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Mominul Islam, Imrul Hossain Chowdhury, Sabrina Islam
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 47-61; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i5.181

Abstract:
Purpose- The purpose of this study is to analyze whether an increase in the concentration of industry causes an increase in the level of the Department of Justice Antitrust Division (DoJ)’s antitrust enforcement within that industry. Design/Methodology- The study employed secondary data and quantitative research method was also utilized to achieve the objectives of the study. Multiple regression analysis techniques were used to analyze the data. Findings- The results support the hypothesis that an increase in the concentration of industry causes an increase in the level of Department of Justice Antitrust Division (DoJ)’s antitrust enforcement within that industry. It appears that industry-level revenue from exports is highly correlated with the size of that industry and its lobbying activity. Practical Implications- These results have practical relevance which helps to predict the intensity of antitrust activity in future years. Its practical implication is that there are disparities in antitrust enforcement that are influenced by factors other than concentration. By creating a benchmark that takes into account components such as this, the Department of Justice Antitrust Division (DoJ) can identify those companies who are likely to be engaging in anticompetitive behavior.
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 1-13; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i4.156

Abstract:
Purpose- Effective leadership practices in schools are only possible while headmaster and teachers adopt suitable leadership styles. The main purpose of this study is to identify the leadership styles as well as determine the association of democratic, autocratic and laissez-faire leadership style with each other among school teachers. Design/Methodology- This study is based on post-positivist research philosophy and cross-sectional survey as the research design which is confirmatory and explanatory in nature. It gathered the data via self-administer questionnaire from 345 school teachers and analyzed through descriptive statistics and parametric test. Findings- The researcher derived that school teachers adopted a more democratic leadership style and gave least prefer to the laissez-faire leadership style in schools. Meanwhile, the lacking of equal facility and access to power exercise contributes to making significant differences in leadership styles across the job nature of school teachers. Furthermore, this study assess that there is no relationship between autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles. These distinct styles of leadership may develop the differences in work performances of school teachers. Practical Implications- This research provides the framework for another future researcher to investigate the input of job nature on leadership style among school teachers.
Ismaila Abubakar, Haruna Isa Mohammad
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 65-78; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i4.166

Abstract:
Purpose-This study examines the relationships between product line strategies and competitive advantage in Nigerian foods and beverages industry. Design/Methodology-Data were obtained from a sample of 278 employees choosing from 8 companies in the foods and beverages industry located in north-eastern Nigeria using a self-administered questionnaire. Pearson's correlation and Multiple regression were conducted in the data analysis. Findings-Findings of the research revealed that all four hypotheses were supported signifying that product line strategies have significant effects on the competitive advantage of foods and beverages companies in Nigeria. Practical Implications-The study combined the dimensions of product line strategies to determine optimal product line in the food and beverages industry. It provides the decision makers of food and beverages firms in Nigeria with a guide for determining the blend of product line strategies to adopt in order to gain competitive advantage. It also served as a guide to potential investors in the food and beverages industry to make an informed decision that can strategically improve the efficiency and effectiveness through its advocacy on reforming product line strategies.
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 14-34; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i4.160

Abstract:
Purpose- Enhancing job satisfaction through motivation and Work-Life Balance (WLB) and checking the overall impact on Emotional Intelligence of mystery shopping professionals is the aim of this research. The work depends on factors such as sudden demand, high workload, on-time submission of assignments, a new area for exploration and fluctuation in pay scale. Design- The data were collected from mystery shopping professionals through social media platform using a questionnaire link (N=338). The sampling technique employed in this study was a convenient sampling technique. CFA (Confirmatory Factor Analysis) using AMOS software was performed. The questionnaire instrument SSREI, GJSS, WEIMS and (Tasdelen’s WLB) were adopted for this study. Findings- The study revealed that motivation has a positive impact on Work-life balance and intern enhances the job satisfaction of mystery shoppers. However, the overall impact on EI is negative. The Goodness of Fit Index such as (AGFI, NFI, TLI, CFI, RMSEA, RMR, and AVE) indicates a good fit of the Structural Equation Model. Originality/Value: The study reflected on the four essential concepts, which has evolved in the domain of HRM and OB for many years. In the context of mystery-shopping professional, it has been used and the recommendations will help the market research agencies and the mystery shoppers. Exploring Work-Life Balance (WLB) as a mediating variable between motivation and Job satisfaction and the overall impact on EI of mystery shopping professionals is a new insight.
Muhammad Nawaz, Alias Mat Nor, Habibah Tolos
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 79-87; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i4.173

