were determined using HPLC with UV detection. Product quality and commercial value were determined using the Quality Index (QI) Tool. Reductions in constituent levels were evident within all storage delays, with nominal quality preservation achieved by reducing the temperature. The green tea material stored at 25 °C for 24 h created the most commercially valued product, despite it having visual characteristics more akin to a semi-fermented tea. These visual characteristics are traditionally considered markers of green tea damage and are discarded; however, QI-Tool scoring suggests that this raw material presents as a commercially favourable source of food loss and waste (FLW). The findings of this study extend our understanding of post-harvest processing delays and storage on green tea quality and suggest the viability of a commercially valuable semi-fermented produced from FLW.
Published: 20 May 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020026

Abstract:
This study investigates the competitive position of the Uruguayan wine industry and its potential to become a player in the global wine trade. The study adopts an exploratory, holistic, and qualitative research design, applying desk research, cyberethnography, and electronic correspondence with stakeholders. The research, based on the theory of global business competitiveness, aims to determine the opportunities Uruguay’s wine industry could exploit, based on its competencies, to become a player in the worldwide wine business landscape. The results show that Uruguay is a young wine-producing country; however, it has the potential to become a global competitor. Critical factors identified in the study are geographic location, favorable climate, terrain, hydropower and the high density of the hydrographic network, available agricultural land, the available and well-educated workforce, unique land infrastructure, and the newness of the grape varietal (Tannat) being introduced to the world market with promising results. The paper contributes to the body of knowledge of competitive strategy in wine business research and adds to the scarce literature on the Uruguayan wine industry. Finally, it assesses Uruguay’s current positioning of wine production and competitiveness. The results will benefit stakeholders in the Uruguayan wine industry, researchers, and practitioners in the field.
Published: 17 May 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020024

Abstract:
Cider is a growing market in North America, but more studies need to be completed to fully understand ciders’ sensory properties. The primary objective of this study was to identify the differences in the sensory properties of ciders described as “sweet” or “dry” using both static (category scales) and dynamic (temporal check-all-that-apply, TCATA) sensory methodologies. The secondary objective was to evaluate experienced panellists with a familiar methodology (category scales) and an unfamiliar methodology (TCATA). The sweet ciders were characterized by sweet, floral, cooked apple, and fresh apple attributes, and they had a sour aftertaste. The dry ciders were found to be bitter, sour, earthy, and mouldy, and they had a sour and bitter aftertaste. The experienced panellists produced reproducible results using both methodologies; however, they did not find small differences between the cider samples. Future research should investigate a wider range of cider and investigate ciders’ aftertaste. More studies need to be completed on experienced panellists and on when researchers and the food industry should use them.
Published: 29 April 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020023

Abstract:
Ethanol is a complex stimulus that elicits multiple gustatory and chemesthetic sensations. Alcoholic beverages also contain other tastants that impact flavour. Here, we sought to characterize the binary interactions between ethanol and four stimuli representing the dominant orosensations elicited in alcoholic beverages: fructose (sweet), quinine (bitter), tartaric acid (sour) and aluminium sulphate (astringent). Female participants were screened for thermal taste status to determine whether the heightened orosensory responsiveness of thermal tasters (n = 21–22) compared to thermal non-tasters (n = 13–15) extends to these binary mixtures. Participants rated the intensity of five orosensations in binary solutions of ethanol (5%, 13%, 23%) and a tastant (low, medium, high). For each tastant, 3-way ANOVAs determined which factors impacted orosensory ratings. Burning/tingling increased as ethanol concentration increased in all four binary mixture types and was not impacted by the concentration of other stimuli. In contrast, bitterness increased with ethanol concentration, and decreased with increasing fructose concentration. Sourness tended to be reduced as ethanol concentration increased, although astringency intensity decreased with increasing concentration of fructose. Overall, thermal tasters tended to be more responsive than thermal non-tasters. These results provide insights into how the taste and chemesthetic profiles of alcoholic beverages across a wide range of ethanol concentrations can be manipulated by changing their composition.
Published: 23 April 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020022

