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, Mohammadreza Nili, Ahmadreza Nasr, Mohammad Masoud
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n4p8

Abstract:
The present research mainly aims to determine the innovation indicators for teaching in Art University. Qualitative and quantitative methods have been used. The data were collected from semi-structured interviews and Self-made questionnaire. The findings reveal that the most important innovation indicators consist of: Competency-based Art education, Acquaintance with framework of appreciating the art works, Self-directed learning, Choice-based art education Attention to Aesthetics, Experimental leaning through Art Education, Developing Different Approaches to Making Art, Provides the excellent opportunities to learn personal and professional skills, Stress on the description, explanation, critical process cooperative exploration-based learning activities, application of new teaching methods and the application of innovation indicators for “teaching-learning activities” is less than medium.
Zohre Mallaki, Raziye Rostami, Fatemeh Noofeli
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n4p1

Abstract:
This study is going to analyze the relationship and harmony between the proverbs used in Jamalzade’s stories with the social situations of the characters. Jamalzade enjoyed this literature in order to get close to people’s daily language and make his works more impressive. The research’s data showed that Jamalzade could create a modern way of writing in Persian prose by using ordinary people’s language and culture and combining it with Persian. He not only uses proverbs—as one of the most important factors of folksy literature in the formation of his stories, but also puts his best to use them properly according to the characters’ social status; it has made his stories look more realistic. In fact, the relationship and appropriateness of the proverb and characters is such important for him that if he wants to use a proverb in several different situations, he make change in it.
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p207

Abstract:
Objectives: To analyze the contributors to Sexual Unwellness (SU) and to explore the latent constructs that can work as major determinants in SU for a cross-national older community-dwelling population.Methods: Study design: Complete data were available for 109 English and Portuguese older adults, aged between 65 and 87 years old (M=70.1, SD=5.99). Data was subjected to content analysis. Representation of the associations and latent constructs were analyzed by a Multiple Correspondence Analysis. A socio-demographic and health questionnaires were completed, assessing participants’ background information. Interviews were completed, focused on the contributors to SU.Results: The most frequent response of these participants was “lack of intimacy and affection” (25.1%) whereas “poor sexual health” was the least referred indicator of SU (11.2%). A two-dimension model formed by “poor affection, intimacy and sexual health”, and “poor general health and financial instability” was presented as a best-fit solution for English older adults. SU for Portuguese older adults were explained by a two-factor model: “daily hassles and health issues”, “poor intimacy and financial instability”.Conclusions: These outcomes uncovered the perspective of older adults concerning SU and the need of including these factors when considering the sexual well-being of older cross-national samples.
Paige Dou
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p217

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Review of European Studies, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2017
Hamid Reza Rezaei Kelidbari, Mahsa Rayat
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p176

Abstract:
Given the increasing competition between airlines companies in the country and equipping them with modern information technologies, establishment of knowledge management system in airline industry can increase the effectiveness of business intelligence system and lead to effectiveness of this industry. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of strategy, structure, processes and organizational culture on the effectiveness of organization and mediating role of business intelligence systems in Iran’s airline companies. Statistical society includes all airlines of Iran. For sampling, non-random judgmental sampling method is used. In order to study the research hypotheses, structural equation methods have been used. Questionnaire tools were used for gathering the data. Stability of the questionnaires used in the present study was calculated higher than 0.7 in term of Cronbach alpha, confirming the validity. The results showed that there is a positive and significant effect between variables of strategy, structure, and organizational culture on the effectiveness of the organization and business intelligence systems in Iran’s airlines and that there is not a significant relationship between organizational variables and organizational effectiveness.
, Yulianto Kadji, Zuchri Abdussamad, Yanti Aneta
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p187

Abstract:
The implementation of NUSSP (Neighborhood Upgrading Shelter Sector Project) program policy is a residential upgrading and settlement sector project in the context of urban slum settlement management for the empowerment of the poor communities based on tridaya in Makassar City which was implemented since 2005-2009 (phase I). This study used a qualitative approach by using case study at five urban villages of NUSSP’s program locations as the key areas, namely: Buloa, Cambaya, Lette, Rappocini, and Balang Beru sub-districts within Makassar. The data collection used in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), direct and participatory observation supported by document study, case history, and triangulation. The results of this study indicated that the integrative model achievement of NUSSP’s program policy implementation in handling of urban slum settlement by using the tridaya’s empowerment approach as an effort to empower the poor society, in the form of output and outcome of policy implementation that had provided benefits for the government and the poor communities from the empowerment development aspect, such as the physical environment, economic empowerment, and social empowerment. Although from the economic aspect and social empowerment were not relatively optimal conducted by government and private parties, neither were not yet relatively optimal conducted by NUSSP executing actors in the utilization of local cultural values and religious values to support the successful implementation of NUSSP program policies in the field. The findings of this study were in the form of the development of “Tridaya” empowerment concept into “Pancadaya” (environmental, social, economic, cultural and religious development). This finding revealed that the importance of the use of cultural and religious values transformed in the poor community empowerment concept, so it was assumed that they will give a significant contribution in supporting the integrative model of NUSSP’s program policy implementation in the handling of slums in order to empower the poor communities in urban slum areas.
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p151

