Proceedings, Volume 27; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019027016
Abstract:Experiments and numerical simulations for a carbon fiber reinforced plastic specimen were performed to investigate the relationship between the time required for detecting subsurface defects and the frequency components of the thermal waves propagating within the specimen. Experimental results showed that the required inspection time was shortened by increasing the frequency of the input thermal wave. However, if the attenuation during thermal wave propagation is large enough to render the detection of the thermal wave reflected at the subsurface defect impossible, the inspection time exceeds the time estimated by theoretical calculation.
Proceedings, Volume 27; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019027017
Abstract:Wide field-of-view optical instruments based on Ritchey-Crétien telescopes have been proposed to replace narrow field-of-view scanning instruments for Earth radiation budget monitoring applications. A disadvantage of such instruments is that they are subject to significant focal plane distortion. A novel numerical focusing scheme is proposed and demonstrated using a Monte Carlo ray-trace-based simulation of the performance of a candidate instrument. Results are presented which indicate that image recovery error can be significantly reduced using the proposed algorithm.
Proceedings, Volume 27; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019027018
Abstract:In Hong Kong, there is great abundancy of aged buildings and infrastructures for which a re-assessment of the current status is needed. Water exfiltrations/infiltrations, deteriorating insulations, thermal bridges and regions of failure are among the most recurrent symptoms to be found in existing Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures. Diagnosis of such symptoms, in the form of thermal infrared anomalies, is usually performed through infrared (IR) image capturing, followed by qualitative assessment. This paper presents a novel automated computer-vision-based method for detecting thermal anomalies. Such Computer-Vision (CV) algorithm is tested on different thermal scenarios including beam elements, roofs and entire façades of RC buildings. Thermal anomalies related to cases of water leakages, moisture trapping and debonding are successfully detected. The authors intend to undertake further research for successfully implementing the method for detecting also other thermal dissimilarities.
Proceedings, Volume 24; doi:10.3390/IECG2019-06197
Abstract:The development of new technologies in recent years has highlighted interdisciplinarity as a tool to solve complex problems faced by scientists and engineers in research work. Worldwide, the area of space science, specifically astrobiology, has had more than 25 missions with high technological development and economic returns. However, the success of interdisciplinary teams requires collaboration, responsibility, and leadership on the part of all members to prioritize the main objectives of the research. Likewise, the formation of interdisciplinary teams can be affected because there is little information about the strategies and tools that recognize the opportunity for constant interaction between subjects from engineering and science. Using a known methodology based on other recent proposals, we include a description of the conformation and behavior of a research team and an analysis of interdisciplinarity through the interrelation and level of dependence of the existing subject categories in the “Killalab” team. In this research, we present the ensemble interdisciplinary group “Killalab” and its implications for the realization of astrobiological investigations.
Proceedings, Volume 25; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019025038
Abstract:Aim: The purpose of the present study was to (1) investigate the cross-sectional (baseline) and longitudinal (12 months) effects of football (weight-bearing sport), swimming and cycling (non-weight-bearing sports), and an active control group on bone turnover markers in adolescent males and (2) examine the effect of a 9-month progressive jumping intervention programme on bone turnover in the sports groups of adolescent males. Materials & Methods: A total of 105 adolescent males (30 footballers, 37 swimmers, 26 cyclists, and 12 active controls), aged 12 to 14 years at baseline, were measured at baseline (T0), after 1 year of sport-specific training (T1) and following a 9-month progressive jumping intervention programme (T2). Bone turnover was measured using serum N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PINP) as bone formation marker and isomer of the carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-I) as bone resorption marker. Bone turnover rate and balance were estimated using the multiple of medians logarithmic equations of PINP and CTX-I. Results: At T0 there were no significant differences between groups in any of the biochemical markers. At T1 PINP was significantly higher in footballers than swimmers (3.3%) and cyclists (6.0%). Cyclists had significantly lower PINP (5.1%) and CTX-I (14.8%) than controls. In swimmers, there was a significant decrease in PINP (5.8%) and a significant increase in CTX-I (9.8%) from T0 to T1. In cyclists, PINP significantly decreased (7.2%) and CTX-I non-significantly increased (4.3%) from T0 to T1. At T2, PINP was reduced in all non-intervention sport groups (4.4% in swimmers, 3.3% in footballers, and 4.2% in cyclists). CTX-I was reduced by 3.8% in swimmers and cyclists who did not perform the intervention. Conclusions: The present study showed that at baseline there were no differences between groups in bone turnover, but after 1 year of sport-specific training bone turnover was significantly improved in footballers and controls compared to swimmers and cyclists. Following the 9-month jumping intervention bone turnover significant declined in the intervention groups of cycling and swimming. By contrast, bone formation significantly decreased in footballers and the control groups, and bone resorption significantly decreased in the non-intervention groups of cycling and swimming.