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to investigate Mid-Atlantic USA wine consumers’ preferences for front wine label attributes for a lesser-known/unknown local wine variety. The wine consumer base in this part of the USA exceeds that of California. Although the mid-Atlantic is experiencing an increase in the number of wineries, there is a lack of region-specific consumer research that could be the basis for marketing strategies that may differ from those in more established wine regions, such as CA. We recruited 1011 mid-Atlantic consumers who drank wine (at least 1×/month) to view variations of a wine label, differing in wine tag, location description, font types, and images in a choice-based conjoint experiment. A greater percentage of consumers selected the “White Wine” tag and scripted fonts than the other options, with a generalized county text (“Proudly produced in Lehigh County, PA”) being selected by more participants than the American Viticultural Area (AVA) (“Lehigh Valley AVA”) or state (“Pennsylvania”) texts; however, the location text had a lower importance than the wine tag variable. This study implies that a generalized county text that describes a more specific location where the grapes were grown may be more favorable to mid-Atlantic consumers in comparison to AVA or state texts, and that traditional images and generic wine labels are more preferable than wine labels they have not seen before and more contemporary label styles. Wineries in the mid-Atlantic region may want to add generalized county texts to their labels to appeal to the regional audience. As AVAs are used to promote specific wine regions in the USA, and only some consumers choose wines based on these designations, governments and marketing organizations may want to increase education on local AVAs to increase consumer awareness and interest. In addition, consumer differences in variety-seeking behavior and subjective as well as objective wine knowledge, but not attitudes toward locally produced foods, affected wine label choice: Consumers scoring higher in variety-seeking and wine knowledge preferred the specific wine varietal over the generic wine tag; similarly, consumers that indicated familiarity with the wine varietal also preferred the specific wine tag over the generic label. Differences in consumer psychographics appear to modulate front wine label preferences.
Published: 21 April 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020021

Abstract:
There is a large economic interest to characterize heads, hearts and tails fractions during fruit spirit distillation by simple, fast, low-volume and low-cost analytical methods. This study evaluated the potential of ultraviolet (UV)-visible-infrared spectroscopy (230–1000 nm) to characterize and differentiate these distillate fractions. Heads, hearts and tails fractions of 10 different fruit spirits were separated by sensory evaluation and investigated by absorbance spectroscopy. Principal component analysis indicated that UV spectroscopy at a wavelength range from 230 to 310 nm had the highest potential to differentiate all three distillate fractions. While all tails fractions showed significantly different UV spectra, a clear differentiation between heads and hearts fractions was limited. However, an additional UV spectroscopy of 100 mL subfractions sampled during the shift from heads to hearts in three additional distillations did reveal significant differences. The calculated integrals of the according best-fit trendline functions of the spectra indicated a trend towards reduced area-under-the-curve and zero-point values during the shift. This could be a new lead to implement an analytical method for in-line process control during fruit spirit production.
Published: 20 April 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020020

Abstract:
Background: The positive effect of carbohydrates from commercial beverages on soccer-specific exercise has been clearly demonstrated. However, no study is available that uses a home-mixed beverage in a test where technical skills were required. Methods: Nine subjects participated voluntarily in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. On three testing days, the subjects performed six Hoff tests with a 3-min active break as a preload and then the Yo-Yo Intermittent Running Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) until exhaustion. On test days 2 and 3, the subjects received either a 69 g carbohydrate-containing drink (syrup–water mixture) or a carbohydrate-free drink (aromatic water). Beverages were given in several doses of 250 mL each: 30 min before and immediately before the exercise and after 18 and 39 min of exercise. The primary target parameters were the running performance in the Hoff test and Yo-Yo IR1, body mass and heart rate. Statistical differences between the variables of both conditions were analyzed using paired samples t-tests. Results: The maximum heart rate in Yo-Yo IR1 showed significant differences (syrup: 191.1 ± 6.2 bpm; placebo: 188.0 ± 6.89 bpm; t(6) = −2.556; p = 0.043; dz = 0.97). The running performance in Yo-Yo IR1 under the condition syrup significantly increased by 93.33 ± 84.85 m (0–240 m) on average (p = 0.011). Conclusions: The intake of a syrup–water mixture with a total of 69 g carbohydrates leads to an increase in high-intensive running performance after soccer specific loads. Therefore, the intake of carbohydrate solutions is recommended for intermittent loads and should be increasingly considered by coaches and players.
Published: 16 April 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020019

Abstract:
Wine is a product that can be characterized both as a commodity but also as a luxury, depending on its price
Published: 8 April 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020018