Abstract:
Purpose-The Objective of this study is to investigate the moderating role of Intellectual Capital between the relationship of Bank internal factor and Credit Risk in Islamic banks of Pakistan. Design/Methodology-Panel data are obtained from annual reports of 4 Islamic banks of Pakistan from the period 2006 to 2017. These are analyzed using hierarchical regression techniques, via Eviews 9 software. Findings-The results showed that intellectual capital significantly moderates the relationship of bank internal variable and credit risk in Islamic banks in Pakistan. Practical Implications-The study found that Intellectual Capital is a very important driver for credit risk. The investment in Intellectual Capital may lower the credit risk which will further help in the growth and sustainability of the bank and hence the growth in the economy. The results of the study will be useful for bank management, policy maker, and regulator and academia for future research.
Sadia Murtaza, Irsa Azam
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 51-64; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i4.162

Abstract:
Objective – The main objective of this study is to measure the relationship between ownership structure and capital structure by using the chemical sector of Pakistan. Design – This study is used the panel data and retrieved from the annual reports of the chemical sector of Pakistan for the time period of 2012 to 2017. Findings – The finding the statistical analysis shows that ownership structure has a significant positive relationship on capital structure. Which mitigate the agency conflicts among managers and shareholders, because the majority of the shareholders would like to have a higher level of debt over equity financing. Policy Implications – The findings of this study also can be helpful to the policymakers, investors and financial institution in designing ownership structures and financing decisions for firms. Originality – This is the first study that examined the relationship between ownership structure and capital structure in the context of the chemical sector of Pakistan.
, Kabiru Isa Dandago, Rehanet Isa
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 35-50; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i4.157

Abstract:
Purpose: Integrated reporting is a process founded on integrated thinking, with the aim of issuing periodic integrated reports by firms about value creation over time. This study investigates the effect of board attributes (independence, diligence, and size) on the quality of integrated reporting of Nigerian listed oil and gas firms. Design/Methodology: Panel data are obtained from annual reports of a purposive sample of 10 out of the 12 listed Oil and Gas firms in Nigeria from 2013 to 2017. These are analyzed using multiple regression techniques, via STATA 13.0 software. Results: Based on the analysis conducted, findings show that the board independence and board size have a significant and positive effect, while board diligence has an insignificant and positive effect on the quality of integrated reporting, proxied by integrated reporting disclosure score (IRDSCORE). This outcome implies that having the optimum mix of members on the board influences the extent of integrated disclosures of listed oil and gas firms in Nigeria. Practical Implications: Global corporate reporting is currently driving towards integrated thinking, incorporating financial, governance, social and environmental issues to promote long-term value creation. As a third world nation, the adoption of integrated reports is voluntary in Nigeria. However, considering the information needs of all stakeholders and appointing qualified persons on the board by shareholders, and formulating enabling policies in this direction by regulatory agencies would drive corporate reporting to be more integrative to drive long-term value maximization.
, Sami Ullah Butt, Zahir Zahid Butt, Shahid Manzoor Shah, Fiaz Ahmad Sulehri
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 88-95; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i4.171

Abstract:
Purpose - The objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between the credit information sharing and the funding cost of banks of the top ten “AA rating” commercial banks of Pakistan as the Commercial banks also play a significant role in the economy of every country. Design/Methodology - In this study, panel data were analyzed from 2011 to 2017. We selected the top ten “AA rating” banks from Pakistan credit rating agency (PACRA) website, and data related to another related variables are obtained from financial statements of the respective banks. Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) statistical technique was employed to measure the relationship among related variables. Findings - The result of the study shows that there is a negative and significant relationship between credit information sharing, operation efficiency, and funding cost. On the other side, profitability has a positive and significant relationship with the funding cost of the bank. Practical Implications - To manage the funding cost policymakers must focus two key findings which are credit information sharing and operational efficiency of bank and set up a credit information sharing institutions which help to reduce information irregularity and ultimately manage the funding cost of the banks.
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 82-99; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i3.129

Abstract:
Purpose- The purpose of the paper is to provide owners and managers of small businesses with necessary information about the challenges facing small businesses in Nigeria and present the possible tools, policies, and strategies to mitigate them. Design/Methodology- Using the multi-case qualitative study, managers of successful small businesses narrated in an interview the tools, policies, and strategies they used to mitigate the identified challenges. The study answered the central question: what are the tools, policies, and strategies used by managers of successful small businesses to mitigate the challenges facing their firms? Findings- The findings identified continuous government intervention and support to small businesses as a major tool that reduced the challenges facing the sector. Practical Implications- The information found in this study can be used by small business managers to mitigate the challenges facing small businesses and reduce their massive failure in the economy. Mitigating the challenges facing small businesses in Nigeria will increase the number of successful small businesses, which will result in the reduced unemployment rate in the economy. A reduced unemployment rate in the Nigerian economy will increase the wellbeing of citizens, thereby reducing the unemployment rate in the economy.
, Zahir Zahid Butt, Sami Ullah Butt
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 58-66; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i3.137

