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Jialing Wang, Lingyan Wu, Junying Sun, Sinan Zhang, Junting Zhong
Published: 4 January 2023
Frontiers in Environmental Science, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2022.1028468

Abstract:
Water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were measured online in Beijing during the heating season of 2021, during which Beijing 2022 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games were hosted. The characteristics of PM2.5 and water-soluble inorganic ions were investigated in general, as well as during the clean period, polluted period, and Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games periods. It was found that most of the polluted episodes occurred under conditions of low wind speed, temperature inversion, and high relative humidity. The total mass concentration of water-soluble inorganic ions during the polluted period and the clean period accounted for 38.2% and 61.4% of the PM2.5 mass concentration, respectively. Both the sulfur oxidation ratio (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR) showed a strong relationship with relative humidity. During the polluted period, the concentrations of secondary aerosols such as sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA) increased significantly. Secondary transformation was enhanced compared with that in the clean period. A polluted process after a snowfall event was selected to explore the mechanism of sulfate and nitrate formation under high relative humidity. The results would be beneficial to understanding the causes of pollution and helping the government to formulate effective measures to control air pollution in winter.
Angzu Cai, , Yawei Zhao, Xiaojian Wang, Litao Wang, Hui Zhao
Published: 21 November 2022
Frontiers in Environmental Science, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2022.950288

Abstract:
Receptor models are rarely utilized in atmospheric deposition but are often used to identify pollutant sources and quantify their contributions. This article focuses on the soil in atmospheric deposition in a typical polluted city. Atmospheric deposition has become an important route for exogenous heavy metals’ input into ecosystems. In this study, the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were determined in three monitoring points arranged in Handan City. According to the functional area, fluxes, sources, and accumulation in the soil were explored. The sources of heavy metals were identified by PMF (positive matrix factorization) and UNMIX. The accumulation of heavy metals in the soil was predicted. The results showed that the deposition fluxes in industrial areas were higher than other functional areas. The mean concentrations of 8 heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and As) in the atmospheric deposition exceed their background values. PMF identified five major sources and UNMIX analyzed four sources. Similar source apportionment results were acquired via PMF and UNMIX, which were the combustion of fossil fuels, steel-smelting emission, road dust, and industrial sources. Steel-smelter emission was the highest source contributor. Therefore, combining these two models was the most effective approach, and more attention should be paid to mitigating the pollution caused by the industrial activities. The prediction indicated that the accumulation of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition to the soil would increase in 30 years, the growth rate of Cd increased significantly. The results of this study could provide reference in reduction of heavy metal pollution in atmospheric deposition.
, Tao Liu, Bing Sun, Yongli Tian, Xingjun Zhou, Feng Hao, Xi Chun, Zhiqiang Wan, Peng Liu, Jingwen Wang, et al.
Published: 19 September 2022
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Volume 22, pp 12153-12166; https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-12153-2022

Abstract:
A knowledge gap exists concerning how chemical composition and sources respond to implemented policy control measures for aerosols, particularly in a semi-arid region. To address this, a single year's offline measurement was conducted in Hohhot, a semi-arid city in northern China, to reveal the driving factors of severe air pollution in a semi-arid region and assess the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown measures on chemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5. Organic matter, mineral dust, sulfate and nitrate accounted for 31.5 %, 14.2 %, 13.4 % and 12.3 % of the total PM2.5 mass, respectively. Coal combustion, vehicular emission, crustal source and secondary inorganic aerosols were the main sources of PM2.5 in Hohhot, at 38.3 %, 35.0 %, 13.5 %, and 11.4 %, respectively. Due to the coupling effect of emission reduction and improved atmospheric conditions, the concentration of secondary inorganic components, organic matter and elemental carbon declined substantially from the pre-lockdown (pre-LD) period to the lockdown (LD) and post-lockdown (post-LD) periods. The source contribution of secondary inorganic aerosols increased (from 21.1 % to 37.8 %), whereas the contribution of vehicular emission reduced (from 35.5 % to 4.4 %) due to lockdown measures. The rapid generation of secondary inorganic components caused by unfavorable meteorological conditions during lockdown led to serious pollution. This study elucidates the complex relationship between air quality and environmental policy.
Yaxiong Nie, Lijuan Liu, Shilin Xue, Lina Yan, Ning Ma, Xuehui Liu, Ran Liu, Xue Wang, Yameng Wang, Xinzhu Zhang, et al.
Published: 9 September 2022
Environmental Science and Pollution Research pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-22901-4

