Proceedings, Volume 30; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019030053
Food waste represents 25–35% of the European Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) , thus its diversion into innovative utilization streams is critical for sustainable waste management and the achievement of circularity.
Proceedings, Volume 45; doi:10.3390/proceedings2020045005
Background: Malaria is invariably one of the most perplexing problems of public health importance all over the world affecting mainly tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The study determined the influence of environmental conditions on malaria morbidity. Methods: The study was descriptive in design. Structured household questionnaire with three sections was administered to heads of households and on the spot assessment of the environment was carried out. Twelve households from each of the 8 villages that consist of Ihiagwa community were randomly selected. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows version 20.0, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: Findings from the study revealed that 47.9% of the 96 household heads had attained tertiary education although 45.85% of them were self-employed and only 8.3% were civil servants. Majority (59.4%) had a family size of less than 4 while 40.6% had a family size above 4. Among the study participants, 77.3% confirmed having suffered malaria in the last three months though 44.6% of them were diagnosed by their family members and majority (52.7%) were unable to carry out their duties for about 7 days. Generally, the people lived in a clean environment, 97.8% of them claimed that they cleared their bushes in their environment weekly. Majority (57%) lived in an environment without stagnant water, poorly draining gutters and exposed septic tanks. There was no statistically significant relationship between environmental conditions and reported malaria cases (P = 1.0). Conclusion: This is in contrast with some other studies however the result does not affirm that malaria morbidity has no relationship with the environment of people rather a need for certain factors to be controlled.
Proceedings, Volume 30; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019030054
Soil is a key component of ecosystems as it provides fundamental ecosystem functions and services, first of all supporting primary productivity, by physical, chemical and biological interaction with plants. However, soil loss and degradation are at present two of the most critical environmental issues. This phenomenon is particularly critical in Mediterranean areas, where inappropriate land management, in combination with the increasingly harshening of climatic conditions due to Climate Change, is leading to significant land degradation and desertification and is expected to worsen in the future, leading to economic and social crisis. In such areas, it is of fundamental importance to apply sustainable management practices, as conservation/restoration measures, to achieve Land Degradation Neutrality. This approach is at the core of the LIFE project Desert-Adapt “Preparing desertification areas for increased climate change” which is testing a new framework of sustainable land management strategies based on the key concept that the maintenance of ecosystems quality is necessarily connected to economic and social security in these fragile areas. The project will test adaptation strategies and measures in 10 sites of three Mediterranean areas under strong desertification risk, Alentejo in Portugal, Extremadura in Spain and Sicily in Italy. We present the baseline data of soil quality analysis from 32 sites in the 10 study areas of the project. Key drivers of soil quality and quantity were identified and used as basis to select sustainable management strategies focused on the maintenance, improvement and/or recovery of soil-based ecosystem services, with particular attention to climate change adaptation and land productivity. The final objective of the project is to demonstrate, according to the LDN approach, the best adaptation strategies to recover degraded areas from low-productive systems into resource-efficient and low-carbon economies to preserve ecosystem quality and booster economy and social security
Proceedings, Volume 30; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019030051
Viticulture is a land use system with a high impact on the environment and the landscape due to the high input of energy and material for soil and plant management. Reducing the input would help to reduce both, the environmental and economic costs, and consequently, increase the sustainability of this crop production. In Germany, especially in the Mosel area, vineyards are also part of the cultural heritage and substantial part of the touristic appeal, especially those located on steep slopes with shallow soils developed on Devonian slate. Within the last decades, the economic sustainability of the vineyards and cellars have been on the focus, by applying land consolidation, increasing the use of machinery and rationalisation of plant protection by e.g. spraying pesticides with helicopters. However, the awareness of the consequences of this kind of high intensive viticulture has also lead to changes in some paradigms, especially regarding soil protection: greening of the lane and selective traffic of machines is becoming more and more widespread, and there is a slowly growing community of wine cellars applying organic production. A careful management of the vegetation within the traffic lanes, and recently the implementation of plants underneath the grapevines is meant to increase soil quality and to reduce the risk of erosion. Here, we will present the concept developed within the EU-H2020 project Diverfarming (H2020-RUR-2016-2/728003), where aromatic herbs (Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare) have been planted underneath grapevines. The purpose is to suppress the growth of plants fostering diseases, to reduce soil disturbance and thus, to increase soil quality as well as to stabilize it against soil erosion. A holistic approach is adopted, as the analysis and monitoring covers plant growth, soil parameters up to product quality and a value chain analysis.
Proceedings, Volume 30; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019030052
Nitrate leaching into groundwater is a serious issue in many parts of the world. Usually agricultural use of fertilizers is blamed to be the main source of pollution, but other human activities, like leaky or inexistent sewage systems can also be important in this regard. The aim of this study is to assess nitrate transport from soil to ground and surface waters with nuclear techniques. Two study sites were chosen—both featuring agricultural production in vulnerable areas of alluvial plains. Shallow groundwater below the surface is the main source of drinking water in both areas. Stable isotope techniques provide an innovative and unique methodology to trace and monitor the movement of nitrates (organic and inorganic) from the soil to ground and surface waters and to determine possible sources.
Proceedings, Volume 15; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019015049
The paper presents the performance of a seven-rod dielectric probe for determination of soil dielectric permittivity using FEM simulations as well as FDR and TDR measurements. The volume of the sensitivity zone of the tested probe was assessed basing on the simulations and measurement in liquids. The probe was also tested in two soils, sandy loam and silt loam. The obtained results suggested that the seven-rod probe can be used to accurately measure the dielectric permittivity spectrum in a small sample volume of about 8 cm3 in a frequency range from 20 MHz to 200 MHz.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036131
The cattle tick, Rhiphicephalus microplus, and the diseases it transmits lead to massive economic losses to cattle industries in tropical and subtropical countries. The emergence of widespread resistance to acaricide drugs and the absence of an effective vaccine for tick control had led to genetic selection of host resistance as a method of choice for non-chemical control of cattle tick. Research to identify host genetic markers associated with tick susceptibility or resistance has been limited to the comparison of local breeds in specific geographic regions. Previous studies have also focused on gene expression profiles, localizing cellular and humoral immune responses, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify functional genetic variants associated with tick resistance/susceptibility. Given the fact that gene expression results and actual dynamics occurring at the protein level often do not correlate due to post-transcriptional, post-translational and degradation regulation, host proteomics may provide reliable biomarkers to assist in selection to support traditional breeding programs. The present study aims to investigate the variation in protein profiles among tick resistant and susceptible cattle following tick infestation. Preliminary findings suggest that different serum proteins exist between tick resistant and susceptible Santa Gertrudis cattle. This research is supported by Meat & Livestock Australia.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036130
Wireworms have the potential to cause significant damage to sweetpotato, particularly late in the season.
Proceedings, Volume 37; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019037052
Background/Objectives: Multi-disciplinary interventions remain recommended best practice for management of childhood obesity.
Proceedings, Volume 36; doi:10.3390/proceedings2019036129
Maximising reproduction in beef cows under normal grazing conditions takes planning, discipline and a firm belief in science.