Abstract:
Purpose- The aim of this study is to examine the impact of non-traditional income, size and growth on the performance of the banks in big three economies of South Asia, as in the modern banking, non-traditional income plays a vital role by acting as a link between bank and its customers. Design- This study utilized the annual data over the period from 1996 to 2015, data were obtained from Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED). This study examines the long-run as well as the short-run relationship among variables through the statistical technique of Panel ARDL. Findings- The findings of this study showed a significant and positive relationship between non-traditional income and return on assets as well as bank size and return on assets. While the association among the growth and return on assets is negative but significant. Policy Implications- Policy recommendation of this study suggests that banks should also explore new avenues of non-interest valued added services to their customers which will not only facilitate their customers also attract new customers which ultimately enhance the performance of the banks as well as the country.
Emmanuel Chidiebere Eze, Onyinye Sofolahan, Adesoji Anthony Adegboyega, Kenneth John Saidu
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 67-81; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i3.145

Abstract:
Purpose- The aim of this study is to assess the factors limiting the full-scale adoption of process and product innovation by construction organizations in Nigeria with a view to suggesting probable ways of eliminating them Design/Methodology- The study adopted a questionnaire survey approach in which data were collected from the participants using simple random sampling techniques in the study area. Frequency, percentage, mean item score, and Independent sample T-test was used to analyze the gathered data. Findings- It was found that poor funding, poor support and commitment from management, fragmented nature of the construction business, poor coordination and communication among project participants, lack of qualified and experienced staff and the unwillingness of clients to pay for innovative ideas are the factors limiting innovations in construction. Practical Implications- The outcome of this study will give the management of construction-based organizations an insight into the major limiting factors of innovation, so that appropriate strategies for overcoming them could be developed at the conception stage of construction projects.
Abdul Khaliq, Kashif Mehmood, Aamir Zamir Kamboh, Kainat Durrani, Muhammad Haidar Zarar, Shaheen Nazar
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 42-57; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i3.131

Abstract:
Aim - The objective of the study was to examine the psychological contract expectations by employees and the impact of any deviation from its perceived benefits by the employees of an organization, as they occur within social exchange relationships to account for employee responses. Methodology - This is an exploratory longitudinal study in which an investigation is made into the changes in employment obligations as perceived by employees based on the level of fulfillment of contract obligations by their employer(s). Findings - It was deduced that an employer's inability to fulfill its contractual commitments was the foundational cause associated with the decline in cooperation of the employees to fulfill their employment obligations. Significance - The results of the current study show that there is a significant and positive relationship between Psychological Contract Fulfilment and Employee Reaction. Results presented that there is a significant and positive relationship between Organizational Justice and Employee Reaction. Results presented that there is a significant and positive relationship between Organizational Justice and Psychological Contract Fulfilment.
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 30-41; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i3.141

Abstract:
Purpose - Job Satisfaction (JS) has seen an upsurge concern in the arena of school management and it is highly associated with the age groups of school teachers. Thus, this study focused to ascertain the level of JS and examine it via age groups of school teachers. Design - The scholar applied a cross-sectional survey design in post-positivist paradigm. The data were amassed from 345 school teachers of a cluster via self-administer questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics and ANOVA test. In the meantime, social exchange theory was employed to scrutinize the results. Findings - This study found that the school teachers expressed moderate satisfaction in the job. Likewise, the age groups significantly influence the JS among school teachers. More specifically, the senior age group teachers expressed more satisfaction in the job than other groups of the teacher. Subsequently, these job satisfied teachers contribute to more job commitment, effectiveness and work performances in the school. Furthermore, JS facilitates school to achieve elevated academic success. Implications - The study endows with the concrete approach for other forthcoming scholar to explore the contribution of age groups on JS among academia.
Ahmed Jinjri Bala, , Kabiru Isa Dandago
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 16-29; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i3.109

Abstract:
Purpose: The nature of diversification in the form of conglomerates is the research theme for this study. Thus, CG’s functions on FP on conglomerates firms of Nigerian economy was studied while applying IC as the mediating variable. Design/Methodology: This research depends on archival data collected from the NSE. Firms have been chosen based on the convenient sampling method and an important parameter for judgment is Conglomerated firms. In order to get genuine results, ten years of financial data have been taken into consideration. Multiple regression technique was used to analyze the data. The software used for analysis was STATA version 14.0. Results: The model I of the study disclose a pessimistic and insignificant impact of board size and board independence on IC using VAIC as a proxy. In contrast, model II results disclosed that the performance of the firms was impacted by the board’s size and institutional ownership. Implying that, the greater the size of the firm as well as more shares owned by institutional shareholders the higher the profit. Practical Implications: Nigeria being one of the growing economies now is dependent on knowledge assets and hence it has a positive effect on the firm’s performance. Conglomeration is seen even between employee’s skills of both industries, which give a positive outcome. Hence, firms under conglomerate tags have a strong impact in relation to intellectual capital.
Edeh Ogbu Friday, Mlanga Sunday
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 1-15; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i3.138

