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Journal IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering

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IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 603; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/603/1/011002

Abstract:All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.
Joanna A. Pawlowicz
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 603; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/603/5/052069

Abstract:Renovation or modernization of a historical building involves creating its model. An accurate 3D representation of a building can be used e.g. to analyse the possibilities of renovating or recovering its damaged elements. This paper discusses examples of how helpful 3D laser scanning can be in creating models of historical buildings. This technology is of particular importance when it comes to representing decorative architectural details. To create a 3D image of a building using reverse engineering one must first gather on-site data by means of terrestrial laser scanning in the form of a point cloud. This paper describes the process of creating a model of a historical building by means of the TIN method using Leica's Cyclone programme. The on-site measurements were taken using a ScanStation C10 scanner, also by Leica.
Leopold Hrabovsky, Jozef Kulka, Peter Michalik
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 603; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/603/5/052081

Abstract:For the building of the new structures, as well as for the repairs or the reconstruction works on existing buildings, the building industry uses a wide variety of handling equipment. Industrial high-rise construction, but also low-rise family homes uses a broad range of standardized lifting means that enable handling of the construction elements. Of these, tower cranes and mast cranes, both stationary and mobile, are among the most widely used types of handling equipment. A change in the position of the crane jib is made by either raising or lowering the crane boom meaning an angular motion of the jib in a vertical plane, or by a central motion of the traveling trolley, to pick up the load, along with the boom or crane bracket. Mobile tower, or potentially mast cranes, move these using crane wheels moving along the crane track. Travelling crane trolleys move along the crane boom using traction cables or motor units that apply the necessary traction force to the perimeter of the given number of the crane wheels.
Piotr Trebacz
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 603; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/603/3/032080

Abstract:The hundredth anniversary of Poland regaining its independence (as well as the 100th anniversary of the Faculty of Architecture of the Warsaw University of Technology) is an opportunity to reflect on the achievements of Warsaw's architects. Designing a home which would be affordable to the Polish city citizens was an important for the Warsaw architects in the 20th century. The initial assumptions took into consideration the changing design requirements set before the architects (e.g. social, economic, or ecological). Thus the ideas and the creative designs that matched the current needs of the citizens of Warsaw, including the initiatives guaranteeing the availability of cheap, proprietary houses, are worth a closer look. In different periods of the 20th century, the idea of an affordable home found support in the urban planning: either in the form of a house in a garden city or a garden district, or by the support of economic, and at the same time ecological, construction. The architectural ideas were accompanied by the desire to ensure contemporary living standards, current aesthetic trends or the more popular stylistic trends. The modernist avant-garde of the "Warsaw school", its eminent theorists, practicing academics and students had a huge impact on the architecture of the capital as well as the whole Poland. The architecture and urban planning of Żoliborz in the 1930s is an excellent example. The works of young enthusiasts of the European modernism were preceded by the "Blok" magazine and the Praesens group (1926) connected with the CIAM. In the post-war period, practically the only choice for residents of Warsaw was a flat in a prefabricated residential block. The cooperative and private middle-class houses began to appear at the end of the 20th century. The single-family houses, representing the modest means of their investors, were represented and popularized by the Warsaw magazine "Murator" and its nationwide competitions "Affordable Houses". The suburban landscape of today's Warsaw is dominated by catalogue projects of different quality while the outskirts of the city comprise mostly very intensive residential developments commissioned by developers. They are mostly based on the "wild" urban planning, without any social program. The Warsaw's 1930s modernist style is continued today and is associated with good, logical and safe architecture, especially when compared with the hard to define the mass of the contemporary single-family houses. We long for the prestige and position of the avant-garde architecture which prevailed in the pre-war Warsaw. Neomodernism returns in the contemporary projects of the governmental program "Apartment Plus" and "Home Plus" (2018) which aims to create up to a thousand cheap, small, prefabricated houses. From hundreds of the competition submissions, the houses designed by the architects and students from our Faculty were selected to be built. The overview of the past century's achievements of the...
Slawomir Biruk, Piotr Jaskowski, Agata Czarnigowska
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 603; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/603/3/032094