Abstract:
This work proposes the elaboration of a product based on the maceration of Sherry Vinegar together with pineapple in order to extract certain volatile compounds that can be found in pineapples, giving a final product with new organoleptic properties and increased polyphenolic content. Maceration trials were carried out with the application of microwaves and ultrasound, which reduced the maceration time from the traditional three-day solid-liquid maceration to just a few minutes. In addition, through maceration, the total polyphenol index increased significantly with respect to unmacerated vinegar, and the volatile profile of the vinegars was significantly modified. The tasting scores placed the pineapple macerated vinegar sample obtained by traditional maceration in the first place with respect to pineapple aroma; however, the microwave extraction samples were better rated in terms of overall quality. It can be concluded that the application of extracting energies, such as microwaves, can be a viable alternative for the production of sherry vinegar macerated with pineapple.
Published: 1 April 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020017

Abstract:
In 2015, the journal Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710) was launched to provide insight into the beverage industry
Published: 31 March 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020016

Abstract:
Agro-industrial wastes can be valorized as biorefinery raw materials through innovative, environmentally friendly bioprocessing for added value products. In this study, a process for citrus waste valorization within the biorefinery concept is proposed, including the development of an effective biocatalyst, based on immobilized cells, for aromatic beer production, and an alternative yeast extract (AYE) production in the same unit. Specifically, orange pulp from discarded oranges was applied as an immobilization carrier of the alcohol-resistant and cryotolerant yeast strain S. cerevisiae AXAZ-1. The yeast culture was produced by minor nutrient supplementation using diluted molasses as substrate. An effective Citrus Waste Brewing Biocatalyst (CWBB) was produced and applied for beer fermentation. The aroma-related compounds in beer produced with free yeast cells or the CWBB were evaluated by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The analysis showed that the beers produced by the CWBB had a more complex volatile profile compared with beer fermented by the free cells. More specifically, the CWBB enhanced the formation of esters and terpenes by 5- and 27-fold, respectively. In the frame of the proposed multiprocessing biorefinery concept, the spent CWBB, after it has completed its cycle of brewing batches, was used as substrate for AYE production through autolysis. The produced AYE significantly affected the yeast growth when compared to commercial yeast extract (CYE). More specifically, it promoted the biomass productivity and biomass yield factor by 60–150% and 110–170%, respectively. Thus, AYE could be successfully used for industrial cell growth as an efficient and cheaper substitute of CYE. Within a circular economy framework, the present study highlights the potential use of citrus waste to produce aromatic beer combined with AYE production as an alternative way to valorize these wastes.
Published: 17 March 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010015

Abstract:
Despite the great relevance of sustainable development, the absence of a shared approach to sustainable vitiviniculture is evident. This review aimed to investigate sustainability along the entire wine chain, from primary production to the finished wine, with specific attention to three key dimensions of sustainability (environmental, social, and economic) and relating measures. Therefore, it was decided to: investigate the ways in which sustainability is applied in the various stages of the production chain (wine growing, wineries, distribution chain, and waste management); analyse the regulations in force throughout the world and the main labelling systems; provide numerical information on sustainable grapes and wines; study the objective quality of sustainable wines and that perceived by consumers, considering that it affects their willingness to pay. The research highlighted that rules and regulations on organic production of grapes and wines are flanked by several certification schemes and labelling systems. Although sustainable wines represent a niche in the market, in recent years, there has been an increase in vineyards conducted with sustainable (mainly organic and biodynamic) methods, and a consequent increase in the production of sustainable wines both in traditional and emerging producing countries. Although (or perhaps precisely for this reason) no significant differences in quality are found among sustainable and conventional wines, consumers are willing to pay a premium for sustainably produced wines. This finding should encourage wineries to both put in place environmental activities and intensify their communication.
Published: 4 March 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010014