Abstract:
Purpose: This investigates the relationship between talent management and workers’ commitment to oil and gas firms in Nigeria using a cross-sectional survey. Ten oil and gas servicing firms were surveyed using simple random sampling. Design/Methodology: A population of 125 managers and supervisors were surveyed from ten oil and gas firms in Rivers state while a sample of 95 was ascertained from the population using Krejcie and Morgan sample size determination table. Reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha. Face and content validity was employed. 95 copies of the questionnaire were administered to managers and supervisors but 74 copies were correctly filled and returned. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (rs) was used to analyze the hypotheses with the aid of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20.0) while respondents’ characteristics were analyzed using frequency distribution. Findings: The study found that talent management has a positive significant relationship with workers commitment. It concluded that talent management measured in terms of talent attraction, talent development and talent retention promotes workers commitment in oil and gas firms in Nigeria. Practical Implications: This study recommends that managers of oil and gas firms should endeavor to employ all compensation plans necessary to retain talents in the industry as this will enhance their commitment towards achieving organizational goals.
Muhammad Sajjad Hussain, Muhammad Muhaizam Musa, Abdelnaser Omran
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 94-103; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i2.124

Abstract:
Objective - The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between capital regulation and risk-taking by the banks of Pakistan. Design - This study was conducted on all the commercial banks of Pakistan and data were collected from the year 2005 to 2016. Findings - This study concluded the significant positive relationship between regulatory capital and risk-taking by banks in Pakistan. The findings of this study play a key role in the implementation of capital regulations in the banks of developing countries. Policy Implications - In the light of this study, the regulators must revise their implementation process of the Basel Accord capital regulations in the banks of developing countries. The prime intention of regulators are only on to maintain the minimum capital ratios but must be conscious of other important elements of capital regulation implications. Originality - This study is one of the first attempts that investigated the crucial role of regulatory capital towards risk-taking in the Pakistani context.
Muhammad Asghar Shahzad, Syed Kashif Saeed, Asim Ehsan
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 83-93; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i2.126

Abstract:
Purpose - The Objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive scenario of the Acquisition of House Financing transaction taken place between Bank Islami and Citi Bank during 2010 in the light of Sharī’ah guidelines. The purpose of this whole complex transaction was to acquire Citi Banks house financing portfolio. The successful completion of such a transaction is an important milestone for Islamic Banking. The complete understanding of such transactions is of prime importance for Islamic banking academia. Findings - The study concludes that the transaction based on Hawalah (assignment of debt) and Wakalah Lil Qabz (recovery agency) is very complex and intelligently designed to conduct these transactions. Policy Implications - This study will enable the policymakers, Sharī’ah Advisors, and bankers to explore new avenues for investment in Islamic Banking Institutions. This study will also enable academicians and research students to conduct research for product development in related areas with conventional banks. The complete understanding of such transactions is of prime importance for the product development department of Islamic Banks.
Syed Durrab Hussain, Abdul Khaliq, Qasim Ali Nisar, Aamir Zamir Kamboh, Shahzad Ali
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 69-82; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i2.121

Abstract:
Aim - the purpose of this study is to examine the role of employee rewards, recognition, and job-related stress towards employee performance considering the mediating role of perceived organizational support in the call-centers located in Lahore, Pakistan. Design - The data has been gathered through the survey method of the questionnaire. A simple random sampling technique is used for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structure equation modeling (SEM) techniques have been used for statistical analysis. Findings - Results showed that employee rewards and recognition have a significant and positive effect on employee performance whereas job stress has a significant and negative effect on employee performance. Findings also revealed that perceived organizational support significantly and fully mediates the relationship between employee rewards, recognition, and job stress and employee performance. So this study puts light on crucial factors that lead to better employee performance. Implications - Employee rewards and recognition play an important role in overall employee performance. If the companies will not take it seriously, then it might lead to negative consequences. On the other hand, job stress also plays a vital role in employee performance.
Muhammad Shahnawaz Adil, Kamal Bin Ab Hamid
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 58-68; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i2.123

Abstract:
Objective: The objectives of this conceptual paper are two folds: to propose and argue a) the direct relationship between leader creativity expectations and creative performance; and b) the mediating role of intrinsic motivation between leader creativity expectations and creative performance. Design: Drawing upon Pygmalion effect, Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation, and componential theory of creativity, two propositions are suggested. Findings: It is proposed that there will be a positive relationship between leader creativity expectations and creative performance. In addition, the authors also make the case that intrinsic motivation will mediate the relationship between leader creativity expectations and creative performance. Originality: The significant original contribution of this article is that it suggests a theoretical relationship of Pygmalion effect with Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation and componential theory of creativity to propose a new conceptual framework. In addition, this paper extends our knowledge regarding the pertinent role of leader creativity expectations in stimulating the divergent thinking process of people in the workplace. Policy Implications: This article attempts to provide a clear guideline to both practitioners and academicians to better explore the relationship between expectations and employee creativity. The proposed framework may be applied in various social contexts such as healthcare, education, creative advertising, research and development, hospitality and new business incubation.
Amir Ali
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 48-57; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i2.117