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Zhongcheng Zhang, Bo Xu, Weiman Xu, Feng Wang, Jie Gao, Yue Li, , Yinchang Feng, Guoliang Shi
Published: 1 September 2022
Environmental Research, Volume 212; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113322

ZhuoZhi Shu, , Yubao Liu, Lei Zhang, Xiaodan Ma, Xiang Kuang, Yang Li, Zhaoyang Huo, Qiuji Ding, Xiaoyun Sun, et al.
Published: 1 May 2022
Environmental Pollution, Volume 300; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.118944

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031611

Abstract:
Based on the panel data of 283 cities in China from 2009 to 2018, this paper analyzes the effect of urban green scientific and technological innovation enhancement on hazardous air pollutants using the GS2SLS method, which simultaneously controls for model endogeneity and spatial spillover effects and reveals the transmission mechanism of urban green scientific and technological innovation level. It was found that (1) There is a significant spatial spillover effect of hazardous air pollutants between regions, both in China as a whole and in the eastern, central, and western parts of the country, and the spatial spillover effect of hazardous air pollutants is significantly greater in the eastern and central parts of China than in the western parts. (2) Green technological innovation has a significant inhibitory effect on hazardous air pollutants in cities in eastern and central China. An extended study found that the improvement in green technology levels in innovative cities has a better effect on controlling hazardous air pollutants than in non-innovative cities. (3) The energy- saving and green economy effects have a mediating influence on the effect of green technological innovation on hazardous air pollutants in cities, and the simultaneous occurrence of these two effects in green technological innovation serves to enhance the transmission of hazardous air pollutants in order to facilitate the long-term management of haze.
, Chunying Lin, Jiangping Li, Lingbo Wei, Yuxia Ma, Qidong Yang, , Hang Wang, Jiahui Shen
Published: 30 November 2021
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Volume 193, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09597-8

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ran Liu, Jianning Cai, Weiheng Guo, Wei Guo, Wenjuan Wang, Lina Yan, Ning Ma, ,
Published: 22 September 2021
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 29, pp 11801-11814; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16397-7

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Yangyang Zhang, Xuejun Liu, , Aohan Tang, , Jeffrey L. Collett
Published: 1 July 2021
Environmental Pollution, Volume 281; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117027

Abstract:
The Clean Air Action implemented by the Chinese government in 2013 has greatly improved air quality in the North China Plain (NCP). In this work, we report changes in the chemical components of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at four NCP sampling sites from 2012/2013 to 2017 to investigate the impacts and drivers of the Clean Air Action on aerosol chemistry, especially for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA). During the observation period, the concentrations of PM2.5 and its chemical components (especially SIA, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC)) and the frequency of polluted days (daily PM2.5 concentration ≥ 75 μg m-3) in the NCP, declined significantly at all four sites. Asynchronized reduction in SIA components (large decreases in SO42- with stable or even increased NO3- and NH4+) was observed in urban Beijing, revealing a shift of the primary form of SIA, which suggested the fractions of NO3- increased more rapidly than SO42- during PM2.5 pollution episodes, especially in 2016 and 2017. In addition, unexpected increases in the sulfur oxidation ratio (SOR) and the nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR) were observed among sites and across years in the substantially decreased PM2.5 levels. They were largely determined by secondary aerosol precursors (i.e. decreased SO2 and NO2), photochemical oxidants (e.g. increased O3), temperature, and relative humidity via gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions. Our results not only highlight the effectiveness of the Action Plan for improving air quality in the NCP, but also suggest an increasing importance of SIA in determining PM2.5 concentration and composition.
Published: 12 May 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Atmosphere
Atmosphere, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12050619