Abstract:
The 2020 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, also referred to as the COVID-19 [named for the disease caused by the virus] pandemic, shook the world to its core. Not only were populations hurt by the virus physically, the pandemic had deep repercussions economically as well. One of the industries severely impacted by the implications of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic was the brewing industry, particularly that of the United States. The economic turmoil and uncertainty were felt by both macro and micro brewers alike. Draft beer sales virtually dried up overnight as state-imposed shutdowns closed bars, restaurants, and taprooms as a means to curb the spread of the virus. There were supply chain and logistical issues that arose during the pandemic due to not only closures within the brewing industry but supporting industries such as printers and shippers. In some cases, entire business models had to be turned completely on their head in an instant and business pivots had to be made. The year 2020 was wrought with challenges faced by the brewing industry. There was one saving grace however that kept many breweries afloat during the pandemic, and that was packaged beverage sales, especially those packages intended for off-site consumption. Set forth by trends of the pre-pandemic years aluminum cans and canning reigned supreme for the craft brewing market and allowed breweries to get product into the hands of consumers and ultimately allowed some breweries to stay open. Other options breweries had included the use of glass growlers or aluminum crowlers as a means to sell draft products to-go. The resourcefulness of many brewery owners was tested in 2020 and many rose to the challenge. This report aims to examine several of the challenges, pivots, and solutions packaging provided to the beer industry during the pandemic.
Published: 2 March 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010013

Abstract:
(1) Background: In the current highly competitive brewing industry, most breweries may benefit from a reduction in mashing time. In this study, a novel enzymatic assay format was used to investigate the activities of α-amylase and β-amylase during different mashing profiles, with the aim to use it as a tool for optimizing the production time of an existing industrial mashing process; (2) Methods: Lab-scale mashings with eight different time-temperature programs and two different pilot brews were analyzed in terms of enzymatic activity, sugar composition, alcohol by volume in the final beer, FAN and others; (3) Results: A 20-min reduction (out of an original 73-min mashing program) was achieved by selecting a temperature profile which maintained a higher enzymatic activity than the original, without affecting the wort sugar composition and fermentability, or the ethanol concentration and foam stability of the final beer. (4) Conclusions: A method is presented which can be used by breweries to optimize their mashing profiles based on monitoring α-amylase and β-amylase activities.
Published: 23 February 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010012

Abstract:
Consumers increasingly prefer and seek food and beverages, which, due to their natural characteristics, bring health benefits, both in the prevention of diseases and in their curative power. In this way, the production of nutraceutical foods and beverages gains more and more importance in the market. On the other hand, and because the eyes also eat, producing attractive foods due to their color, texture, appearance, and sensory characteristics is a permanent challenge in the food industry. Being able to gather healthy and attractive items in a single food is an even greater challenge. The long list of benefits associated with phenolic compounds, such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiaging properties, among others, fully justifies their use in the enrichment of various food products. Thus, in this review, we propose to summarize the potential use of phenolic compounds used as ingredients of pleasant and functional beverages.
Published: 16 February 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010011

Abstract:
Liquid foods might present interferences in their optical properties that can reduce the effectiveness of short-wave ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) treatments used for sterilization purposes. The effect of turbidity as UV-C interference factor against the inactivation of bacterial spores was analysed by using phosphate-buffered saline solutions (PBS) of different turbidity values (2000, 2500, and 3000 NTU) which were adjusted with the addition of apple fibre. These suspensions were inoculated with spores of Bacillus subtilis and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris. While higher UV-C doses increased the inactivation rates of spores, these were reduced when turbidity values increased; a dose of 28.7 J/mL allowed inactivation rates of B. subtilis spores of 3.96 Log in a 2000-NTU suspension compared with 2.81 Log achieved in the 3000-NTU one. Spores of B. subtilis were more UV-C-resistant than A. acidoterrestris. Cloudy apple juice inoculated with A. acidoterrestris spores was processed by UV-C at different doses in a single pass and with recirculation of the matrix through the reactor. Inactivation increased significantly with recirculation, surpassing 5 Log after 125 J/mL compared with 0.13 Log inactivation after a single-pass treatment at the same UV-C dose. UV-C treatments with recirculation affected the optical properties (absorption coefficient at 254 nm and turbidity) of juice and increased browning as UV-C doses became higher.
Published: 2 February 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010010

Abstract:
Vitis vinífera L. cv. Maturana Blanca is an autochthonous minor variety recently recovered in the Rioja Qualified Denomination of Origin (D.O.Ca Rioja, Spain) for the production of monovarietal white wines with singular and differentiated characteristics. In this paper, Maturana Blanca wines made with different technologies were analyzed by sensory analysis and aromatic profile by gas chromatography-mass detector. Maturana Blanca wines were characterized by low pH, high acidity, and yellowish tonalities. The compounds that most influenced the aroma of Maturana Blanca wines were those related to fruity (acetates and ethyl esters), floral aromas (2-phenylethanol), and spicy notes (γ-decalactone). These wines were mainly characterized by volatile compounds of fruity aromas of banana and apple. The use of pre-fermentative maceration increased the concentration of ethyl esters and acetates and produced wines with higher odor activity values, indicating a greater aromatic intensity. The aromatic profile of Maturana Blanca wines fermented in oak barrels showed a greater complexity as they were also characterized by the presence of important amounts of furfural, whiskey lactone, and eugenol. The sensory analysis confirmed the results obtained in the aromatic analysis, and described the wines as fresh and balanced in mouth, with notes of acidity and medium to high persistence. These results will contribute to a better knowledge of this white variety.
Published: 1 February 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010009

