Proceedings, Volume 43; doi:10.3390/proceedings2020043001
Abstract:The present proceedings offer a summary of the 11th meeting of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group held in April 2019 in Nadi, Fiji. The aim of the meeting was to gather the world’s leading experts in the field of alcohol hangover and share advances and ideas to help better understand the underlying pathology, consequences, and potential therapeutics. Several aspects of alcohol hangover research were discussed, including hangover-associated impairments of cognitive performance and health, novel and best research practice, the validation and use of wearable technology and online tools for off-site data collection, effects of hangover on physical strength performance, new evidence on sex differences in the occurrence and severity of alcohol hangover, and exciting future projects and directions.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036105
Abstract:Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important agricultural export of South Pacific countries, providing livelihoods for an estimated 310,000 people. The wet tropical coast of Far North Queensland has also started producing cocoa for a local boutique chocolate making industry. Although the volumes of cocoa produced are small by global standards, Pacific island and north Australian cocoa is well placed to compete in the high-value, low-volume markets—based on fine flavour, unusual genetic resources and novel ‘single origin’ branding. A member of the Malvaceae family, cocoa has its origins in Central and South America. First domesticated over 2000 years ago, cocoas’ global dispersal was mediated by humans and cultivation is now widespread across the humid tropics. The use of molecular markers to characterize the diversity of genetic resources available and identify superior genetic material is vital to the continued improvement and selection of clones. This work used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to identify the parentage of Pacific island cocoa selections in relation to the 10 distinct cocoa families formerly identified from the original Central and South American populations. On farm collections from Pacific island countries has revealed distinct geographic cocoa populations. Specific populations show strong Criollo parentage, a source of fine flavour qualities, while others exhibit a high component of Amelonado parentage. Small populations showed a higher percentage of IMC, Parinari, National or Scavina parentage. Production and quality data linked to these populations assists to identify superior parentage to enable local programs to rapidly bring these into commercial production thereby improving cocoa productivity and quality in the Pacific.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036106
Abstract:Camelina (Camelina sativa) also known as false flax or gold of pleasure is an oilseed crop of the Brassica (Cruciferae) family. Camelina is not a food crop, however, the by-product (meal or cake) obtained from the oil extraction of camelina seeds is useful as animal feed because of its moderate crude protein content. The dietary use of camelina meal in broiler diets is limited to low inclusion due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors such as fibre, phytic acid, glucosinolates and tannins which have negative effects on broiler performance. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a suitable processing method for enriching agroindustrial by-products since it offers several cost-effective and practical advantages. In the present study, the effect of SSF on the nutrient composition, phytic acid and total phenolic contents of expeller-extracted camelina meal was evaluated. Aspergillus ficuum (ATCC 66876) was used for SSF under aerobic conditions at 30oC for 7 days. Unfermented and fermented camelina meals were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, total sugar (sucrose) and starch as well as for pH, phytic acid and total phenolic contents. Crude protein was improved by 6.79% while total sugar and starch were reduced by 90.99% and 75.78%, respectively in the solid-state fermented camelina meal. Phytic acid and total phenolic contents were also decreased by 39.17% and 56.11%, respectively. This study revealed that SSF could be used to improve the nutritional quality of camelina meal for improved use in poultry feed formulation.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036098
Abstract:In beef cattle, horn management is practiced to physically or surgically remove horns for the safety of animals and workers. However, invasive practices of dehorning and disbudding are a great threat to animal welfare, health, production and human safety, as well as labour intensive and costly. The most effective way to limit the impacts and costs of horns is to prevent their occurrences by breeding naturally polled (hornless) herds. Horn development is complex, although two mutually exclusive genetic variants (Celtic and Friesian) have been found prevalent on each copy of chromosome 1 in most polled cattle. Predicting genotypes in an animal is challenging. Available genetic testing assays were often limited in tropically adapted beef cattle. In this study we present a new optimized poll testing (OPT) assay, which has been bundled with SNP genotyping arrays being used for genomic evaluation in cattle. Breeding schemes can profile future parents for pure-polled stock based on the OPT results. We also evaluated the factors causing complexity in horn conditions. Thus, we coupled OPT predictions with head-status and sex distributions, by modelling genetic and non-genetic impacts, revealing that genetics, sex and sex hormones control horn ontology. Finally, concerns of polledness adversely affecting production and reproduction were investigated by using estimated breeding values of several beef traits. We found no detrimental effects of polledness on production or reproduction. Overall, this research concludes that genetically polled cattle will minimize issues about animal welfare and management costs without reducing production potentials in the tropically adapted beef cattle.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036096