Abstract:
The air quality of Handan, a typical industrial city in China, has been significantly improved through atmospheric pollution control, except for ozone (O3) pollution. We found that, in summer, emissions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NO x decreased yearly in Handan, but the O3 concentration significantly declined yearly during 2013–2015, whereas it experienced worsening O3 pollution after 2015. Therefore, we used the Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF–CMAQ) modeling system to simulate the influence of the meteorological conditions and emission changes in Handan during the typical period (June) of O3 pollution in 2013–2018. For benchmarked June 2013, the results showed that the reduction of the O3 concentration in June of 2014–2016 was mainly caused by emission reduction, while in June of 2017–2018, the combined effect of changes in emissions and meteorological conditions led to aggravated O3 pollution. Sensitivity analysis indicated that combined VOCs and NO x emission controls would effectively reduce incremental O3 formation when the abatement ratio of VOCs/NO x should be no less than 0.84, and we found that VOCs reduction would continusouly bring about O3 decreases under various NO x reductions, but its positive sensitivity to O3 would become smaller with NO x reduction. However, the positive influence of NO x reduction on O3 would happen until NO x reduction exceeding 45–60%. The findings will be helpful in formulating emission control strategies for coping with O3 pollution in an industrial city.
Xiaoyong Liu, , Jie Li, Xi Chen, Hang Liu, Yu Tian, Yuting Zhang, Shandong Lei, Weijie Yao, Qi Liao, et al.
Published: 1 May 2021
Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 115, pp 465-473; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2021.03.008

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Jie Tian, Qiyuan Wang, Yong Zhang, Mengyuan Yan, Huikun Liu, Ningning Zhang, Weikang Ran,
Published: 1 May 2021
Environment International, Volume 150, pp 106426-106426; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106426

Abstract:
Restrictions on human activities were implemented in China to cope with the outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), providing an opportunity to investigate the impacts of anthropogenic emissions on air quality. Intensive real-time measurements were made to compare primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation in Xi’an, China before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Decreases in mass concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and its components were observed during the lockdown with reductions of 32–51%. The dominant contributor of PM was organic aerosol (OA), and results of a hybrid environmental receptor model indicated OA was composed of four primary OA (POA) factors (hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), and coal combustion OA (CCOA)) and two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors (less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA) and more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA)). The mass concentrations of OA factors decreased from before to during the lockdown over a range of 17% to 58%, and they were affected by control measures and secondary processes. Correlations of secondary aerosols/ΔCO with Ox (NO2 + O3) and aerosol liquid water content indicated that photochemical oxidation had a greater effect on the formation of nitrate and two OOAs than sulfate; however, aqueous-phase reaction presented a more complex effect on secondary aerosols formation at different relative humidity condition. The formation efficiencies of secondary aerosols were enhanced during the lockdown as the increase of atmospheric oxidation capacity. Analyses of pollution episodes highlighted the importance of OA, especially the LO-OOA, for air pollution during the lockdown.
Jian Zhang, Qi Yuan, , Yuanyuan Wang, Yinxiao Zhang, Liang Xu, Yuner Pang, Yanhong Zhu, Hongya Niu, , et al.
Published: 14 April 2021
Journal: Jgr: Atmospheres
Jgr: Atmospheres, Volume 126; https://doi.org/10.1029/2020jd033778

Nini Pang, , Pusheng Zhao, Yali Wang, , Fahe Chai
Published: 24 September 2020
Atmospheric Environment, Volume 244; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117958

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 7 September 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Atmosphere
Atmosphere, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090954

Abstract:
To determine the pollution characteristics, chemical compositions, and population health risks of PM2.5 at different pollution levels, PM2.5 samples were intensively collected during the long-lasting winter haze episode from 13–23 January 2018 in Xiantao in Jianghan Plain (JHP), central China. The higher PM2.5 levels during the severe pollution period were dominated by the WNW-NNE air-masses, whereas the lower PM2.5 concentrations during other pollution periods were mainly affected by the NE, S, and NW air-masses. The NO3−/SO42− and OC/EC ratios indicated a mixed contribution of intensive vehicle exhaust and secondary formation. The enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index for assessing the PM2.5-bound metal(loid)s contamination levels were positively correlated. Ingestion is the dominant exposure pathway of PM2.5-bound metal(loid)s for children and adults, followed by inhalation and dermal contact. As, Cr, and Pb may pose carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, whereas Sb and V may only pose non-carcinogenic risks for children and adults. The population health risks may not depend on the pollution levels but depend on the PM2.5-bound metal(loid)s concentrations. PM2.5-bound metal(loid)s may pose much higher population health risks for adults compared to children. More attentions should be paid to the population health risks of PM2.5-bound metal(loid)s during a long-lasting winter haze episode in JHP.
Qian Tang, Yu Lei, Gang Yan, Wenbo Xue, Xuying Wang
Iop Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 569; https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/569/1/012041