Abstract:The Monte Carlo simulation has become a standard tool in the practice of planning risk-affected projects. In particular, it is frequently applied to testing the impact of risk on schedule networks with deterministic structures and random activity durations defined by distribution functions of any type. The accuracy of simulation-based estimates can be improved by increasing the number of replications or by applying variance reduction methods. This paper focuses on the latter and analyzes the impact of the variance reduction method on the scale of the standard error of the estimated mean value of project duration. Three methods of variance reduction were examined: the Quasi-Monte Carlo with Weyl sequence sampling, the antithetic variates, and the Latin Hypercube Sampling. The object of the simulation experiment was a sample network model with the activity durations of triangular distributions. This type of distribution was selected as it is often applied in the practice of construction scheduling to capture the variability of operating conditions in the absence of grounds for assuming other types of distribution. The results of the sample simulation provided an indirect proof that applying variance reduction measures may reduce the time of the simulation experiment (reduced number of replications) as well as improve the confidence in the estimates of the model's characteristics.
Krzysztof M. Rostanski
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 603; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/603/3/032099

Abstract:Rabka Zdroj (Spa) is a popular Polish resort. The Silesian Rehabilitation and Spa Centre built here in 1949 was designed by Stanislaw Gruszka in the International Style, which was innovative at that time. The park surrounding the spa building has interesting tree specimens laid out according to a simple geometrical principle with free fillers. In the west part, the path arrangement is geometrical with three symmetrical gardens on rectangular terraces. Whereas in the south part, its form of abstract winding paths is quite unique, resembling a totem placed horizontally. The research conducted shows that the shapes applied here and the deformed symmetry may refer to the works of Miró or Hans Arp. The project's author was related to the community of Warsaw artists fascinated with futurism and surrealism in the 20 years of Poland's independence after World War I. In the late 1940s the destructive influence of the communist ideology did not yet manage to leave its mark on the architecture of the structure discussed, and thus the place was given its unique beauty. Nowadays the park is being revitalized following the project designed by the author of the article and his team and its implementation has gained financial support from the EU. The leitmotif for the revitalization is to emphasize its surrealistic forms. In the surrealistic garden, there will be created a multi-layered narrative structure with an emphasized outline of plant field paths and surrealistic benches and deckchairs especially designed. Educational paths are designed to discuss various topics, like the history of modernist spa buildings in Malopolska (Little Poland – a province in the south of Poland, whose capital is Cracow), the history of Polish poster design in the 20 years of Poland's independence between WWI and WWII, as well as the park's natural aspects. Another abstract idea will also be found in the Rabka Code, a game enabling to develop tasks of one's own choice to be solved in the field. The present article discusses the research carried out on the history of the structure and its formal relations as well as the design decisions already taken. It should be stressed that a surrealistic path layout is a very rare solution in the history of park architecture. Even if parks may have surrealistic sculptures, the surrounding area usually retains its modernist, simple geometrical form. In the future surrealistic sculptures may also appear in the park in Rabka Zdroj. Nowadays, however, it is more important to maintain its unique aesthetic values both in the park plan and in the detail of decorative structures.
Andre L. O. De Melo, Sakdirat Kaewunruen, Mayorkinos Papaelias
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 603; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/603/3/032084

Abstract:The main function of the railway track is to support the loads of the railway vehicles and to guide their movements. To investigate the effect of a specific load on the track, the evaluation of the different function of the elements is necessary. Each track component has its own mechanical parameters, which in most case cannot be restored without parts replacements. The development of the track structure has some component properties more important than others. With Finite Element Model (FEM) software packages available, the use of them for simulation and analysis of track components has become an accurate tool when supported by a hybrid approach. In FEM, special attention needs to be given to the boundary conditions and linear or nonlinear interactions between track components. The aim of this paper is to present, in applying to model the track deterioration in a railway system, the mapping of both parameters and boundary conditions, their descriptions, properties, interfaces and how these occur in a railway track in-service.
Chiara Gruden, Tiziana Campisi, Antonino Canale, Giovanni Tesoriere, Matjaz Sraml
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 603; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/603/4/042008