Abstract:
Carbohydrate and menthol mouth-swilling have been used to enhance exercise performance in the heat. However, these strategies differ in mechanism and subjective experience. Participants (n = 12) sat for 60 min in hot conditions (35 °C; 15 ± 2%) following a 15 min control period, during which the participants undertook three 15 min testing blocks. A randomised swill (carbohydrate; menthol; water) was administered per testing block (one swill every three minutes within each block). Heart rate, tympanic temperature, thermal comfort, thermal sensation and thirst were recorded every three minutes. Data were analysed by ANOVA, with carbohydrate intake controlled for via ANCOVA. Small elevations in heart rate were observed after carbohydrate (ES: 0.22 ± 90% CI: −0.09–0.52) and water swilling (0.26; −0.04–0.54). Menthol showed small improvements in thermal comfort relative to carbohydrate (−0.33; −0.63–0.03) and water (−0.40; from −0.70 to −0.10), and induced moderate reductions in thermal sensation (−0.71; from −1.01 to −0.40 and −0.66; from −0.97 to −0.35, respectively). Menthol reduced thirst by a small to moderate extent. These effects persisted when controlling for dietary carbohydrate intake. Carbohydrate and water may elevate heart rate, whereas menthol elicits small improvements in thermal comfort, moderately improves thermal sensation and may mitigate thirst; these effects persist when dietary carbohydrate intake is controlled for.
Published: 28 January 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010008

Abstract:
Beverage processing is open to new technologies; among them, nonthermal physical technologies such as discontinuous hydrostatic pressure (HHP), ultrahigh-pressure homogenization (UHPH), pulsed electric field (PEF), ultrasound (US), atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP), or pulsed light (PL) are growing increasingly in the food industry
Published: 25 January 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010007

Abstract:
Grapevine smoke exposure and the subsequent development of smoke taint in wine has resulted in significant financial losses for grape growers and winemakers throughout the world. Smoke taint is characterized by objectional smoky aromas such as “ashy”, “burning rubber”, and “smoked meats”, resulting in wine that is unpalatable and hence unprofitable. Unfortunately, current climate change models predict a broadening of the window in which bushfires may occur and a rise in bushfire occurrences and severity in major wine growing regions such as Australia, Mediterranean Europe, North and South America, and South Africa. As such, grapevine smoke exposure and smoke taint in wine are increasing problems for growers and winemakers worldwide. Current recommendations for growers concerned that their grapevines have been exposed to smoke are to conduct pre-harvest mini-ferments for sensory assessment and send samples to a commercial laboratory to quantify levels of smoke-derived volatiles in the wine. Significant novel research is being conducted using spectroscopic techniques coupled with machine learning modeling to assess grapevine smoke contamination and taint in grapes and wine, offering growers and winemakers additional tools to monitor grapevine smoke exposure and taint rapidly and non-destructively in grapes and wine.
Published: 24 January 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010006

Abstract:
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Beverages maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers
Published: 21 January 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010005

Abstract:
Label concepts, information, logos, figures, and colors of beverages are critical for consumer perception, preference, and purchase intention. This is especially relevant for new beverage products. During social isolation, many sensory laboratories were unable to provide services, making virtual sensory sessions relevant to studying different label concepts and design preferences among consumers. This study proposed a novel virtual sensory system to analyze coffee labels using videoconference, self-reported, and biometric analysis software from video recordings to obtain sensory and emotional responses from 69 participants (power analysis: 1 − β > 0.99) using six different label concepts: (i) fun, (ii) bold, (iii) natural, (iv) everyday, (v) classic, and (vi) premium. The results show that the label concept rated as having the highest perceived quality was premium, presenting significant differences (p < 0.05) compared to all of the other concepts. The least perceived quality score was attributed to the bold concept due to the confronting aroma lexicon (cheese dip), which is supported by previous studies. Furthermore, even though graphics, colors, and the product name can be considered positive attributes, they do not determine perceived quality or purchase intention, which was found for the bold, everyday, and classic concepts. The findings from this study were as expected and are consistent with those from similar publications related to labels, which shows that the proposed virtual method for sensory sessions and biometrics is reliable. Further technology has been proposed to use this system with multiple participants, which could help beverage companies perform virtual sensory analysis of new products’ labels.
Published: 15 January 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010004