Abstract:
Aim - This research highlights the HR policies and practices in terms of compensation and performance evaluation and its impact on employee job satisfaction. This study will fill the gap in the literature by providing information on compensation and performance functions of human resource. Design - In this research descriptive design is taken in the collection of bias-free data. A sample of 42 respondents was taken into consideration from different management level of PTCL such as top, middle and lower level and the target population of this study was human resource department, management, and administrative staff. To collect the required information closed-ended questionnaire was used and were divided into three part; initially questionnaire identify the demographic factors of the respondents, then highlight the Likert scale options 1 being strongly disagreed and 5 strongly agree. Findings - In findings of this research we highly recommend the management to have fair and equitable compensation policies and establish performance evaluation system which can reduce to biases at all levels.
Rehana Yasmeen, , Ali Raza
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 39-47; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i2.118

Abstract:
Purpose- The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nepotism & favoritism as a form of organization politics on HRM practices and employee performance. Design/Methodology- Explanatory research design was employed to determine the effect of nepotism & favoritism on HRM practices and employee performance. Primary data collection method was used among employees working in different public-sector hospitals based on their accessibility. For this study, the sample of 150 employees was used. The adapted questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Findings- The correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between favoritism, employee performance & HRM practices whereas nepotism has a significant association with employee performance but the insignificant relationship with HRM practices. The outcomes of the study unveiled a significantly negative effect of nepotism on employee performance & HRM practices while favoritism has a significantly positive effect on employee performance & HRM practices. Practical Implications- The study outcomes might help public sector hospitals HR department to incorporate some changes regarding their policies to prevent the nepotistic & favoritism practices which can lead to creating a politics in the organization in which everyone works to fulfill his or her self- interest without focusing towards organizational goals achievement.
Onyeagam Onyealilam Peter, Emmanuel Chidiebere Eze, Adegboyega Adesoji Anthony
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 22-38; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i2.111

Abstract:
Purpose- Innovation repositions and strengthens the competitive advantage and revenue drive of corporate businesses. The aim of this study is to assess the extent of the process and product innovation in Nigerian Quantity Surveying firms with a view to determining the innovative tools/concepts used. Design/Methodology- The study adopted a questionnaire survey in which simple random sampling was used to collect data from Quantity Surveyors working with Quantity Surveying firms in the study area. Relative importance Index, mean score, frequencies, andpercentages were used to analyze the data collected, and Rogers' innovation adopters categorization was employed to determine the level of adoption of innovation by Quantity Surveyors. Findings- The study found that Quantity Surveying firms do not engage the services of innovation specialist because of financial constraint. The most adopted innovative tools/concept by Quantity Surveying firms are MS Excel, Computer Aided Taking-off, CATO, and CA Estimating, and these firms are an early majority in the adoption of process and product/technological innovations. Practical Implications- The study would assist Quantity Surveying firms who have notembraced innovation to do so, by adopting and incorporating innovative practices in the running of the business transactions and operations to improve clients' satisfaction, profit generation, andcompany image.
Isma Zaighum, Mohd Zaini Abd Karim
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 13-21; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i2.116

Abstract:
Purpose- This article reviews literature related to peer effects and different financial decisions. It further summarizes the theory and motives that drive peer effects. Also, the study highlights the influence of industry concentration on peer interaction in financial decision making. This content analysis of scantily available peer effect literature has been performed to highlight the significance of peer effects in financial decision making like investment, cash holding, leverage and many more. Most of the existing peer effects literature focuses on the U.S. However, peer effects also occur in other countries but empirical evidence is comparatively limited. But, managers may take into consideration their industry peers especially if their firms are operating in highly competitive environments. Design/Methodology- Content analysis approach is applied to review prevailing financial literature on peer interactions and financial decisions with a special focus on industry concentration in explaining the peer effects. Practical Implications- As the prime focus of managerial decisions is to maximize the firm’s value. Hence, information about peers would be helpful in making better decisions, especially in highly competitive environments. Also, this review of selected literature provides pathways for future research in investigating the motives of peer effects.
Nur Azila Adros, Nazirah Zainul Abidin
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 1-12; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i2.93