Abstract:
Measures concerning intergenerational inequality generally refer to youth unemployment or youth household income and wealth. The common conclusion is that the generational gap is represented by negative trend of youth unemployment and NEETS. In this paper, I argue that this phenomenon is not the cause of intergenerational unfairness, but one of its effects.The pioneering efforts to measure the intergenerational fairness through a set of multidimensional indicators are the starting point for deeper analysis. The purpose of this paper, however, is not only to measure unfairness, but to quantify the generational divide. The latter is defined as the intensity of material and immaterial barriers affecting a sound development of individuals.The way to measure such a phenomenon is to use a new and comprehensive, synthetic index, applied to the Italian youth emergency and social discrimination. For this reason some new indicators are added to the previous models, such as credit crunch, the scar inferred to NEET (Not in Education, Employment or Training), digital divide and barriers to mobility.The results of this pilot analysis in the selected country for the period 2004-2012 demonstrate a worsening of the generational divide over the last five years and these high negative trends are mainly due to housing costs, decreasing incomes and the pension burden. These results suggest the need for a deep and careful consideration on the real intergenerational sustainability of current European and development strategies and show a large discrimination towards the younger generations.
Sophie Devineau
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p140

Abstract:
The 1960s myth that good vocational counseling means successful youth entry into employment is back in favor and imposing itself on educational policy as an absolute priority during this period of high unemployment. But implementation of these youth career planning and employment policies has largely been delegated to local-level authorities, where interventions now take the form of reticular projects.This is the context in which we test the hypothesis of a crisis in the work of actors providing youth vocational counseling, program coordinators of various ranks, psychological counselors, and referent teachers working with students.The methodology for the main study is based on interviews with a range of professionals. A supplementary study analyzed the content of articles in “L’echo des régions”, the magazine of the Association of the Regions of France, from 2010 to 2015.One finding to emerge from these observations is that the educational system internalizes concerns connected with job openings in occupations, while actors focused on post-scholastic job placement request more general education. This role inversion highlights the main contradictions running through youth vocational guidance. All actors attest to the limitations thwarting their voluntarism as well as to the dilemmas they face. Among the identified obstacles are the individualization of vocational paths and the emergence of case-by-case counseling, the application of the principle of equality to competing strategies, the disorganization of institutions allocated declining financial resources, conflicts of interest in partnerships, devalued courses of study, and insecure jobs. We also observed that the proffered arguments propose handling youth career counseling and entry into employment according to an “emergency response” model. In such a landscape devoid of egalitarian prospects, it nonetheless emerges that the path toward the equality of girls with boys is more open. At the same time, an opposing gender logic appears in the distribution of professional tasks, with particular consequences for women and especially female teachers.
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p126

Abstract:
This paper synthesizes the political economy of neoliberal elite democracy as a general trend and marks out its concrete historical manifestation in one of its more committed followers, Ecuador, from 1981 to 2007. As the American continent turned toward democracy, it also turned to neoliberal reforms. The neoliberal reforms espoused were performed under the theory of the primacy of personal security and property rights, the securement of which would lead to economic growth, leading to the benefit of society as a whole. The actual policies implemented, however, violated the personal security and property rights of many, while increasing inequality and promoting slow growth. A democracy that rules by formal elections to accumulate capital in elites without regard to truth and justice is an elite democracy. Elite democracy was the chosen politics of neoliberalism and neoliberalism was the chose economics of elite democracy. This paper provides a synthetic panoramic view of the history of the rise and life of neoliberalism and elite democracy in Ecuador, starting with the death of Ecuador’s first president of its current democratic era, continuing with the measures that lead to the steep accumulation of public debt for the gain of a few in the 1980’s, and the deregulation of the banking sector and transfer of its losses to the public in the 1990’s and the beginning of the Century, while growth lagged but inequality and political instability accentuated.
, Edi Jusriadi, Ruliaty -
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p117

Abstract:
Muhammadiyah Universities in South Sulawesi face the challenges of competitiveness, quality of human resources and lecturer’s on Tridharma performance in the field of education and teaching, research and scientific publications, and dedication to the community and other support activities.This research aims at reconstructing the development of intellectual capital through Al-Islam Kemuhammadiyaan values approach. So as to create good work behavior in order to support the university’s performance on Tridharma.This research is a quantitative research with positivist approach. The research design used in quantitative research is an explanatory research using survey methods at 10 Muhammadiyah universities in South Sulawesi by distributing questionnaires to 154 lecturers, but that can be processed only 146 questionnaires. Primary data were then analyzed using Structural Equations Models (SEM) techniques and the program is Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS).The research findings are: (1) intellectual capital contribute significantly in supporting the lecturer’s work behavior of Muhammadiyah Universities in South Sulawesi. (2) intellectual capital does not contribute significantly in supporting the lecturer’s Tridharma performance of Muhammadiyah Universities in South Sulawesi. (3) work behavior contribute significantly in supporting lecturer’s performance of Muhammadiyah Universities in South Sulawesi.
Andrés Bonilla Marchán, Ramiro Delgado,
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p237

Abstract:
The objective of this study is to highlight the social characteristics of the unskilled workers and artisans of Ecuador through a descriptive and multidimensional statistical analysis of data from the 2015 National Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Self-employment. The descriptive statistical analysis demonstrates the frequencies and percentages of the variables of the investigation while the multidimensional statistical analysis shows the principal criteria of differentiation and classification between the groups of people surveyed. The methods involved a factorial analysis of multiple correspondences indicating the criteria of differentiation, and a statistical hierarchical analysis, which attempts to define the subjects surveyed according to their common traits.
Sayyed Meysam Dibaji, , Mohammad Reza Abedi
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p268

Abstract:
In recent years, the employment rate of women, particularly in the service sector has been increasing and at the same time, researchers interested on the psycho-social consequences of women’s employment especially on health. This study compared housewives and working women in terms of stress, depression and perception quantitative, mental and emotional home demands. For this purpose, a sample consists of 94 working women and 94 housewives among Isfahan women selected via convenience sampling and completed warttig et al. perceived stress questionnaire, Beck Depression II and peters et al. home demands questionnaire. Results revealed that working women perceived more depression and quantitative and mental home demands, but no differences between working women and housewives in terms of stress and emotional home demands. According to effort-recovery model, it seems that the pressures of work and family role, especially time pressure means that despite the positive role of work in working women, they were psychologically vulnerable because of the multiplicity of tasks. The results highlight the importance of culture in terms of the role of men in the house, especially in the case of families who identify working women.
Pareng Rengi, Marnis -
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p222