Abstract:
Brewing with unmalted cereal adjuncts can reduce the requirement for malting, thereby lowering costs and improving the overall sustainability of the brewing chain. However, substantial adjunct usage has technological challenges and the sensory characteristics of beers produced using high adjunct rates are still not fully understood. This study examined the impacts of brewing with unmalted barley, wheat, rice and maize at relatively high concentrations (0, 30% and 60% of grist) on the sensorial and analytical profiles of lager beer. Adjunct based beers and a 100% malt control were brewed at 25 L scale. A trained sensory panel (n = 8) developed a lexicon and determined the sensorial profile of beers. At 30% adjunct incorporation there was insignificant variation in the expected beer flavour profile. At 60% adjunct incorporation, there were some significant sensory differences between beers which were specific to particular adjunct materials. Furthermore, 60% adjunct inclusion (with correspondingly low wort FAN) impacted the fermentation volatile profile of the final beers which corresponded with findings observed in the sensory analysis. Developing an understanding of adjunct-induced flavour differences and determining strategies to minimise these differences will facilitate the implementation of cost-efficient and sustainable grist solutions.
Published: 4 January 2021
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010003

Abstract:
Although wine has been produced for several thousands of years, the ancient beverage has remained popular and even more affordable in modern times. Among all wine making regions, Bordeaux, France is probably one of the most prestigious wine areas in history. Since hundreds of wines are produced from Bordeaux each year, humans are not likely to be able to examine all wines across multiple vintages to define the characteristics of outstanding 21st century Bordeaux wines. Wineinformatics is a newly proposed data science research with an application domain in wine to process a large amount of wine data through the computer. The goal of this paper is to build a high-quality computational model on wine reviews processed by the full power of the Computational Wine Wheel to understand 21st century Bordeaux wines. On top of 985 binary-attributes generated from the Computational Wine Wheel in our previous research, we try to add additional attributes by utilizing a CATEGORY and SUBCATEGORY for an additional 14 and 34 continuous-attributes to be included in the All Bordeaux (14,349 wine) and the 1855 Bordeaux datasets (1359 wines). We believe successfully merging the original binary-attributes and the new continuous-attributes can provide more insights for Naïve Bayes and Supported Vector Machine (SVM) to build the model for a wine grade category prediction. The experimental results suggest that, for the All Bordeaux dataset, with the additional 14 attributes retrieved from CATEGORY, the Naïve Bayes classification algorithm was able to outperform the existing research results by increasing accuracy by 2.15%, precision by 8.72%, and the F-score by 1.48%. For the 1855 Bordeaux dataset, with the additional attributes retrieved from the CATEGORY and SUBCATEGORY, the SVM classification algorithm was able to outperform the existing research results by increasing accuracy by 5%, precision by 2.85%, recall by 5.56%, and the F-score by 4.07%. The improvements demonstrated in the research show that attributes retrieved from the CATEGORY and SUBCATEGORY has the power to provide more information to classifiers for superior model generation. The model build in this research can better distinguish outstanding and class 21st century Bordeaux wines. This paper provides new directions in Wineinformatics for technical research in data science, such as regression, multi-target, classification and domain specific research, including wine region terroir analysis, wine quality prediction, and weather impact examination.
Published: 23 December 2020
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010001

Abstract:
Oak alternatives (OAs) such as chips, granulates or staves, are becoming increasingly used in the wine industry. Although they are mostly considered for their contribution to wine aroma, they are also a source of phenolic compounds to be released in the wine, in particular ellagitannins contributing to wine mouthfeel and antioxidant characteristics. In the present study, we explore the potential for a rapid analytical method based on linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) combined with disposable sensors to provide a rapid measure of the oxidizable compounds present in different OAs, as well as their characterization. Strong correlations were found between the tannin content of different OAs and the total current measures during LSV analysis, allowing a rapid quantification of the oxidizable compounds present, mostly ellagitannin. Application of derivatization to raw voltammograms allowed extraction of a number of features that can be used for classification purposes, in particular with respect to OAs types (chips or staves) and degree of toasting.
Published: 23 December 2020
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010002