Abstract:
The construction industry is facing a period of change due to the revolution of new technology, emphasis on strategic alliances and demanding customers. As one of the key players in the construction industry, the contractors play an important role in the development of the construction industry. They are known for their traditional roles during the construction stage by managing and production on site. Due to changes in the industry, the contractors’ role has been evolving during the years, this has impacted their roles to change as well. This paper reviews the traditional roles of the contractor and discusses the reasons for their evolving roles in the construction industry. Finally, this paper delves into the various diversification roles of the contractor in Malaysia which are categorised into two such as the management and technical.
Mila Purani Sistiyan, Palikhatun Palikhatun, Payamta Payamta
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 107-117; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i1.97

Abstract:
Aim -This study aimed at gaining the empirical evidence vis-a-vis the effect of budgetary participation, organizational commitment, and leadership styles on the employees’ performance. Design -This study made use of the primary data garnered from questionnaires distributed to the employees who were directly engaged in the preparation of budget within the work units in working area of the state treasury service office (in Indonesian language known by Kantor Pelayanan Perbendaharaan Negara and abbreviated as KPPN) of Surakarta. The work units covered several regions such as Surakarta, Sukoharjo, and Wonogiri. This study incorporated 80 work units under both ministry and institution. Of 165 questionnaires which were distributed, 116 pieces were returned and could further be analyzed. The independent variables in this study fell into budgetary participation, organizational commitment, and leadership styles, whereas the dependent variable was the employees’ performance. Findings -The results indicated the following details: 1) budgetary participation had a positive effect on the employees ‘performance; 2) organizational commitment had a positive effect on the employees’ performance; 3a) the authoritarian leadership style had no effect on the employees’ performance; 3b) the democratic leadership style had a positive effect on the employees’ performance; and 3c) the laissez-faire leadership style had no effect on the employees’ performance.
Rizwan Qaisar Danish, Rabia Shahid,
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 85-98; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i1.82

Abstract:
Purpose- Life satisfaction is a level in which feelings of people are affected positively or negatively about their lives. Employees whose lives are more satisfied are generally more committed with their works, reveal low absenteeism and more efficient in doing duties. This study aims to investigate what factors affect life satisfaction of employees in the banking sector specifically in the Pakistani context. Design/Methodology- The target population of this study was non-managerial employees of banks in Lahore. Total 340 questionnaires were distributed among employees in which 60 were filled incomplete and 30 were lost. The data were collected through self-administered questionnaires distributed to 250 respondents. Findings- The findings of structural equation modeling showed that economic hardship, prospective anxiety, and work stress has a negative impact on life satisfaction. Results also show that economic hardship and prospective anxiety has a positive impact on the financial threat. The financial threat is negatively related to life satisfaction. Practical Implications- It can also help managers to understand the insight of employee adverse financial decision making. Managers also make guidelines which may minimize all the consequences of psychological distress. It also helps in identifying methods to reduce anxiety, stress and economic hardship.
Ameenullah Aman, Asmadi Mohamed Naim, Mohamad Yazid Isa
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 99-106; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i1.94

Abstract:
Purpose- To diversify financing portfolio and reduce the reliance on the banking system, developing economies have realized the importance of bond market development. Bond markets facilitate economies to be more resilient towards the events of financial crises. Therefore, the share of the bond market in the financial system of the Asian economies has remarkably increased in the last decade. However, the academic literature on the bond market is very limited as compared to bank and equity markets. This was mainly because of the unavailability of vast data due to the absence of secondary markets for bonds in most of the economies. To fill this gap, this conceptual study postulates the theoretical relationships of bond market with various macroeconomic and financial factors. The study also assumes some new dimensions for bond financing and opens discussion for scholarly literature and empirical justifications. Design/Methodology- Content analysis approach is used to review relevant literature for the possible associations of the bond market with macroeconomic and financial factors. Practical Implications- The theoretical relationships discussed in the paper need empirical testing in future research to conclude policy implications. If the relationship between foreign capital and bond securities is established with empirical justification, we draw the policy that concerned authorities need to create a suitable environment for the attraction of foreign capital to provide support to the development of domestic debt market.
Babandi Ibrahim Gumel
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 69-84; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i1.85

Abstract:
Purpose- There is a need to develop a framework that will improve the understandings of business planning and performance and its effects on growth particularly during the stages of small business development. The study attempted to fill in the gap stated. Design - The single case qualitative study relates small business growth with strategic planning where financial performance, market share, sales, and profits or instead return on investment is used to measure the growth. Existing literature fails to establish a concrete relationship between strategic planning and growth of small businesses which indicates a gap in the literature that will help understand the steps of managing the organizational transition of small business growth. Findings - The study fails to establish a significant relationship between formal planning and transitional growth, but instead found the influence of the planning process in communication the owner’s goals, vision, mission, and intentions to both internal and external stakeholders of small businesses. The study influence of the shared vision with customers on making them loyal and advertisers through word of mouth. The study revealed how customers’ word of mouth increased the customer base of small businesses thereby increasing the product demand and eventual expansion of capacity leading to the growth of small businesses. The growth of small businesses will result in an increased reduction in the unemployment rate which will reduce the poverty rate in the Nigerian economy. Practical Implications- Answering the primary and supporting questions will help small business owners to understand how strategic planning is essential in the transitional growth of their businesses.
Yusuf Nasidi, A. U. Makera, A. M. Kamaruddeen, I. M. Jemaku
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 57-68; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i1.84