Abstract:
Research purposes are to design management of fisheries environment sustainable in Bengkalis district. This study was conducted in Bengkalis district, in Riau province. This location is situated in a strategic area of the Malacca Strait.This research used survey method. Types of data collected in the form of primary and secondary data. Data analysis techniques used in this research is descriptive analysis, sustainability analysis (Rapfish), stakeholder needs analysis and prospective analysis.The analysis showed the management of fisheries environmental in Bengkalis district is in the bad category level or less sustainable with MDS value of 39.59 overall. Implementation of management strategies to fisheries environmental in Bengkalis district (P) with the interaction scenario between the migration distance (j), Pressure mangrove land (m), level of education relative coastal communities (r), fisheryenvironmental policy (k), cooperation among stakeholders (s).
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p106

Abstract:
Telenovela shapes important and highly favorite section of the television productions. The T.V. series have moved out from their traditional structure with an entertaining aspect and have been divided into different types and scopes. Taking into consideration the time and the atmosphere of dissemination which the Telenovela programs hold in T.V. antenna, there is a need to conduct studies on sociology of Telenovela more than any other times in the past. This article is an attempt to review the two subject-matters of Telenovela and Narration and their connection with democracy through sociological sporadic studies. This will also present the significance of this genre in T.V. productions at local and international discourses. Observations, field researches and library study methods have been employed in this research.
Mohammad Rahimian,
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p100

Abstract:
The main objective of the paper is to study the role of social groups and classes and their alliance in the Islamic Revolution. The methodology used in this study is the qualitative document analysis. The results showed that the chasm among social forces was moderately wide before the Revolution and the alliance among social forces was weak after the Revolution and in the new regime, therefore, the extent of transfer of power was so vast which led to a large-scale revolution.
, Diego P. Ortega, Gina Valdivieso
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p89

Abstract:
This article aims to provide an analysis of several aspects that comprise the profile of the Ecuadorian population aged 15 years old and over who do not know how to read and write. The approach, employed in this research study, focuses on a descriptive analysis and a multidimensional statistical analysis. Available data from the National Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment of Ecuador (ENEMDU), conducted by the National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INEC) in 2016, was utilized as the main source of information in the study. One of the previous surveys, conducted in the country in 2006, suggested that the equivalent percentage of the illiterate population was 8.63%; therefore, these data indicate that the population under examination has decreased considerably in the last ten years. This means that a highly important enhancement in terms of literacy has occurred over this period of time in Ecuador. The study results, drawn from the descriptive analysis and the hierarchical analysis carried out as part of this research, may be key at the moment of creating policies, educational campaings and nationwide, special programs focused on helping reduce and eliminate illiteracy across the nation in the upcoming years.
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p75

Abstract:
Position taking is an important legislative area that scholars have investigated extensively. Since one of the main roles of the opposition is to present an alternative to the government, the question is, how does the opposition establish its positions? To address this question, we analyze the use of One-Minute Speeches (OMSs) by opposition members in the Israeli parliament (the Knesset) during 2000-2013. There were four Knesset terms during these years, so we have the opportunity to study the opposition’s behavior over a period of time. We decided to analyze OMSs because they are considered an easy tool to use and as such can be considered a weapon of the weak. The study uses mixed research methods, beginning with a statistical analysis (both at the legislator level and at the OMS level) and continuing with a content analysis of the speeches and the interviews conducted with members and leaders of the opposition. The statistical analysis shows that opposition members use OMSs more extensively than coalition members. Among the opposition members, we also found different behavior patterns based on nationality and seniority. In addition, the qualitative analysis of both the OMSs and the interviews shows that opposition members are active in two ways. First, they react to government-initiated proposals. Second, they raise topics for the Knesset’s agenda, a move that the coalition generally does not appreciate. Third, members of the opposition consider OMSs an effective tool in that it allows them to create a relevant debate on current issues. Finally, ministers and other MKs often respond to the opposition’s OMSs that are controversial and provoke debate. Thus, we conclude that the OMS is a weapon of the weak.
Jose Mauricio Saldanha Alvarez
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p62

Abstract:
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, a novel about the Great War, was written in 1916 by the Spanish author Vicente Blasco Ibáñez. Ibáñez was a liberal intellectual and opponent to German militarism and the House of Austria, which had been intolerant and retrograde during its rule of Spain in the seventeenth century. This study explores the imperialist, militarist and cultural tensions of the war through Ibáñez’s novel. The formation of blocks of alliances and the capture of rich territories, according to Lenin, translated into the juxtaposition of the German Reich—represented historically by old Germania and the current German Empire fighting for European supremacy—with the Latinity of Ancient Rome and the contemporary French Republic. This cultural and ideological struggle is reflected in the novel’s characters and dialogue. Ibáñez suggests that the 1914 confrontation arose from the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. In the novel, the conflict is typified in two opposing novelistic characters, a German and a Frenchman, who immigrate to Argentina to escape war and poverty. Both return to their countries of origin rich and related to each other, having married the daughters of a rich landlord, Madariaga, although his sons have become cousins and nephews and they face each other from opposite sides of the battlefield. World War I is an irresistible force the magnitude of which draws together all the characters, Ibáñez was absorbed in narrating the first year of the war, when France suffered bitter defeats, and writing about this ongoing event led to his success in the USA, where he maintained the appreciation of the public by quickly creating a film version of the novel.
Fernando Pesántez Avilés, ,
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p53