Proceedings, Volume 27; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019027014
Abstract:In the last decade, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) met increasing interest in the detection of chemical and biological agents due to its rapid performance and ultra-sensitive features. SERS is a combination of Raman spectroscopy and nanotechnology; it includes the advantages of Raman spectroscopy, providing rapid spectra collection, small sample sizes, and characteristic spectral fingerprints for specific analytes. In this paper, we detected label-free SERS signals for arbitrarily configurations of dimers, trimers, etc., composed of gold nanoshells (AuNSs) and applied to the mapping of osteosarcoma intracellular components.
Proceedings, Volume 27; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019027015
Abstract:Raman spectroscopy is a technique based on inelastic scattering of molecular systems when illuminated by monochromatic radiation. Owing to its high chemical specificity and noninvasive detection capability, in the last decade, Raman scattering has found wide application in cancer screening and diagnosis. In this paper; we describe recent results obtained by applying Raman spectroscopy to osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma; the two main bone tumors. The results show the remarkable potential of Thermo Scientific™ DXR™2 microscope to discriminate between subcellular components inside osteo-differentiated osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cells or; at level of tissues; to discriminate chondrogenic tumors giving the possibility to grade the level of malignancy the cartilaginous tumors under investigation.
Proceedings, Volume 27; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019027013
Abstract:Detection of subsurface defects is undeniably a growing subfield of infrared non-destructive testing (IR-NDT). There are many algorithms used for this purpose, where non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is considered to be an interesting alternative to principal component analysis (PCA) by having no negative basis in matrix decomposition. Here, an application of Semi non-negative matrix factorization (Semi-NMF) in IR-NDT is presented to determine the subsurface defects of an Aluminum plate specimen through active thermographic method. To benchmark, the defect detection accuracy and computational load of the Semi-NMF approach is compared to state-of-the-art thermography processing approaches such as: principal component thermography (PCT), Candid Covariance-Free Incremental Principal Component Thermography (CCIPCT), Sparse PCT, Sparse NMF and standard NMF with gradient descend (GD) and non-negative least square (NNLS). The results show 86% accuracy for 27.5s computational time for SemiNMF, which conclusively indicate the promising performance of the approach in the field of IR-NDT.
Proceedings, Volume 25; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019025039
Abstract:AIM: The critical role of nutrition in athletes’ performance is widely accepted, and water polo players are no exception. However, there are no studies about their adequate knowledge of proper nutrition. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional knowledge of water polo players. MATERIAL & METHOD: We examined 30 male and 11 female water polo players of the A1 Greek national league, aged 16-37. Participants answered the “General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire” (Kliemann et al., Eur J Clin Nutr 70: 1174–1180, 2016) consisting of 86 questions on general nutrition knowledge. Results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and with the χ2 test to examine gender differences. RESULTS: Participants answered correctly 59% and incorrectly 41% of the questions. The majority of false answers were about the role of fruits and vegetables, body composition, fats, nutritional supplements, salt, the energy content of food, micronutrients, sugar-containing foods, alcohol, the glycemic index, and whole-grain foods. Males performed significantly better in 2 questions compared to females (which combination of vegetables had more vitamins and which of chip choices is lower in fat). CONCLUSIONS: Water polo players had satisfactory knowledge on general nutrition, with males performing slightly better than females. However, they should receive further education on nutrition by experts in order to clarify misconceptions that still exist.
Proceedings, Volume 27; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019027011
Abstract:Despite the crucial role of lemming in the Arctic ecosystem, many aspects of its ecology are still unknown. The main challenge of studying lemming is that this rodent does not hibernate in winter and remains active under snow. To tackle this challenge, this paper presents a monitoring system based on near infrared. Design and implementation of a system that should work autonomously in the harsh arctic environment is really challenging. After developing the first version of the equipment, we installed three units at Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada. Retrieved videos were promising and showed the great potential of this system in assisting ecologists to study the subnivean ecology of the Arctic. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first ever videos of lemming that have been recorded under snow in winter in the Arctic.