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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.227)
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Published: 5 December 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Foods
Abstract:
In this study, the effects of various digestive models, influencing factors and dietary supplements on the bioaccessibility of tebuconazole in table grapes were compared. The Caco-2 cell model was employed to reveal the transfer behavior of tebuconazole. The results indicated that digestion time is the main factor affecting bioaccessibility. With an increase in time, the tebuconazole in grapes was almost completely dissolved, with bioaccessibility reaching 98.5%, whereas dietary fiber reduced bioaccessibility. Tebuconazole undergoes carrier-free passive transport in permeable cells in the Caco-2 cell model. These findings have practical application value for correctly evaluating the harmful level of pollutants in the matrix to human body.
Chao Li, Shen Xu, Dong-Xing Guan, Xian-Xian Chen,
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Volume 108, pp 672-677; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03420-3

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Xianxian Chen, Huiming Li, Xiangcheng Kong, Xinying Cheng, Chao Li, , Krishna Kumar Selvaraj, Shaogui Yang, Shiyin Li, Limin Zhang
Published: 20 September 2021
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 806; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150429

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Wei Wang, , Wei Du, Shu Tao
Published: 1 September 2021
Environmental Pollution, Volume 284; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117493

Abstract:
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil can be recalcitrant to solvent extraction after aging. We showed in this study that mixing a small amount of water in the extracting solvent during microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) can release recalcitrant PAHs, resulting in significant improvement in the analyzed concentrations. The improvement factor (F) for the total of 16 priority PAHs (∑PAH16) listed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency was 1.44-1.55 for field soils. By comparing the F values for different soil organic components, we demonstrated that the recalcitrant PAHs were primarily associated with biochar, humic acid (HA), and humin (HM), with the F values for ∑PAH16 of 1.94, 6.62, and 4.59, respectively. The results showed that the recalcitrant PAHs comprised a sequestered fraction and a desorption-limited fraction. NMR spectra showed that water worked alone at elevated temperature to promote hydrolysis of biochar and destroy the macromolecular structure, thus causing the release of the otherwise sequestered PAHs during MAE. The substantial reduction in F values for HA and HM after demineralization indicated sequestration of PAHs in organic-mineral complexes, which can be destroyed by hot water treatment. The release of the sequestered fraction was nonselective and independent of compound hydrophobicity. In comparison, the release of the desorption-limited fraction was positively affected by the hydrophobicity of PAHs and was facilitated by the presence of water in the extracting solvent. The results of this study provide important insights into the sequestration and release of recalcitrant PAHs in soil.
Agnieszka Krzyszczak,
Published: 1 September 2021
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 788; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147738

Abstract:
In the last years, there is great attention paid to the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different environmental matrices. Extensive reviews on PAHs presence and toxicity were published recently. However, PAHs formation and transformation in the environment lead to the production of PAHs derivatives containing oxygen (O-PAHs), nitrogen (N-PAHs and aazarenes AZA) or sulfur (PASHs) in the aromatic ring. The development of new analytical methods enabled the determination of these novel contaminants. The presence of oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur in PAHs aromatic rings increased their toxicity. The most common primary sources of PAHs derivatives are biological processes such as microbial activity (in soil, water, and wastewater treatment plants (O-PAHs)) and all processes involving combustion of fuel, coal, and biomass (O-PAHs, N-PAHs, AZA, PASHs). The secondary resources involved i) photochemical (UV light), ii) radical-mediated (OH, NO3), and iii) reactions with oxidants (O3, NOx) (O-PAHs, N-PAHs, AZA). Furthermore, N-PAHs were able to transform to their corresponding O-PAHs, while other derivatives were not. It indicated that N-PAHs are more vulnerable to photooxidation in the environment. 85% of O- and N-PAHs were detected with particle matter below 2.5 μm suggesting their easier bioaccessibility. More than 90% of compounds with four and more aromatic cycles were present in the particle phase in the air. Although the concentrations of N-PAHs or O-PAHs may be similar to PAHs concentration or even 1000 times lower than parent PAHs, PAHs derivatives accounted for a significant portion of the total mutagenicity. The present review is describing the results of the studies on the determination of PAHs derivatives in different environmental matrices including airborne particles, sediments, soil, and organisms. The mechanisms of their formation and toxicity were assessed.
Xianxian Chen, Xinying Cheng, Han Meng, , Huiming Li, , Wenchao Du, Shaogui Yang, Shiyin Li, Limin Zhang
Published: 1 June 2021
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 774; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145585

Abstract:
Bioaccessibility/bioavailability (bioac-bioav) is an important criterion in the risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially in the restoration of contaminated sites. Although, the bioac-bioav concept is widely employed in PAH risk assessment for both humans and wildlife, their growth and integration in risk assessment models are seldom discussed. Consequently, the relevant literature listed on Web of Science (WOS)™ was retrieved and analyzed using the bibliometric software Citespace in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of this issue. Due to the limitations of the literature search software, we manually searched the articles about PAHs bioac-bioav that were published before 2000. This stage focuses on research on the distribution coefficient of PAHs between different environmental phases and laid the foundation for the adsorption-desorption of PAHs in subsequent studies of the bioac-bioav of PAHs. The research progress on PAH bioac-bioav from 2000 to the present was evaluated using the Citespace software based on country- and discipline-wise publication volumes and research hotspots. The development stages of PAH bioac-bioav after 2000 were divided into four time segments. The first three segments (2000-2005, 2006-2010, and 2011-2015) focused on the degradation of PAHs and their in vivo (bioavailability)-in vitro (bioaccessibility) evaluation method and risk assessment. Meanwhile, the current (2016-present) research focuses on the establishment of analytical methods for assessing PAH derivatives at environmental concentrations and the optimization of various in vitro digestion methods, including chemical optimization (sorptive sink) and biological optimization (Caco-2 cell). The contents are aimed at supplying researchers with a deeper understanding of the development of PAH bioac-bioav.
Yu-Han Fan, , Xiao-Xuan Mou, Shi-Bin Qin, Shi-Hua Qi
Published: 1 December 2019
Environmental Pollution, Volume 255; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113168

Abstract:
Bioaccessibility measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils are significant for exposure risk assessment. The current physicochemical methods require tedious operation processes, underestimate the actual risks, or are unsuitable for high organic content soils. In this work, an efficient and convenient method based on polydopamine-coated polyethylene sieve plate ([email protected]) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was developed to predict the bioaccessibility of PAHs in multi-type soils. The [email protected] can be prepared via in situ self-polymerization, allowing to extract PAHs from HPCD solution quantitatively and rapidly. When applied to evaluate the bioaccessibility with [email protected] as an adsorption sink and HPCD as a diffusive carrier, the proposed method can significantly improve the extractable fraction of PAHs compared to single HPCD extraction in particular for high organic carbon content soil and high-ring PAHs. The desorption kinetics data indicated that the method can predict the bioaccessible fraction of PAHs. In addition, the method predicted a satisfactory accumulation into earthworms (Eisenia fetida) with a slope statistically approximated to 1. A highly significant linear regression (R2 = 0.95) was also found between the proposed method and Tenax desorption in historically contaminated soils, demonstrating that the method is an efficient and convenient approach for the bioaccessibility prediction of PAHs in soils.
, , Caixia Wu, Xiang Luo, Xi Yu,
Published: 31 August 2019
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 699; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134222

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