Abstract:
The objective of the study is to examine the educational and social profile of young people aged 5-14 of Ecuador by means of a statistical analysis of this sector of the Ecuadorian population, based on data from the National Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment from 2015. The statistical analysis shows the frequency and percentages of the variables used in the investigation. We use contingency tables in order to explore the relationship between the variables under investigation and the poverty in this age group.
, Hamid Khanali
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p36

Abstract:
Archaeological surveys always present deep information about history of any given geographical area to archaeologists. Archaeologists have surveyed many Iranian regional areas, however, Bostan Abad, Eastern Azerbaijan, is among regions rarely archaeologically investigated. Present paper involves in analyzing settlement patterns and typology of Bronze Age of Bostan Abad according archaeological surveys at 1391 and 1392. Accordingly, some 36 Bronze Age sites identified, with two sites of Early Bronze Age, while the other remains date to Middle and Late Bronze Ages. It should be noted that archaeological survey based on surficial collected data, which make distinguishing Middle and Late Bronze Age a hard task. Conclusions signify from two aspects: from one hand, one should point to a geographical key role in locating settlements, on the other hand, typology of Potteries indicate inter regional communications, and strategic location of Bostan Abad. This zone is one of the most important hallways between Central Plateau of Iran and Northwest of Iran; however, regional investigations and connective role of the region and expansion of various cultures could reveal significant implications.
, Negin Bareshadat, Maryam Tafrishi, Ehsan Abbaspour
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p30

Abstract:
Housing is an important element in government’s broad social agenda. This element overlaps employment, health, education, crime and many other aspects of life. We can say housing is stable, when everyone has access to a minimum house, social cohesion promotes and people’s lives improve toward self-reliance. On the other hand, designing stable buildings is aimed to reduce its damage on environment, energy resources and nature that requires spending to build housing, however, due to high cost of housing, poor sectors of society cannot buy house, while government has to provide house for all sectors in society. Assuming that LSF structures promote stability, this study is aimed to structural search to build urban buildings, which is responsive to sustainable architecture and can be justified economically. This study is analytical and based on library studies and comparative analogy tries to answer questions such as: how to use LSF structure in designing buildings in order to reduce their cost, and whether these structures is affordable across the country based on variety of building regulations in cities. In this regard, in order to examine LSF technology in construction and comparing it with conventional construction methods, we investigate and calculate 50 square meters one-bedroom apartments. Our conclusion indicates that using this technology in addition to positive response to sustainable architecture, increases the ability to buy a home, as well as strength and durability of these structures compared to conventional constructions in different environmental conditions and earthquake.
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p21

Abstract:
Objectives: Literature suggests some inconsistent results in the validity and reliability of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SwLS) in older samples. The objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SwLS in a cross-cultural sample of older adults.Methods: This is a validation study to assess the psychometric properties of the SWLS in a sample of 1291 older adults 75 years of age or older, cross-culturally diverse and living in the community. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Item analysis and reliability, were also assessed.Results: The systematic procedure used in the SwLS validation points to a good level of psychometric properties, such as reliability, construct, criterion validity, external validity and divergent criterion validity, suggesting that the SwL is assessing a construct different from the ones evaluated by PANAS and OtLQ.Conclusion: The SwLS has demonstrated reliability, validity, and reproducibility for use in measuring health-related satisfaction with life among older adults in policy programs and interventions in community settings.
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p8

Abstract:
The essay would like to investigate on the inflation as an equilibrium problem within an economic system hit by an outside or inside shock. The persistence of economic system instability makes the inflation speed to grow, gradually reaching the maturity condition. From this point forward, the nominal price movement becomes regular and this regularity will allow the economic system to have an almost-normal working condition. The inflation must be intended as a remedy spontaneously applied when a system is hit by a severe shock, then becoming unstable. According to this view, also the negative inflation or deflation should be regarded as a spontaneous remedy, usually appearing in the world of economy to face a financial crisis caused by a speculative bubble outbreak. In this case, deflation seems to be the mere consequence of a severe economic downturn, which activates a negative inflation. The negative inflation caused by the decline in the economic situation, does accumulate inside the system and therefore is creating a progressive settlement of structural inflation. The deflation is strictly related to the depressed economy (recession), just similar to the link created between typical inflation and economic cycle. When going out from the recession, the economic recovery leads to a deflation gradual mitigation. If the economic recovery is fuelled by strong amount of public resources, it could be demonstrated that the increasing amount of public debt is neutral on the deflation destiny.
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n3p1

Abstract:
Justice is one of the questions and the ideal principles of Islamic thought, which has a special place in Islamic thought. The importance of justice in Islam is to such an extent that the justice are known of conditions and characteristics of the nature of divine that without it the God would not be complete and accordingly Muslim thinkers have explored different aspects of it. This trend and attention to the concept of justice in Shi’ite thought have found high place so that Shiite justice is considered as its own religion principle and rejection and the doubts it knows the out of Islam and as blasphemy and apostasy. The concept of justice has not still been fully understood and there is no consensus among everyone in introduction and understanding it. In this paper, we want to review on this basic concept by evaluating the dimensions and justice features in the Shiite thought.
Paige Dou
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p309

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Review of European Studies, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2017
, Malihe Abavysany, Maryam Mollashahi, Doost Ali Sanchooli
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p296