Abstract:
Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and its surrounding areas is the most polluted region in China. Autumn and winter are the most heavily polluted seasons. It is essential to reduce the PM2.5 pollution in autumn and winter in this region for winning the blue sky defense war. The characteristics of PM2.5 pollution during autumn and winter in this region were analysed and crucial issues in atmospheric pollution prevention were identified from the perspectives of time, space and pollution sources, using a combination of techniques including air quality observation, emission inventory, PM2.5 source apportionment and air quality model simulation. The results showed that average PM2.5 concentrations in autumn and winter were twice that in spring and summer, and frequent heavy pollution elevated PM2.5 concentration significantly. Six cities including Handan, Xingtai, Shijiazhuang, Xinxiang, Anyang and Baoding, located along the south-western transport channel in the region, have great effects on regional air quality. The severe PM2.5 pollution in this region could be attributed to heavy industrial structure, large NOx emissions from mobile sources, re-burn of loose coal, insufficient dust control and impacts from cities out of the region. Suggestions for air pollution control in autumn and winter in this region were proposed. More efforts should be devoted to the most vulnerable links in the key cities.
Cailan Zhou, Yi Tan, Yuyu Wang, Fangping Liao, Qiuling Wang, Jinglin Li, Sujuan Peng, ,
Published: 1 June 2020
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Volume 196; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110476

Abstract:
Several studies have demonstrated that PM2.5 inhalation is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease (CVD), in which inflammation plays an important role. The mechanisms of this disease are not fully understood to date. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in many pathophysiological processes, such as immune responses; however, their functions associated with inflammation are largely unexplored. High-throughput sequencing assay and obtained numerous lncRNAs that altered the expression in response to PM2.5 treatment in HUVECs. NONHSAT247851.1 was also identified, which was significantly up-regulated to control the expression of immune response genes. Mechanistically, the results indicated that NONHSAT247851.1 knockdown reduced the expression of IL1β. In study, we investigated NONHSAT247851.1 as a promoter in regulating immune response genes via binding with raf-1 to regulate the phosphorylation level of p65 protein in HUVECs. The data collected suggests that NONHSAT247851.1 regulates inflammation via interaction with raf-1 to control the inflammatory expression in PM2.5 exposure.
Nini Pang, , Fei Che, Tong Ma, Su Liu, Yan Yang, Pusheng Zhao, Jie Yuan, Jiayuan Liu, , et al.
Published: 7 May 2020
Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 95, pp 201-209; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.03.024

Abstract:
To investigate the cause of fine particulate matter (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, PM2.5) pollution in the heating season in the North China Plain (specifically Beijing, Tianjin, and Langfang), water-soluble ions and carbonaceous components in PM2.5 were simultaneously measured by online instruments with 1-hr resolution, from November 15, 2016 to March 15, 2017. The results showed extreme severity of PM2.5 pollution on a regional scale. Secondary inorganic ions (SNA, i.e., NO3+SO42+ NH4+) dominated the water-soluble ions, accounting for 30%-40% of PM2.5, while the total carbon (TC, i.e., OC + EC) contributed to 26.5%-30.1% of PM2.5 in the three cities. SNA were mainly responsible for the increasing PM2.5 pollution compared with organic matter (OM). NO3 was the most abundant species among water-soluble ions, but SO42- played a much more important role in driving the elevated PM2.5 concentrations. The relative humidity (RH) and its precursor SO2 were the key factors affecting the formation of sulfate. Homogeneous reactions dominated the formation of nitrate which was mainly limited by HNO3 in ammonia-rich conditions. Secondary formation and regional transport from the heavily polluted region promoted the growth of PM2.5 concentrations in the formation stage of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing and Langfang. Regional transport or local emissions, along with secondary formation, made great contributions to the PM2.5 pollution in the evolution stage of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing and Langfang. The favourable meteorological conditions and regional transport from a relatively clean region both favored the diffusion of pollutants in all three cities.
Bing Wang, Xue Li, Shanshan Liang, Runxuan Chu, Dan Zhang, Hanqing Chen, , Shuang Zhou, Wei Chen, , et al.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Volume 22, pp 9943-9953; https://doi.org/10.1039/d0cp00785d