Abstract:Nowadays, pedestrian safety is a growing problem: on the one hand pedestrian movement is increasing, on the other hand measures to improve walkers' safety are still scarce. During the years, various behavioural models have been proposed, which consider several parameters characterizing both the environment and the road users. Many studies define accident risk as a combination of three main factors, which are the accident occurrence probability, the vulnerability of the involved users and the economic and social damages due to the accident. The approaches spotted in literature about pedestrian safety assessment are various and they mainly deal with vehicle-pedestrian accidents. These studies have been developed in order to foresee and reduce possible losses in human lives. Also pedestrian-pedestrian encroachments can lead to dangerous consequences, but researches about them are still limited. This study aims to highlight the correspondence and/or the differences between different analysis methods applied to pedestrian field, focusing on situations where no interactions with vehicular traffic exist. This is one step of a wider research, which has been carried out on a confined space, selected because of easy replicability of its general geometrical features and of the effects on pedestrian trajectories induced by some local peculiarities of the facility. The study focuses on the evaluation of a real case, which has been monitored through the use of cameras and analysed via a dedicated tool. The achieved results have been then compared to the outputs obtained by reconstructing the same situation in a micro-simulation model. The first step - video acquisition and elaboration - allowed to observe how people behave in the examined area and how the environment influences their trajectories, while the second phase permitted to understand if a microsimulation tool can reliably reply pedestrian movement in the analysed scenario and therefore provide surrogate safety values comparable to the ones obtained from real data. In the model, a simplified but still accurate environment has been set up: homogeneous geometric features have been drawn and no obstacles have been considered. The modelled pedestrian flow is a bi-directional, 2400 ped/h flux, characterized by heterogeneity of agents: both male and female adults. In order to be able to compare the data obtained by video footages and elaborated through an ad hoc tracking tool with outputs of the microsimulation model, from the whole flow on the ramp some intersecting pedestrians have been selected in both directions of walking. This cross-study of two different techniques has allowed to inspect the effects of the environment on pedestrian dynamics and to precautionary estimate the level of safety via calculation of surrogate safety parameters.
Alicja Karas, Robert Idem
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 603; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/603/4/042024

Abstract:In compliance with European Union directives, numerous countries are introducing increasingly stricter legal limits on the estimated energy consumption of newly designed residential buildings. However, the fact, that regulations and designers' efforts are focused on decreasing energy consumption (and consequently carbon dioxide emissions) only at the post-occupancy stage, may lead to a significant increase in the carbon footprint of the buildings during their entire life cycle. A frequent criticism levelled at low-energy and passive buildings is that they are susceptible to the phenomenon of overheating. The reduction of overheating through the choice of "massive" technologies, materials with high thermal capacity as well as a high heat dispersion coefficient, stands in opposition to the requirement to choose the technologies that ensure a low ecological footprint (i.e. timber frame technologies). The development of a tool facilitating decision making in this issue seems to be a challenge. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a well-known, optimal method for forecasting buildings' carbon footprint, however, it is an expensive and time-consuming method. Life Cycle Assessment is a method dedicated to large investments. In practice, such analysis are not carried out for residential buildings. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the foregoing problem on the example of detached single-family houses and to propose a method and tool that can assist architectural design in this regard.
Eva Burešová, Vít Hromádka
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 603; doi:10.1088/1757-899x/603/4/042010

Abstract:The subject of ecosystem services and the assessment of their public investment impacts include a myriad of smaller entities that can be explored in more detail. The aim of this paper is to focus on a group of public investments that are related to the restoration of floodplain and biotopes, as an object of public interest. Nowadays river floodplains enter the theme of public investment primarily as a possibility of renaturation, adaptation or modernization of the territory so that they can be used as a nature friendly flood protection, habitat, but it is not forgotten even for social purposes. The impact of the floodplain as a public investment can make a significant contribution to the region in which it is located. Typical examples are river floodplains, which are unable to absorb flood waves in a given area and thus do not bring social benefits for citizens – even though originating from the above-mentioned principle. Under the condition that the investment is effective, and the project is able to continue to work, it will not only provide assistance in times of floods and an attractive position, but also the benefits of financial resources. If the previous sentence applied to the subject already mentioned, it would be that citizens would come to the region to visit a river flood that is adapted for tourists (cycling path). While visitors do not pay admissions to the public space, it is assumed that they will use the restaurant, accommodation and other facilities in the region, from which the contribution of the state or the region is reversed. Site benefits are not measurable only from a monetary point of view. The output of the contribution is, among other things, a clear definition of elements that should not be neglected, such as safety or ecological, ecosystem, natural, economic, social and educational benefit to the population. Public investments are not only positives. It is also worth mentioning the negative side of the thing, which represents the price that needs to be paid for the implementation and subsequent long-term maintenance of the project.
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