Abstract:
In the early twentieth century, for various political and economic reasons, the European countries were divided into the Allies and the Central Powers which led to the beginning of World War I. During those years, Iran was politically and economically too weak. Despite the fact that Iran declared neutrality in this war, it attracted the attention of world powers because of its vast oil resources and especial geographical location. In this way, Iran too was affected by the war. At the time Iran had lost its political independence due to certain colonial contracts (e.g., 1907, 1915). With the start of the war, a large group of foreign troops occupied Iran. This in fact was a heavy blow to the economics and agriculture of Iran, and together with the successive droughts, marked the most extreme famine of the century in Iran. Food shortage, high prices, disease contagions, and the pressure of the foreign forces to collect food supplies, increased the mortality rate so much so that almost half of the Iranian population died in dire conditions.
, Doostali Sanchooli, Maryam Mollashahi, Malihe Abvysany
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p301

Abstract:
Encountering Muslim Arabs and Islam in the first hegira century, Sistani people showed two kinds of reaction. Many of them did not resist Islam and its divine teachings and gradually converted to this new religion; however, they stood up to the racist and oppressive dominance of Umayyad family and whenever they got an opportunity, they expressed their hatred towards them by joining anti-Umayyad uprisings. Abdolrahmanibn Mohammad ibnAsh’at was one of the anti-Umayyad uprisings. Many of Sistani people took part in this uprising. In the present study, the descriptive—analytical research method has been used and with the help of library sources, the role of Sistani people in the uprising of ibnAsh’at against the Umayyad caliphate system has been reviewed. Due to dissatisfaction of Sistani people with the oppressive Umayyad governance, Khawarij’s anti-Umayyad propaganda in Sistan region, exponential financial and bodily costs resulting from successive wars of the Umayyad governors in eastern borders with the governance of Ratabilan, the essential substrate was built for Sistani people to join ibnAsh’at’s anti-Umayyad uprising. Although this uprising failed, but it weakened the pillars of the Umayyad governance and it proceeded to the extent that Umayyad family was on the verge of being falling and it also paved the way for the anti-Umayyad uprisings subsequent to it.
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p286

Abstract:
The author attempts in this paper to search for objective solutions of meeting Quran focused on human needs, and followed a logical sequence of the discussion. This paper is organized in two parts: the first part reviews and explains human needs from the view of religious scholars and psychology scientists and in the end, lists all types of human needs. The author of this section studies the situation of modern human needs. Which objective solutions, The Quran introduce to respond humanitarian needs, especially contemporary man?The second part that has more volume reviews and explains the objective solutions of the Qur’an to meet human needs. The author of this article, due to the limited scope of this article, considers many of these solutions briefly.
Habib Sabouri Khosro Shahi,
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p275

Abstract:
Social health is a concept that is created from relationship between two concepts of health and society. Since the society is a nominal concept and its external truth depends on everyone who has formed it, in evaluation of society, people of that should be evaluated and studied more than everything. In this regard the present research under the topic of “Evaluation of relationship between social support and social health of Tehran citizens” has been conducted among Tehran citizens in 2016. Social health was evaluated based on Keyes’s theories in five dimensions of social prosperity, social adaptation, social cohesion, social acceptance and social participation and also social support was evaluated based on researches of Wax et al. in three dimensions of friends support, family support and others support. Research methodology in this research is survey and technique of data collection is questionnaire. The questionnaires were distributed among 400 people of women who were selected as multi-stage cluster sampling, and because 15 of questionnaires were altered, approximately 385 were finally analyzed. The result was that social support is one of effective factors on social health; the obtained adjusted multiple coefficient of determination showed that the triple dimensions of social support (friends support, family support and others support) have been able to express approximately 58% of the social health variable.
Frank Kitt,
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p248

Abstract:
Mental illness pervades most societies, but it is only recently that its impact and effects upon individuals has slowly been recognised in England and Wales. When people suffering from this illness become involved with various public agencies, the way they are dealt with appears inconsistent and on occasions ends in tragedy. One agency that is constantly in contact with people who suffer mental health illness is the police service. Some high profile cases have clearly illustrated misunderstandings and the fact that the police are not generally equipped to deal with such individuals. This article considers a brief history and theoretical backcloth to police understanding and framing of mental illness in England and Wales, and explores the National Liaison and Diversion Model as an alternative to traditional police understanding and response. The article suggests that only by understanding the historical context, and literature, surrounding mental illness, can improvements be made in the criminal justice system as a whole and within the police service in particular.
Muchran B. L., Muchriady Muchran
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p262

Abstract:
This study aims to examine and analyse the influence of transformational leadership style to performance of Islamic bank Bank with work motivation as a mediating variable. Achievement of objectives of Islamic banking organizations and individuals as well as members of units simultaneously organization is the primary task of a leader. A leader can influence his followers are required to execute commands without using coercion, so that subordinates voluntarily behave and perform as demanded by the organization through referrals leaders. Transformational leadership not only recognizes the needs of subordinates, but also trying to trying to improve the needs of lower levels to higher levels to the level established. The sample of this research was Islamic Bank Employees on South Sulawesi. Repeated measure t-test was used to analyse the data in which the significance was determined by p<0.05. The result showed that Transformational Leadership Style to Work Motivation significant effect. Transformational leadership style to performance of Islamic bank showed no significant effect. Work motivation to performance of Islamic bank showed no significant effect.
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p211

Abstract:
The pure realist picture of world politics combines the demand for power with the problem of cooperation. In a more up-to-date, less austere variant, power is no unqualified asset: a state can profit from a unilateral loss of power, all else equal. And mutual cooperation is often achievable, thanks in great measure to the shadow of the future. My newer, richer variant enlarges and combines those two features of anarchy: sometimes a loss of power by a single state not only is advantageous to that state but enhances mutual cooperation, and when that happens the motives to cooperate—which turn out to be quite varied—only have to work in a one-sided way.
Chablullah Wibisono
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p179