Abstract:
The absorption and oxidation reactions of SO2 on TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated by using a flow chamber, synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structure and high resolution synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques.
Dongdan Yuan, Weidong Wang, Chunlei Liu, Liya Xu, Hexin Fei, Xiaoling Wang, Mengnan Shen, Shanyun Wang, Mengzi Wang,
Published: 17 January 2020
Environmental Research, Volume 183; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109146

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Jian Xue, Xin Yu, Zibing Yuan, , Alexis K. H. Lau, ,
Published: 18 November 2019
Nature Geoscience, Volume 12, pp 977-982; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0485-5

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Shuo Yang, , Yongliang Ma, Hui Li, Tao Ma, Lidan Zhu, Tao Huang, Takashi Kimoto, Kebin He
Published: 31 October 2019
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 711; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134745

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Liuming Yang, Shenbo Wang, Shiguang Duan, Qishe Yan, , , Shengli Li
Published: 25 October 2019
Atmospheric Research, Volume 233; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.104696

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Ilias Kopanakis, Konstantinos Lagouvardos, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Kjetil Tørseth, Mihalis Lazaridis
Published: 13 September 2019
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, Volume 12, pp 1359-1371; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-019-00750-4

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Siqi Ye, , , Hui Li, Kebin He, Jing Xia, Shuo Yang, Lidan Zhu, Yongliang Ma, Tao Huang, et al.
Published: 8 July 2019
Environmental Pollution, Volume 253, pp 377-383; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.07.011

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Liu Yang, , Hua Tian, Kebin He, Yongliang Ma, , Hui Li, Shuo Yang, Lidan Zhu
Published: 1 July 2019
Environmental Pollution, Volume 250, pp 914-921; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.017

Abstract:
China has been faced with severe haze pollution, which is hazardous to human health. Among the air pollutants, PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) is the most dangerous because of its toxicity and impact on human health and ecosystems. However, there has been limited research on PM2.5 particle toxicity. In the present study, we collected daily PM2.5 samples from January 1 to March 31, 2018 and selected samples to extract water-soluble species, including SO42-, NO3-, WSOC, and NH4+. These samples represented clean, good, slight, moderate, and heavy pollution days. After extraction using an ultrasonic method, PM2.5 solutions were obtained. We used Chlorella as the test algae and studied the content of chlorophyll a, as well as the variation in fluorescence when they were placed into the PM2.5 extraction solution, and their submicroscopic structure was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that when the air quality was relatively clean and good (PM2.5 concentration ≤ 75 μg m-3), the PM2.5 extraction solutions had no inhibiting effects on Chlorella, whereas when the air quality was polluted (PM2.5 concentration > 75 μg m-3) and heavily polluted (PM2.5 concentration > 150 μg m-3), with increasing PM2.5 concentrations and exposure time, the chlorophyll a content in Chlorella decreased. Moreover, the maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of Chlorella obviously decreased, indicating chlorophyll inhibition during polluted days with increasing PM2.5 concentrations. The effects on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were also obvious, leading to an increase of energy dissipated per unit reaction center (DIo/RC), suggesting that Chlorella could survive when exposed to PM2.5 solutions, whereas the physiological activities were significantly inhibited. The TEM analysis showed that there were few effects on Chlorella cell microstructure during clean days, whereas plasmolysis occurred during light- and medium-polluted days. With increasing pollution levels, plasmolysis became more and more apparent, until the organelles inside the cells were thoroughly destroyed and most of the parts could not be recognized.
Shin Yamazaki, , Yoshiko Yoda, Fumitake Kurosaka, Toshio Isokawa, Shigeta Shimizu, Teruhiro Ogawa, Naohiro Kamiyoshi, Kunihiko Terada, Jittoku Nishikawa, et al.
Published: 1 July 2019
Allergology International, Volume 68, pp 329-334; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alit.2019.01.001