Abstract:
Aim of the Study - The objective of this study was to access the impact of work environment on employee engagement among the non-academic staffs of the university in Nigeria. Social exchange theory (SET) was utilized in developing the research framework. Methodology - A total of 150 non-academics staff from l University, representing a response rate of 63.3% participated in this study. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. The correlation and the hypothesis were tested using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 2.0). The Cronbach’s Alpha value for the variables ranging from 0.724 to 0.804 indicates very good reliability of the research instrument. Findings - The findings indicate a moderate relationship between the work environment and employee engagement, and the hypothesis is not supported. Practical Implications - The study will provide direction to both the management and the university staff for them to proactively focus on providing a healthy and comfortable working environment that will boost engagement, which lead towards enhancing the performance of university staff, and also the university administrators in various ways.
Edeh Ogbu Friday
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 47-56; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i1.80

Abstract:
Purpose- This study investigates the relationship between employee training and succession planning in deposit money banks in Abia State using cross-sectional survey. Ten deposit money banks were surveyed using simple random sampling technique. Design/Methodology- A total population of one hundred and twenty staff was investigated with a sample size of ninety two. Validity of instrument was determined using face validity while Cronbach Alpha was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (rho) was used to analyze the hypotheses with the aid of statistical package for social sciences (20.0). Findings- The study found that employee training has a positive significant relationship with succession planning. It concluded that employee training measured in terms of on-the-job training and mentoring promotes succession planning in deposit money banks. Practical Implications- The study recommends that managers, human resource professionals as well as directors of financial institutions should employ on-the-job training and mentoring for effective succession planning in the workplace.
Malek Khalaf Albezuirat, Rosmaini Ahmad, Muhammad Iqbal Hussain, Falah Mustafa Al-Saraireh, Asia Khalaf Albzeirat
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 33-46; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i1.56

Abstract:
Objective - This paper aims to provide a new mathematical model for the construction of assessment tools for Lean Manufacturing Practices (LMP) through the integration process with the set operations. This study also strives to develop key elements to enhance the effectiveness of LMP assessments and their impact through mathematical interrelationship. Problem - Previous studies have shown a lack of clear mathematical methodology to carry out a rigorous assessment of the LMP effects on the firm’s operational and financial performance. Therefore, this paper tries to address this aspect by developing new equations. Design - The methodology of this study is based on the conversion of the linguistic description (companies, processes, waste, practices) into numerical measurement model by integrating with set theory. Finding - The results show a set of relationships and equations that can be applied to be a fundamental basis for ensuring the effectiveness of the assessment. This paper may contribute to the improvement of LMP’s design and development.
Munaza Bibi
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 22-32; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i1.83

Abstract:
Purpose- The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of talent management practices on employee performance among employees working in healthcare organizations of Pakistan. Design/Methodology- This study employed a cross-sectional design and quantitative approach. To select the sample from the population convenience sampling was utilized. The sample of the study was comprised of 364 employees working in healthcare organizations to determine the performance of employee because of talent management practices. Questionnaire was used for collection of data. Findings- The outcomes of the study revealed a significantly positive effect of talent management practices i.e. recruitment and selection for talent attraction, coaching and mentoring for learning and development of talent, compensation for retention of talent on employee performance. Practical Implications- The results of study might help human resource management department of health care organizations through executing practices to manage talented employees can help them to motivate employee to perform effectually to meet the organizational objectives. Health care organizations should develop strategies and practices to manage the talent to be able to embrace changes through attracting, developing and retaining the talented employees to tackle the current and future needs of organization.
Asim Ehsan, Syed Kashif Saeed, Muhammad Asghar Shahzad, Hafiz Rauf Iqbal
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 12-21; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i1.53

Abstract:
Objective - This study intends to investigate the extent of voluntary financial reporting compliance made by Islamic banks of Pakistan as suggested by Islamic accounting standards (i.e. AAOIFI). Design/Methodology - The study is based on an empirical evaluation of financial statements of Islamic banks of Pakistan. Data sample consists of financial statements for the years 2009, 2015, 2016 and 2017 relating to of all four full-fledged Islamic banks in Pakistan. The first standard in Islamic accounting standards suggests a total of 111 items for compliance while preparing a financial statement of Islamic Banks. As per existing regulatory requirements, Islamic banks in Pakistan are required to adopt International Financial Reporting Standards while preparing their financial statements. Findings - However, the analysis suggests Islamic banks in Pakistan are in compliance of more than 50% of requirements as suggested by Islamic accounting standards. Implications – The insights will help the industry decision makers to increase the voluntary disclosures by the Islamic banks.
Ishfaq Ahmad, Rizwan Qaisar Danish, Syed Adnan Ali, , Asad Afzal Humayon
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 2, pp 1-11; doi:10.33215/sjom.v2i1.64