Abstract:
This study aims to identify and examine whether prayer intentions to contribute to the quality of work: Is ritual process contributes to the quality of work? Is a prayer accompanies efforts to contribute to the quality of work? Is prayer intentions to contribute to job performance? Whether the process rituals contribute to job performance, Do businesses contribute to job performance?The research was conducted on the University’s staff Batam totaling 193 people. University Batam pick the 16 courses 8 accredited B and 8 C. accredited university Batam has the facilities and the physical facilities are very adequate and equipped with two reliable Mosque and pray every Zohar and Asr prayer and diligent employees after prayers, whether her payer give contribution to job performance, work quality? Positive phenomenon is interesting to study the variable Benediction, Job Performance, quality Work. Data analysis was performed using the method Structural Equation Model (SEM).
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p192

Abstract:
Knowledge on the determinants of Active Labour Market Policy (ALMP) spending accumulated during the 2000s. Despite these advances, the current research lacks a systematic approach to the relevant determinants. This article fills the research gaps by analysing simultaneously the 14 most frequently used determinants for the first time. In addition to these variables, this study introduces a new factor, namely the impact of economic crises. Through the analysis of the longest data period yet investigated of 20 Western countries and a comparison of methodological alternatives, this study both challenges and reinforces previous findings, as well as produces new ones. For example, it is the first investigation to reveal the positive effect of government indebtedness and economic crises on ALMP expenditure. However, the rivalry between the “usual suspects” continues, as the negative effects of budget deficits, foreign trade, and population ageing, and the positive effects of trade union density and GDP growth, were rediscovered in this analysis.
Fifian Permata Sari, Andy Mulyana, Najib Asmani, Yunita -
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p204

Abstract:
Indonesia is a country whose majority lives of agriculture and food crop agriculture remains the livelihoods of the majority of the Indonesian population. South Sumatera province is one that is a center for food crops, especially rice. A district that has irrigation and a rice production center in South Sumatera is Musi Rawas District. In 10 years (1993-2013) recorded a decrease in the number of rice farmers households is significant in Indonesia, including in South Sumatera. Changes in the amount of rice farming households in the province of South Sumatera by Agricultural Census 2013 indicates the state of declining, even in the central areas of food. This situation is further interesting to study the determinants of primary business of rice farmers to plant non-food and non-agriculture, especially in the central areas of food and irrigated in South Sumatera, Indonesia. This study used survey method and logistic regression for the analysis data. The result shows that factors affecting farmers’ decision to switch or not switch from the main businesses, namely rice farm to farm fish, rubber and non-agricultural businesses is land area, household income from rice, the income of non rice, grain price at farmers level, revenue from non paddy, costs of farming, commodity prices, employment opportunities outside of the main business, farming experience and knowledge of farmers on land conversion rules.
Sajad Farokhi,
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p138

Abstract:
The present research’s main purpose is to evaluate the effective factors in customers desire to pay for organic products. The method of research is practical based on the goal of research and due to lack of complete control of research variables is none experimental, based on the data identity, data are qualitative and based on gathering method, data are provided in the field of study and about the feature of research it is communicative-visual kind. The statistical society contains all staffs of Kermanshah province agricultural bank staffs containing 418 people among which 200 peoples selected by the Cochran sample volume determination formula as the statistical sample and by random sampling method and by drawing. The tool to gather information in this research contains a researcher answer sheet whose justification confirmed by the special panel of agricultural training and privilege in Ilam Azad university agricultural management. The research stability obtained through the Cronbach’s alpha at 0.87. The dependant variable also declined to pay for the organic production and dependant variables containing individual features, knowledge to organic production, on time informing and the customer expected features, cultural factors and economical issues. The data analysis by the SPSS software and in two level of descriptive statistics (the central and distributed scales) and analytic statistic correlation coefficient for connecting theories, the average comparing test for the theories comparison and also multiple regressions performed step by step. The results showed that the relation between the economical factors and desire to pay for organic products has positive meaningful relation. The results showed that the economical factors and price, cultural factors and connecting factors to advertisement and informing have the maximum effect on desire for payment by customers for organic products.
, Mohammad Salehi
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p130

Abstract:
Background: Developing and strengthening Organizational and Citizenship Behavior (OCB) needs various capitals such as Cultural Capital. The aim of this research was studying about the relation between cultural capital and organizational citizenship behavior and also predicting organizational and citizenship behavior.Materials and Methods: The method of this study was description. The Statistical population under study was composed of 380 MA students in Mahmud-Abad Islamic Azad University. Finally on the basis of Kook ran formula a sample of 191 people was chosen randomly stratified for this study. Standard questionnaire was used in this study. Bourdieu standard cultural capital questionnaire with kronbakh alpha factor .857 and Organ and Kanoski organizational and citizenship behavior questionnaire with the stability of .76 were used in this study for statistical analysis data with Pierson and Regression correlation factor was used to check the hypothesis. All data analysis was done with Spss 18.Results: Achievements of this study were shown that there is a meaningful correlation between cultural capital and OBC with the factor of 0.428. Also cultural capital with determination factor of .183 plays an important role in predicting OBC.Conclusion: Therefore universities must improve their culture index regarding their cultural mission in order to improve OBC which is a valuable and useful behavior. They achieve sustainable development through their evolutionary process.
, Irshad Ahmed
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p158