Abstract:
Few papers have examined the association between the chemical components of PM2.5 and health effects. The existence of an association is now under discussion. This case-crossover study aimed to examine the association between the chemical components of PM2.5 and night-time primary care visits (PCVs) due to asthma attacks. The subjects were 1251 children aged 0-14 years who received medical care for asthma at a municipal emergency clinic. We measured daily average concentrations of hydrogen ion, sulfate ion, nitrate ion and water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), which are components of PM2.5. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of PCVs per unit increment (inter quartile ranges) in each chemical component of PM2.5 for the subgroups of warmer months and colder months separately. No association was seen between PCVs and PM2.5 mass concentrations the day before the PCVs in either warmer or colder months. In the warmer months, an association was seen with the concentrations of WSOCs and hydrogen ion the day before the PCVs (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00-1.76, OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.02-1.36, respectively). Furthermore, a negative association was seen between sulfate ion and PCVs (OR = 0.85; 95%CI: 0.74-0.98). No associations were observed in the colder months. We observed a positive association between PCVs and certain concentrations of WSOCs and hydrogen ions in warmer months. In contrast, sulfate ion showed a negative association.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060914

Abstract:
This paper investigates the meteorological factors and human activities that influence PM2.5 pollution by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach to a chance constrained stochastic optimization problem. This approach has the two advantages of admitting random input and output, and allowing the evaluation unit to exceed the front edge under the given probability constraint. Furthermore, by utilizing the meteorological observation data incorporated with the economic and social data for Jiangsu Province, the chance constrained stochastic DEA model was solved to explore the relationship between the meteorological elements and human activities and PM2.5 pollution. The results are summarized by the following: (1) Among all five primary indexes, social progress, energy use and transportation are the most significant for PM2.5 pollution. (2) Among our selected 14 secondary indexes, coal consumption, population density and civil car ownership account for a major portion of PM2.5 pollution. (3) Human activities are the main factor producing PM2.5 pollution. While some meteorological elements generate PM2.5 pollution, some act as influencing factors on the migration of PM2.5 pollution. These findings can provide a reference for the government to formulate appropriate policies to reduce PM2.5 emissions and for the communities to develop effective strategies to eliminate PM2.5 pollution.
, Chao Yu, Luo Zhang, Wende Zhu, Kun Cai, Liangxiao Cheng, , Shenshen Li
Published: 5 March 2019
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 669, pp 362-376; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.180

Abstract:
China is the largest anthropogenic aerosol-generating country worldwide; however, few studies have analyzed the PM2.5 chemical components and their underlying precursor emissions over long periods and across the national domain. First, global 3-D tropospheric chemistry and transport model (GEOS-Chem)-integrated satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) and vertical profiles were used to estimate near-surface sulfate and nitrate levels at 10-km resolution over China from 2006 to 2014. Ground measurement validation of our satellite model yielded correlation coefficients (r) of 0.7 and 0.73 and normalized mean bias (NMB) values of −37.96% and − 32.73% for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Second, analyses of the spatiotemporal distributions of sulfate and nitrate as well as the vertical density Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)-measured SO2 (PBL_SO2) and NO2 (TVCD_NO2) indicated that the highest nitrate and sulfate levels occurred in the North China Plain (~25 μg/m3) and Sichuan Basin (SCB) (~30 μg/m3), respectively. The long-term variations in the estimated components and precursor gases indicated that the large sulfate decline was positively correlated with the SO2 emission reduction due to the mandatory desulfurization implemented in 2007. The annual growth rate of sulfate relative to the national mean was −6.19%/yr, and the concentration decreased by 17.10% from 2011 to 2014. Energy consumption increases and a lack of control measures for NO2 resulted in persistent increases in NO2 emissions and nitrate concentrations from 2006 to 2010, particularly in the SCB. With energy consumption structure advancements, reductions in NO2 emissions and corresponding nitrate levels over three typical regions were prominent after 2012. Third, the estimated national-scale uncertainties of satellite datasets at 0.1° × 0.1° were 26.88% for sulfate and 25.55% for nitrate. Differences in the spatial distributions and temporal trends between our estimated components and precursor gases were mainly attributed to the dataset accuracy, the data pre-processing strategy, inconsistent column density and near-surface mass concentration, meteorological variables and complex chemical reactions.
, Mengxue Lu, Jianguo Lu, Ling Chao, Zhen An, Yue Liu, Dongqun Xu, Weidong Wu
Published: 7 December 2018
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Volume 170, pp 286-292; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.11.125