Abstract:
Purpose- This study was aimed to throw light on the appraisal and reward system, and its effects on job satisfaction and employee performance in the banking sector of Pakistan. Design/Methodology- The research was based on primary data collected from the two major cities of Pakistan, Lahore and Kasur. A total of 250 structured questionnaires were rotated to Islamic and conventional banks in different parts of both cities. Out of these 222 questionnaires were returned and were in usable form. The data so collected was analyzed with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). statistical techniques such as regression analysis, correlation analysis, descriptive analysis and t-test were used. Findings- The results of the study revealed that appraisal was negatively correlated while the reward system was positively correlated to employee performance. Practical implications- This research will help banks in reviewing their policies to make optimum use of their employees to meet certain goals of the bank. This research reveals that the appraisal system of the bank is affecting negatively on employees performance. This study will help in developing criteria which will help managers to appraise the employees in an effective way.
, Ahmad Faosiy Ogunbado, Mpawenimana Abdallah Saidi
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 1, pp 13-21; doi:10.33215/sjom.v1i4.32

Abstract:
Bitcoin is a type of cryptocurrency and the most successful in blockchain management. It has become famous in recent years. The critical aspects of cryptocurrency are its legitimacy, source of money laundering, tax evasion, lack of regulation etc. The aim of this study is to explore the view of Muslim scholars on the legality of bitcoin with respect to Shariah. The study adopts doctrinal approach which utilizes descriptive approach of qualitative research methodology which relies on secondary data in form of text books, journals, newspapers, related websites etc. The study found that Muslim scholars are divided on the issue. A part of them completely rejected bitcoin and considered it against Shariah principles. On the other hand, some Muslim scholars believe bitcoin does not contradict Islamic principles and therefore may be used, however with certain conditions. The researchers tend to support the proponents’ view as most of the opponents’ grounds for the rejection are temporary in nature which may be covered through policy regulations.
, Aman Akram
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 1, pp 59-75; doi:10.33215/sjom.v1i3.28

Abstract:
The study is an investigation of transformational leadership impact on organizational performance; the mediating role of organizational innovation. The study revealed that organizational innovation has mediated significant impact on organizational performance. The research found that transformational leadership and organizational performance has strong relationship. Therefore, it will help the managers to create such leadership style in the organizations. Pakistani organizations need an environment where leaders motivate and encourage the employees who are wishing to become more creative and effective in leading the successful organizations.
, Sadia Sarwar, Hiba Khan
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 1, pp 28-47; doi:10.33215/sjom.v1i3.22

Abstract:
The study is conducted to highlight the employees’ perspective of CSR in the banking sector of Pakistan and its impact on their job attitudes: job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Primary data were collected from 177 employees working in 22 different banks of Lahore (Pakistan). Stratified random sampling technique was used for sample selection. The population included all the banks in Lahore. Results show the existence of a direct relationship between a) CSR and Organizational Commitment b) CSR and Job Satisfaction.
, Muhammad Usman
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 1, pp 70-78; doi:10.33215/sjom.v1i2.13

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to identify the relationship between financial leverage and the performance of Textile Composite Companies of Pakistan. Pakistan Textile Composite Companies which are listed in PSX (100-index) are selected.5-year data is collected from 2011-2015 and top 16 companies are selected as a sample. Using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and a regression model to identify the results. Results show that financial leverage has a negative and significant effect on firm ROE and financial leverage has a positive and significant effect on firm ROA. Further study indicates that the high-interest rate and more amount of debt decrease the value of equity and has a negative impact on firm performance. On the other hand, the amount of debt has a positive impact on firm ROA. Results show that financial leverage has a positive impact on firm performance if the amount of debts do not exceed the amount of equity.
SEISENSE Journal of Management, Volume 1, pp 34-52; doi:10.33215/sjom.v1i2.16

Abstract:
It is evident from the past research that employees who perceive the organizational policies as not just, the employees tend to leave the organizations and start their professional career in other organizations where they feel comfortable and organization policies as fair and just. Literature accords the moderate relationship of job embeddedness on turnover intentions. This study analyzed the moderate relationship of job embeddedness on turnover intentions and organizational justice in banking sector of Pakistan. Sample of study consists of 313 banking employees from different cadre. Regression Analysis was used to analyze the data. Results clearly indicate that job embeddedness do not moderate the relationship of turnover intentions and organizational justice. There is further need to explore the role of job embeddedness in other professional organizations. Implications for management and future directions are discussed.
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