Abstract:
The Indian tradition, Ahimsa which instils absolute non-violence, equality, universal love and oneness of all human beings is believed to have a guiding role in the conduct of national and international politics. But, the practical contribution of Ahimsa has been insignificant and questionable both in modern national and international politics. Historically contingent truths about the natures of modern national politics have witnessed; values, norms and laws of states are mainly executed by the use of hard power and immoral instruments as conditions dictate. Monopoly of coercive apparatus and conditional immorality are proved to be the core essences of modern states. International relation is also characterized by the logic of political realism which gives priority to state power and national interest than Ahimsa’s universal principles of love and oneness of all human beings. In this article, by using analytic approach, an effort is made to critically analyze concepts to expound the existence of basic contradictions of the moral principles and values of Ahimsa with the basic natures and purposes of the politics of modern sates and international relations.
, Erfina -
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p170

Abstract:
Public services in Indonesia in the health sector has not been optimal characterized by complexity of the procedures that experienced, public complaints are still high, and the cost of services is less transparent. The government through bureaucratic reform 2010-2025 Grand Design have established guidelines for the implementation of public services to the world-class public management. The ultimate goal is to improve public services is good and right, improve the quality of policy-making and decision-making, to prevent misuse of authority, and improve resource efficiency. Type of bureaucratic behavior will determine the achievement of bureaucratic reform. Facts and data showing through phenomenology. The data collected with in-depth interviews, observation, and documentation on health services in South Sulawesi indicates that the type of behavior of the bureaucracy in order to realize the reform of the bureaucracy is still in the category of politicians from the four types discussed include the type of employee career, type of politician, professional type, and the type of missionary.
, Solmaz Janfadaei
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p148

Abstract:
Export deals with a wide range of environmental factors, customers and competitors that are different with the domestic market. That’s why market research and export promotion require management plans and appropriate procedures to their target markets and audiences. Exporter before entering a foreign market requires that by doing the necessary research on the marketrealizethe type of information required and how to collect it from a country other than their country and study about the cultural dimensions.In fact, differences in the environment, cultural, legal, political, economic, financial, geographic, multinational markets, free trade zones and economic agreements include the level of economic development and the risks and major exporter that they should do an investigation to consider the conditions of satisfaction and thus increase customer loyalty.This applied research was done aims to determine the effect of culture on customer loyalty at target markets for successful export using a descriptive method by a questionnaire that its validity and reliability was calculated. To analyze the issue of structural equations and correlation test was used. Based on the results, this study found a relationship between the cultural dimension, cultural beliefs and cultural values and traditions with customer loyalty at target market.
, Martina Maletzky
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p115

Abstract:
Internationalization of value chains and of for-profit as well as non-profit organizations, and as a result of cheaper and safer mass migration, transnational labor mobility is of increasing importance. The article presents the development of the different types of cross-border labor mobility (from long-term labor migration over expatriats/inpatriats up to business traveling); it analyses crucial aspects of labor conditions and how the collective regulation of working, employment and participation conditions in general is affected: could local or national forms of labor regulation cope with these new conditions? What are the main challenges when it comes to collective bargaining and the monitoring of labor conditions? The article is based on a three year international and comparative research in Germany and Mexico. First, different ideal types of transnational labor mobility are distinguished that have emerged as a result of increasing cross-border labor mobility. Then potential sources of labor related social inequality and challenges in the regulation of the working, employment and participation conditions for transnational workers are discussed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn for further research.
, Chukwujekwu Ijeoma Chibuogwu
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p106

Abstract:
This study identified the computer programming competencies required of computer education graduates for sustainable employment in Enugu metropolis, Enugu state, Nigeria. Three research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population for the study was 95, which comprised of 74 computing lecturers, 6 IT programming instructors, and 15 programmers. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The instrument was face validated by three experts in computer programming. Cronbach Alpha statistic was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument, yielding reliability co-efficient of 0.83. Mean and Standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while ANOVA statistic was used to test the hypothesis. The study found out that 25 hard competencies, 18 business competencies, and 19 soft competencies are required by computer education graduates for sustainable employment in programming jobs. These competencies identified include among others, ability to code, test and debug programs quickly and efficiently; ability to explore and evaluate application design considerations for multiple technologies, ability to analyze users’ needs and specifications then design, test, and develop software to meet those needs, ability to recommend software upgrades for clients’ existing programs and systems, proficiency in data mining, confidence in personal ideas but open to feedbacks, adapting to changes while remaining focused on project with topmost priority and good sense of judgment. It was therefore recommended that the identified competencies should be incorporated in the curriculum for training Computer Education graduates for sustainability in programming jobs.
Lisa Gaye Williams Goodrich, José Manuel Castellano, Efstathios Stefos
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p91

Abstract:
The objective of this study is to examine the factors influencing school attendance among the secondary school population between the ages of 15 and 17 in Ecuador, by means of a descriptive and multidimensional analysis of statistical data principally from the 2015 National Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment of Ecuador (ENEMDU). The descriptive analysis demonstrates the frequency and percentages of the variables used in the investigation, while comparing the social characteristics of student attendees and absentees in this age group. This descriptive analysis was conducted in order to provide a more enlightening profile of attendance and truancy regarding this sector of the student population whereas the method of multidimensional statistical analysis used was the hierarchical analysis which classifies the students in clusters according to their common traits.
Seyyedeh Zahra Seyyed Mirzayi, Mohammad Reza Belyad, Masoumeh Zhian Bagheri
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p69

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of religious beliefs on mental health of students in Islamic Azad University of Karaj. The research method was regression and Pearson correlation. For this purpose, the population of study was selected from normal undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University in Karaj. Sample of study was included 120 students (60 girls and 60 boys), in academic years of 2015-2016 and they were selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling method. In this study, mental health questionnaire of Goldberg with 28 questions and Baraheni’s religious attitude questionnaire with 25 questions were used. The results showed that, there is a significant relationship between religious beliefs and mental health. In the sense that, when religious attitude is more positive, people will have better mental health.
Nivia Elaine Haddad Rezende, , Fernanda Carla Wasner Vasconcelos, Nina Rosa Da Silveira Cunha
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p74