Abstract:
Although numerous studies have investigated the association between air pollution and hospitalization, few studies have focused on the health effect of air pollution on populations with hypertension. In this study, we conducted a time-series study to investigate the acute adverse effect of six criteria ambient air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], inhalable particulate matter [PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], sulfur dioxide [SO2], ozone [O3], and carbon monoxide [CO]) on hospitalization of patients for hypertension in Shijiazhuang, China, from 2013 to 2016. An over-dispersed Poisson generalized addictive model adjusting for weather conditions, day of the week, and long-term and seasonal trends was used. In addition, we evaluated the effect of modification by season, sex, and age. A total of 650,550 hospitalization records were retrieved during the study period. A 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 (lag06), PM10 (lag06), NO2 (lag03), O3 (lag6), and CO (lag04) corresponded to 0.56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28–0.83%), 0.31% (95% CI: 0.12–0.50%), 1.18% (95% CI: 0.49–1.87%), 0.40% (95% CI: 0.09–0.71%), and 0.03% (95% CI: 0.01–0.05%) increments in hospitalization of patients for hypertension, respectively. We observed statistically significant associations with PM2.5, PM10, NO2, O3, and CO, while positive but insignificant associations with SO2. The effects of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, O3, and CO were robust when adjusted for co-pollutants. We found stronger associations in the cool season than in the warm season. Moreover, there were non-significant differences in the associations between air pollution and sex or age group. This study suggests that patients with hypertension had an increased risk of hospital admission when exposed to air pollution.
Shuo Yang, , Yongliang Ma, Kebin He, Lidan Zhu, Tao Ma, Siqi Ye, Hui Li, Tao Huang, Takashi Kimoto
Published: 4 October 2018
Environmental Pollution, Volume 244, pp 84-92; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.10.006

Abstract:
Organic aerosol (OA) are always the most abundant species in terms of relative proportion to PM2.5 concentration in Beijing, while in previous studies, poor link between carbonaceous particles and their gaseous precursors were established based on field observation results. Through this study, we provided a comprehensive analysis of critical carbonaceous species in the atmosphere. The concentrations, diurnal variations, conversions, and gas-particle partitioning (F-factor) of 8 carbonaceous species, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), in Beijing were analyzed synthetically. Carbonaceous gases (CO, CO2, VOCs, and CH4) and OC/EC ratios exhibited double-peak diurnal patterns with a pronounced midnight peak, especially in winter. High correlation between VOCs and OC during winter nighttime indicated that OC was formed from VOCs precursors via an unknown mechanism at relative humidity greater than 50% and 80%, thereby promoting WSOC formation in PM1 and PM2.5 respectively. The established F-factor method was effective to describe gas-to-particle transformation of carbonaceous species and was a good indicator for haze events since high F-factors corresponded with enhanced PM2.5 level. Moreover, higher F-factors in winter indicated carbonaceous species were more likely to exist as particles in Beijing. These results can help gain a comprehensive understanding of carbon cycle and formation of secondary organic aerosols from gaseous precursors in the atmosphere.
Wangjin Yang, , He Yang, Xiangxin Xue
Published: 8 September 2018
Environmental Pollution, Volume 243, pp 679-686; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.039