Abstract:
Betacyanin stability was assessed over temperatures ranging from 60 to 90 °C for cactus pear (Opuntia dillenii Haw.) juice. The juice showed a betacyanin content of 0.76 g/kg. The rate constants for the betacyanin degradation and isothermal kinetic parameters were calculated according to the following three models: Arrhenius, Eyring, and Ball. The fittings of the models were found to be close to one other with SSE values of 0.0964, 0.0964, and 0.0974, respectively. However, because the estimated parameters for the Ball equation happened to be less correlated than the parameters of the other models, this equation was then used for the simulations. The parameters for z and D 0 were 42.21 °C and 6.79 × 104 s, respectively. Betacyanins were found to resist typical heat treatment conditions ( F 70 ° C values between 100 and 200 min), with a maximum loss of 10% when the temperature was above 80 °C. The time/temperature combinations that could assure both the safety of the product and the preservation of the betacyanins were identified. With Enterococcus faecalis as the reference, when the temperature was 100 °C, the pasteurization time satisfying these two conditions was 0.6 min, whereas it was 180 min when the temperature was 62 °C. The degradation of betacynins during storage was positively correlated with temperature and was accompanied by the appearance of a brown shade.
Published: 21 December 2020
Beverages, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/beverages6040073

Abstract:
In recent years, non-alcoholic beers have presented a growth considered satisfactory and exciting for the brewing industry. Such growth is allied to a change in the consumer profile, in addition to changes in traffic laws. However, the consumer seeks a product considered healthier, but as tasty as the original. Thus, this study aimed to identify the influence of the alcoholic factor in sensory profile, through quantitative descriptive analysis and time intensity analysis of Pilsen beer samples. An acceptance test with 120 consumers of beer was performed. A quantitative descriptive analysis was carried out by 11 trained assessors to determine the sensory profile of beers. For identification of influences of alcohol factor in the dynamic profile of alcoholic flavor and bitter taste the time-intensity analysis were realized. The results demonstrate that alcohol factor influences both the quantitative descriptive profile and dynamic profile, in addition the correlations between the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA®) and hedonic data show that the alcoholic flavor and the alcoholic aroma are attributes that contribute positively to acceptance of samples. In view of the results, studies such as the present are of great importance for the improvement of product quality, directly reflecting a greater acceptance of beer consumers.
Published: 20 December 2020
Beverages, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/beverages6040072

Abstract:
An improved understanding of the malting process could have a significant impact on the efficient production of quality malt for the brewing industry. Analysis of volatile organic compounds produced during the malting process is one approach towards achieving this goal. In-situ methods avoid the possibility of contamination and chemical changes occurring during sample transport and storage. This paper describes the investigation of an in-situ sampling method for the detection of volatile organic compounds produced during the malting of barley. Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) was used to identify compounds. The investigated method involved the direct exposure of an SPME fiber in the kiln during barley malting. Using this method, compounds including aldehydes, ketones, and esters were detected. Some changes in volatile organic compound composition were observed during the production of pale malt at a commercial malting house.
Published: 18 December 2020
Beverages, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/beverages6040071

Abstract:
The search for, and development of beverages that could be a panacea is one which is several millennia old
Published: 3 December 2020
Beverages, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/beverages6040070

Abstract:
The specialty coffee industry is growing and, as a result, there is an accelerated interest in modulating roast profiles to present customers with new and diverse sensory experiences. The present study investigates the chemical and sensory effects of subtle variations in the ‘development time’ phase of the coffee roasting process. Four roast profiles were studied through sensory descriptive analysis (DA), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Multivariate analysis showed clear separation of DA, GC–MS, and NMR data. A prolonged development time facilitated a statistically significant shift in the chemical and sensory profile of the coffee. The findings suggest that a short development time increases the fruity, sweet and acidic characteristics of the coffee, whereas a longer development time shifts the balance towards a more roasty, nutty, and bitter profile. The results provide evidence that supports the effect of subtle roast profile modulations. This lays a strong foundation for the inclusion of development time as a critical control parameter in the certification system of the Specialty Coffee Association, quality control, and product development strategies.
Published: 2 December 2020
Beverages, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/beverages6040069