Abstract:
This study has a purpose to test the extended WebQual Model from the inclusion of the construct familiarity has nomological validity, besides to verify the explained variance to satisfaction and intention to reuse are higher in the extended model than the original model. The quality evaluation WebQual model presents a measurement process from twelve constructs: information fit-to-task, tailored information, on-line completeness, relative advantage, easy of understanding, intuitive operations, trust, response time, visual appeal, innovativeness, emotional appeal and consistent image. Constructs familiarity, satisfaction and intention to reuse by users were included in this model. Data were collected by electronic means, and at the end, 456 questionnaires were obtained from the Rede Habitar portal and 240 questionnaires from Rede Imvista portal, totalizing 696 questionnaires. Obtained results indicate that the analyzed portals quality evaluation is reasonable, which all one-dimensional indices, reliability, and convergent validity showed suitable results. In the discriminant validity, only two correlations did not show proper values. Nomological validity was achieved and the relationship between the extended model constructs were shown suitable. In explained variance terms, the construct familiarity insertion increased the indicator’s value for satisfaction, however it should also be considered the lack of discriminant validity between familiarity and satisfaction.
Carlisle E. Moody
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p53

Abstract:
Personal violence, has declined substantially in Europe from 1200-2010. The conventional wisdom is that the state’s monopoly on violence is the cause of this happy result. I find some evidence that does not support this hypothesis. I suggest an alternative hypothesis that could explain at least some of the reduction in violence, namely that the invention and proliferation of compact, concealable, ready-to-use firearms caused potential assailants to recalculate the probability of a successful assault and seek alternatives to violence. I use structural change models to test this hypothesis and find breakpoints consistent with the invention of certain firearms.
Ibezim, N. E., Ireh, E. C.
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p45

Abstract:
This study identified lucrative business ideas in the use of computer graphics skills that could boost entrepreneurial development. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Five specific purposes and five research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population for the study was eight graphics design/printing press firms comprising of 1,024 graphics design/printing press personnel in Nsukka metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria. A Structured questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection and data collected were analyzed using mean. Major findings of the study showed that ability to think creatively and create a vision or imagery off heart, ability to utilize the hardware and software rights of graphics designing jobs, ability to use the function/impact of design and the role of the design profession appropriately in our society, ability to organize files in terms of formats/size for easy use, ability to use computer software to execute designs, meeting with clients and adjusting designs to fit their needs or taste, and using the various print and layout techniques were among the artistic, technical, communication, organizational and problem solving skills required in computer graphics for effective entrepreneurial development. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that the curriculum of institutions of higher learning in computer graphics should be reviewed to incorporate present needs of the society. The government should also ensure that adequate funds are allocated to procure necessary facilities that will facilitate teaching and learning of computer graphics in schools.
Andrés Bonilla Marchán, Ramiro Delgado,
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p35

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to investigate social characteristics of postgraduate students in Ecuador. The study was conducted with the use of a descriptive and multidimensional statistical analysis, and data from the National Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment corresponding to 2015. The descriptive analysis has shown the frequencies and percentages of the variables of the research. The multidimensional statistical analysis was used in order to show the main and most important criteria of differentiation and the classification in clusters of people being studied. The methods used are the factorial analysis of multiple correspondences that presents the criteria of differentiation and the hierarchical clustering that defines the groups of people due to their common characteristics.
Sahar Dadkhah, Parisa Saadat, Morteza Soleimaninejad
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p20

Abstract:
This study is evaluating the effect of corporate social responsibility of firms and organizations on customer satisfactions, customers who visit top tourism agencies in Tehran city. This study is a quantitative base study and the data have gathered through a researcher-made questionnaire. For questionnaire validity, the researcher used construction, validity and exploratory factor analysis and for measuring the questionnaire reliability, the researcher examined the Cronbach Alpha, this number that the outcome of the SPSS software was about 0/895 which demonstrate the high reliability of the research questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis and SEM methods utilized for data analysis. And also Smart PLS software was used for constructing the research model and analysis. The results of exploratory factor analysis showed that social commitment variables were chosen perfectly and also were acceptable, however, the SEM results demonstrate that the expectation execution variables could be considered as a moderating variable between firm’s social commitments and customer satisfaction. The effect of social commitment to expectation execution was not acceptable as well and the effects of other concepts of social commitments on firms on expectation execution were accepted. In addition, with the elements of social execution, variable as a moderating variable, the effects of social commitment on customer satisfaction were increased. This illustrates that the role of expectation execution as a moderating variable in the model of this study.
Review of European Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9n2p10

Abstract:
Objectives: Positive and negative affect is a relevant facet of well-being for community-dwelling older adults. This article reports the validation of the Positive And Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), by means of confirmatory analysis.Methods: A community-dwelling cross-national sample of 1291 older adults aged 75 years-old and older voluntarily completed the PANAS. The relations between variables in the model were evaluated using structural equation based on maximum likelihood estimation. The distributional properties, cross-sample stability, internal reliability, and convergent, external and criterion-related validities of the PANAS were analyzed and found to be psychometrically acceptable.Results: Our results outcomes support for the hypothesis that the PANAS is valid and reliable in the two 10-item mood scales, hence fit for use with older adults, within a culturally diverse view of well-being.Conclusions: The psychometric properties of the PANAS are satisfactory in this older sample, and according to those of its early version. Taken together, these results substantiate the validity of this measure when applied to an older community cross-national population.
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