Abstract:The leguminous forage shrub, Leucaena leucocephala, is one of the few nutritional options available to significantly improve beef productivity in Northern Australia. A mixed bacterial rumen inoculum for the detoxification of mimosine (present in Leucaena) and its toxic derivatives 3,4 DHP and 2,3 DHP has been produced in an anaerobic fermenter for the last 23 years by the Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, using the commercial cultivar Cunninghamii. The development and release of a new psyllid-resistant cultivar ‘Redlands’, offers potential for increasing uptake by the beef industry but brings unanswered questions about its impact on the survival of the toxin degrading bacteria Synergistes jonesii and the overall efficacy of the current inoculum. A series of 30-day anaerobic fermentations were undertaken using the same starter cultures used in the production of commercial inoculum but fed daily with one of three Leucaena cultivars: Cunninghamii, Redlands or Wondergraze. Populations of S. jonesii were monitored daily using a quantitative PCR assay and the ability of the fermentation to detoxify mimosine and its derivatives were assayed on days 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Feeding the new Redlands cultivar had a negative impact on S. jonesii numbers and the ability to detoxify 3,4 DHP. However, as fermentation time increased, the S. jonesii populations adapted to the Redlands cultivar. A follow-on fermentation using a starter culture obtained from Day 30 of a Redlands fermentation, showed an immediate increase in S. jonesii populations and was able to detoxify mimosine and its toxic derivatives.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036097
Abstract:Cattle grazing the pastures of inland Australia can be poisoned by ingestion of certain native Pimelea plant species, particularly Pimelea trichostachya and Pimelea simplex. The Pimelea toxin, simplexin, causes often fatal restriction of the pulmonary venules, with resultant heart impacts and characteristic fluid accumulation (oedema) of the jaw and brisket regions. In certain years heavy livestock losses can occur. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or antidote for Pimelea poisoning and the only management strategy is to reduce contact between toxic plants and susceptible stock, for beef producers to avoid potentially devastating poisoning events. Nevertheless, previous research has demonstrated that prolonged low dose feeding diminished the effect in animals. It was postulated that the animal exposed to prolonged low doses developed a mechanism for detoxifying simplexin, possibly through adaptation of the rumen microbial environment. The present study seeks to investigate the use of a biopolymer/toxin composite to foster toxin-degrading microbe populations. The objectives are to manufacture biopolymer composites based on biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and/or polycaprolactone (PCL), as toxin slow-release systems for the rumen that would have broad utility across a range of plant toxins and other beneficial rumen compounds. The poster covers the manufacturing, characterisation and performance of the biopolymers in a simulated rumen environment. Preliminary results of different biopolymers/composites containing Pimelea material and toxin extracts in an in vitro simulated rumen environment for up to 30 days are presented. It was found that the release rate could be tailored by choosing the right type of biopolymer.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036099
Abstract:The Queen Garnet Plum (QGP), a cultivar of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.), was developed as a high anthocyanin plum in a Queensland Government breeding programme. Anthocyanins have been associated with various health attributes, including diabetes control, cardiovascular disease prevention and anti-inflammatory activity. This study was aimed at identifying the changes in physiochemical properties and important phytochemicals of QGP when stored under two storage temperatures. QGP from two growers were stored at 4 and 23 oC for 0, 4, 7, 10 and 14 days. At the end of each storage period the peel, outer flesh (up to 7 mm from the peel) and inner flesh were separated and analysed for chroma, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA). The grower source had a significant effect on the measured parameters when considered as a covariate. Chroma values of the peel, inner and outer flesh were significantly (P < 0.05) different at 4 and 23 oC, after 14 days. There was no significant difference in the inner flesh TSS (IF-TSS) and outer flesh TSS (OF-TSS) between the different storage temperatures, but compared to day 0, after 14 days IF-TSS and OF-TSS were significantly (P < 0.05) lower. TA of the inner and outer flesh were significantly (P < 0.05) different at the two storage temperatures, but only the inner flesh TA was significantly (P < 0.05) different after 14 days. Further analysis is in progress for anthocyanins, total phenolics, carotenoids, folates and vitamin C. The current study indicates that QGP is climacteric and grower source, storage temperature and time as well as tissue can significantly affect the studied physicochemical parameters.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036100