Abstract:
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that contaminate raw materials such as cereals, fruits, dried fruits, coffee, and grapes when they have been produced or maintained in a temperature and/or humidity conditions that favor fungi growth
Published: 1 December 2020
Beverages, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/beverages6040068

Abstract:
Juices, wine, coffee, and cocoa are rich sources of natural polyphenolic compounds that have potent antioxidant activities proven by in vitro and in vivo studies. These polyphenolic compounds quench reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) or reactive free radicals and act as natural antioxidants which are also able to protect against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage, which elevates cellular antioxidant capacity to induce antioxidant defense mechanisms by modulating transcription factors. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor encoded in humans. It is activated as a result of oxidative stress and induces the expression of its target genes. This is one of the most important cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. However, the oxidative stress alone is not enough to activate Nrf2. Hence phytochemicals, especially polyphenolics, act as natural Nrf2 activators. Herein, this review discusses the natural products identified in juices, coffee, cocoa and wines that modulate Nrf2 activity in cellular systems.
Published: 25 November 2020
Beverages, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/beverages6040067

Abstract:
Foods preserved with sorbic acid or its salts can undergo spoilage with the formation of chemicals characterized by odors of plastic, hydrocarbons, or kerosene. 1,3-pentadiene, which is formed through the decarboxylation of sorbic acid or its salts, is one such compound. Numerous species of molds and yeasts have been reported as capable of degrading sorbic acid. This work is aimed to identify the off-odor compounds in samples of strawberry-flavored water preserved with potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate. In addition, the mold isolated from this drink was evaluated for the ability to form undesirable compounds, and the results revealed the presence of 1,4-pentadiene and benzaldehyde in the tested samples. The mold isolated from the samples was identified as Penicillium corylophilum. During its 5-day incubation at 25 °C in a liquid medium, potassium sorbate added at a final concentration of 200 and 400 mg/L was completely assimilated by the growing mycelium and converted into 1,4-pentadiene. The concentration of the latter was determined as 46.5 and 92.6 mg/L, respectively. The decrease in the concentration of sodium benzoate exceeded 53% in the broth spiked at 200 mg/L and 23% at 400 mg/L, resulting in the formation of benzaldehyde.
Published: 20 November 2020
Beverages, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/beverages6040066

Abstract:
The primary objective was to identify how the disclosure of production methods, including sustainable practices, would impact consumers’ sensory perceptions. The secondary objective was to identify the attributes consumers use to describe Nova Scotia (NS) sparkling wines. The first trial used projective mapping (PM) and ultra-flash profiling (UFP) to describe eight sparkling wines (n = 77). In the second trial, a check-all-that-apply (CATA) questionnaire and 9-point hedonic scales were used (n = 101). Three sparkling wines, from the previous trial, were evaluated blinded and with a production claim. The first trial found that consumers separated the wines based on their fruit- or earth-like attributes. In the CATA trial, desirable attributes, such as sweet and smooth, were used more frequently to describe the wines with sustainable production methods. No significant differences were found in the overall liking scores after the disclosure of the production methods (α = 0.05). These findings indicate that disclosure of production methods did not impact participants’ sensory perceptions of sparkling wine. In addition, an evaluation among different generations should be considered, as millennials have been found to hold sustainable practices to greater value.
Published: 19 November 2020
Beverages, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/beverages6040065

Abstract:
Nowadays, taking into consideration the current dynamics of drug resistance development, many researchers are working to develop new antimicrobial compound combinations for the food and beverage industry, which can overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of milk permeate fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135, Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS122, and Lactobacillus faraginis LUHS206 strains in combination with berry/vegetable (B/V) pomace (gooseberries, chokeberries, cranberries, sea buckthorn, rhubarb) against a variety of pathogenic strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanni, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus epidermis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Pasteurella multocida, and Enterobacter cloacae) as a potential antimicrobial combination for beverage preparation. The highest number of the tested pathogenic strains was inhibited by gooseberries, sea buckthorn, and rhubarb combinations with strain LUHS122 fermented beverages (13 pathogens out of 15 tested). Twelve out of 15 tested pathogens were inhibited by gooseberry combinations with LUHS135 and LUHS206 fermented milk permeate. Selected B/V in combination with fermented milk permeate are promising antimicrobial ingredients for beverage preparation, possessing antimicrobial activity almost against all the tested pathogenic strains.
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