Abstract:
The generation of HONO and NO2 by the photolysis of nitrates in the presence of humic acids (HA) was measured under various conditions. The photolysis experiments of HA, KNO3 and KNO3/HA under simulated sunlight was carried out by a flow tube reactor at ambient temperature and pressure. HONO and NO2 were major products by the photolysis of KNO3. By contrast, the photolysis of HA and KNO3/HA mainly generated HONO. HA significantly enhanced the formation of HONO during the photolysis process of KNO3. With increasing the KNO3 mass, the HONO formation rate (RHONO) on KNO3/HA increased while the photolysis rate normalized by the KNO3 mass exhibited an opposite trend. RHONO on KNO3/HA linearly increased with irradiation intensity (88–262 W/m2) and relative humidity (7–70%), whereas it linearly decreased with the pH (pH = 2–12). In addition, the reaction paths of the HONO formation by the photolysis of nitrates in the presence of HA were proposed according to experimental results. Finally, atmospheric implications of the enhanced HONO formation by the photolysis of nitrates in the presence of HA were discussed.
Xiaoyan Song, Jinjuan Li, , Qiming Zheng,
Published: 4 September 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 650, pp 566-574; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.033

Abstract:
Twenty-six pairs of PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected during haze episodes in Zhengzhou (113°28′ E, 34°37′ N), a highly populated city in North China. The samples were used to examine the inorganic ion chemistry of particulate matter (PM) of local origin at light (PM2.5< 60 μg m−3 and PM10< 135 μg m−3), medium (PM2.5: 60–170 μg m−3 and PM10: 135–325 μg m−3), and severe (PM2.5 > 170 μg m−3 and PM10 > 325 μg m−3) pollution levels. At the light and severe pollution levels, the increase of PM10 was accounted for by the increase of PM2.5, and the variation of PM10–2.5 was small. In contrast, the increase of PM10 at the medium pollution level was caused by the increase in both PM2.5 and PM10–2.5. Sulfate (SO42−), nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4+), and chloride in the form of ammonium chloride (ClS) accounted for 47.8% and 60.3% of the PM2.5 mass at the light and severe levels, respectively. These values indicate a large contribution of secondary inorganic species to the PM2.5 growth. As the pollution level changed from light to medium, the contribution of SO42− to the growth of PM2.5 decreased from 49.0% to 15.1%, while those of NO3 and ClS increased from 25.1% and 0.6% to 32.5% and 2.8%, respectively, indicating the substantial production of nitrate and chloride. At the severe level, the contribution of SO42− was 30.1%, while those of NO3 and ClS were 5.9% and 0.5%, respectively, suggesting a hindering effect of sulfate on the production of nitrate and chloride. These results indicate that the production of secondary species with the increase of PM2.5 was dominated by sulfate-associated conversions at the light and severe pollution levels and was substantially influenced by nitrate- and chloride-associated conversions at the medium pollution level. The estimation of carbonate presence in the PM indicates that part of the carbonate in coarse particles (PM10–2.5) of crustal origin enhanced sulfate production via heterogeneous surface reactions. Quantification of the contribution of primary and secondary species to PM2.5 showed that it was dominated by both primary and secondary particles at the light pollution level, and it was mainly composed of secondary species at the severe pollution level.
, Yue Liu, Liheng Zheng, Lihui Gui, Xiangmei Zhao, Dongqun Xu, Weidong Wu
Published: 27 August 2018
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 25, pp 30151-30159; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3016-9

Abstract:
Air pollution has been considered as an important contributor to diabetes development. However, the evidence is fewer in developing countries where air pollution concentrations were much higher. In this study, we conduct a time-series study to investigate the acute adverse effect of six air pollutants on type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) hospitalization in Shijiazhuang, China. An over-dispersed passion generalized addictive model adjusted for weather conditions, day of the week, and long-term and seasonal trends was used. Finally, a 10-μg/m3 increase of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) corresponded to 0.53% (95% confidence interval = 0.22–0.83), 0.32% (95% CI = 0.10–0.55), 0.55% (95% CI = 0.04–1.07), 1.27% (95% CI = 0.33–2.22), and 0.04% (95% CI = 0.02–0.06) increment of T2DM hospitalization, respectively. The effects of PM2.5, PM10, and CO were robust when adjusted for co-pollutants. The associations appeared to be a little stronger in the cool season than in the warm season. And stronger associations were found in male and elderly (≥ 65 years) than in female and younger people (35–65 years). Our results contribute to the limited data in the scientific literature on acute effects of air pollution on type II diabetes mellitus in developing countries. Main findings: This is the first adverse effect evidence of air pollution on T2DM in Shijiazhuang, a severely polluted city in China. Males were more vulnerable than females in severe pollution.
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