Abstract:The present study determined the chemical composition, bioactive compounds and biological properties of Australian grown feijoa (Acca sellowiana) (including whole fruit with peel, fruit peel and pulp) in order to assess the nutritional quality and antimicrobial activity of this tropical fruit. Polyphenolic compounds and vitamins were determined by UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS, showing that the feijoa fruit not only contains a high amount of antioxidant flavonoids, but is also a rich source of vitamin C (63 mg/100 g FW in the whole fruit and 95 mg/100 g FW in the peel; Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) for adults: 45 mg/day). The proximate, essential minerals and selected trace elements indicate that feijoa fruit is a valuable source of dietary fibre and potassium. The edible fruit peel possesses significantly more antioxidant flavonoids and vitamin C than the fruit pulp. This is most probably the reason for the observed strong antimicrobial activity of feijoa peel-extracts against a wide-range of microorganism responsible for food spoilage and food poisoning. The consumption of feijoa, whole fruit with peel, can deliver a considerable amount of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C, flavonoids and fibre, and therefore, may contribute to a healthy diet. Furthermore, the potential use of feijoa-peel as a natural food perseverative needs to be investigated in follow-up studies.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036102
Abstract:Purple sweetcorn has been conceptualized as an innovative premium horticultural product that may provide consumers with the potential health benefit of anthocyanins. Gathering consumer insights is crucial to inform the breeding program to obtain a purple sweetcorn product closer to consumer’s requirements. Thirty-six non-food neophobic sweetcorn consumers participated in a focus group session on the concept of purple sweetcorn, as well as visually evaluating early breeding lines. Consumers were very positive about the concept of purple sweetcorn and had clear ideas of potential uses. Consumers preferred that purple sweetcorn taste different to commercial yellow sweetcorn, and that health claims would support a premium price position. A small scale follow up consumer study (n = 10) was carried out where consumers were asked to rate acceptability for visual (raw and cooked), flavour, textural and overall of two purple sweetcorn breeding lines (reddish-purple and purple) and compared against commercial yellow sweetcorn. Visual acceptability scores were higher for purple than the reddish-purple lines for both cooked and raw forms, but the yellow cobs were the most preferred. In contrast, flavour and overall acceptability scores were higher for the reddish-purple and yellow cobs than the purple lines. It was also noted that the reddish-purple and purple lines had a slight raspberry flavour. Consumer’s discussions outcomes from both studies were that consumers preferred better color coverage across the kernel, which will be the direction in continuing the development of purple sweetcorn lines. This study demonstrated there is a market for a premium purple sweetcorn product among consumers.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036101
Abstract:Honey is a widely available natural sweetener containing sugars, and small quantities of vitamins and minerals, proteins, amino acids and fatty acids. Owing to its nutritious components, commercial honeys are sold in bulk blends or as trendy and premium products. Meanwhile, honey bees are considered as environmental monitors and have the potential to transfer environmental contaminants, if present, to honey. In high density urban and industrial environments polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals can be prevalent, whilst pesticides and mineral and trace elements are ubiquitous. Honey hives are traditionally located in rural and forested areas, but there is a growing trend to locate hives in urban areas. This project has investigated the presence of environmental contaminants in honey samples from high density urban, peri-urban as well as rural areas. Australian honey samples (n = 211) were purchased between 2016 and 2018, including 52 honeys claiming to be of urban origin purchased online. Stingless bee honeys (n = 36) from Queensland and Malaysia were compared. Processed samples were analysed by UHPLC-MS/MS (herbicides), GC-MS/MS (pesticides and PAHs) and ICP-MS and ICP-OES (elemental analyses). The results showed low or negligible pesticide, herbicide, and PAH contamination, and that these low results were similar regardless of urban or rural origins. Wide variations of essential trace element (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, Co, Mn, Cr) and mineral levels (K, Na, P, Mg, Ca) were found in honey products, which are a good dietary source of K and Zn. Relatively low levels of toxic heavy metals were found in honeys.