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(searched for: doi:10.1075/jlac.5.1.01cul)
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Ahmed Abdel-Raheem
Published: 26 July 2022
Abstract:
Using a large-scale corpus of 706 coronavirus cartoons by male and female Arab artists, this study takes a fresh and more cognitive look at sexism in multimodal discourse. Specifically, it examines the role of salience and grammar (and hence of metaphor and metonymy) in gender bias and/or in discrimination against women. It argues that both men and women are vulnerable to the influence of stereotypical and outdated beliefs that create unconscious bias. But this raises the crucial issue of whether we can speak of ‘overt’ sexism in images. Issues around terminology and conceptualization are thus also investigated. Importantly, this paper makes the following contributions to feminist and cross-cultural pragmatics: (i) it brings a distinctly Arabic perspective to gender and language; (ii) it expands socio-cognitive pragmatics beyond spoken and written communication; (iii) it shows a close coupling between an Arabic grammar and other aspects of culture; and (iv) it has the potential for impact beyond academia, specifically in the sphere of coronavirus care or of health communication.
Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict; https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00074.mat

Abstract:
While lexical and discourse strategies of hate speech have widely been studied hitherto, there is limited research devoted to the contribution of grammatical and morphological aspects to verbal aggression. This paper provides a corpus-assisted analysis of slang morphological means used in verbal aggression. The focus is on four compound families (X-ass, X-brain, X-face, X-head), which are often used in slang to form compound words referring to specific groups, such as homosexuals, fools, or ineffectual people. The paper adopts a morphopragmatic approach to investigate three pragmatic meanings/functions – namely, derisive, critical, and offensive – of slang words in situations of conflict. The combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses of data drawn from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) shows the frequency of the morphological processes, their privileged genres and contexts, as well as their negative potential and face-threatening power.
Hossein Talebzadeh, Marzieh Khazraie
Language Teaching Research; https://doi.org/10.1177/13621688211029028

Abstract:
One of the underrepresented aspects of pragmatic competence development is perceiving and responding to impoliteness acts. The present study reports on a quantitative and qualitative investigation of two international English language teaching (ELT) textbook series published by Oxford and Cambridge University Press; it focuses on the books highly popular among a thriving representative sample of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) across four language proficiency levels and explores their coverage and treatment of impoliteness acts and their responses. Drawing on stringent models and taxonomies, the findings reveal that this unpleasant side of language is ignored and misrepresented in the textbooks, particularly at lower proficiency levels. We draw on our own and others’ previous incivility studies and argue for the inclusion of impoliteness especially from earlier stages of language learning owing to its saliency in authentic interactions. The study concludes with implications and suggestions for language learners, instructors, textbook writers, and researchers.
Published: 25 May 2021
Journal of Pragmatics, Volume 179, pp 4-11; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.04.019

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada, Volume 21, pp 249-270; https://doi.org/10.1590/1984-6398202116707

Abstract:
RESUMEN El objetivo de este artículo se centra en analizar las tipologías discursivas sobre la (des)cortesía utilizadas por cuatro políticos españoles: Pablo Casado, Pedro Sánchez, Pablo Iglesias y Albert Rivera. El corpus examinado es el debate electoral que tuvo lugar el 28 de abril de 2019. Como resultado destaca que las categorías más empleadas fueron: la cortesía valorizadora directa de halagos (33,18%) cuando hablan de su propio partido político, la descortesía al referirse a partidos políticos rivales, en particular, la descortesía negativa (30,63%), la descortesía descarnada (17,89%) y la descortesía grosera (14,39%).
Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, Volume 10, pp 315-350; https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00058.eta

Abstract:
Linguistic analysis of the interpersonal patterning of threatening communication is a means of uncovering the attitudes, ideological orientation, and hostile intentions of perpetrators of violence in terrorist discourse (Gales 2010, 2011). Corpus analysis focused on attitudinal meaning also offers a diagnostic for characterizing the personal and relational identities (Bednarek 2010) manifest in such texts. This paper explores discursive patterns of authorial identity in terrorist communication in a set of post-9/11 terrorist public statements made by former al-Qaeda leader, Osama bin Laden. It draws on the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005), a model of evaluative language developed within Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), to investigate the interpersonal component in this dataset. Specifically, patterns of attitude provide evidence of relational and actional attitude, and personal and relational identities. Negative judgement was found to characterize the encoded attitude in terms of (i) construing aggression and conflicting moral values (e.g., social sanction underpinning a perceived personal duty) and (ii) enacting the author’s aggressive and aloof identity, and violent actional attitude.
Ruth Wodak, Jonathan Culpeper, Elena Semino
Published: 8 December 2020
Discourse & Society, Volume 32, pp 369-393; https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926520977217

Abstract:
This paper applies the notions of impoliteness and shameless normalisation to potentially impolite behaviours produced by Donald Trump and Silvio Berlusconi in official press conferences. Press conferences, as an activity type, involve relatively clear expectations and norms, so that impolite behaviours theoretically constitute particularly salient violations. We present two case studies involving racist and misogynist insults on the part of Berlusconi and Trump, respectively, analysed in their co-textual, interactional, socio-political as well as historical contexts. We describe the kinds of impoliteness that each politician employs, without any apology, and argue that they involve violations of the traditional moral order that are part of a far-right populist agenda of shameless normalisation. In each case, we examine comments posted in response to YouTube videos of each incident and provide evidence of polarised responses, but with substantial proportions expressing positive evaluations. We observe that impoliteness affords the possibility of presenting authentic and hyper-masculine identities and finish by reflecting on the implications of our findings for the local and global political and cultural landscape.
Published: 31 May 2019
Journal of Pragmatics, Volume 147, pp 49-64; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2019.05.008

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Alex Georgakopoulou, Maria Vasilaki
Internet Pragmatics, Volume 1, pp 216-241; https://doi.org/10.1075/ip.00011.geo

Abstract:
Drawing on our previous work on the role of small stories in social-mediatized engagements with the Greek socio-economic crisis (Georgakopoulou 2014, 2015), in this article, we set out to shed light on impoliteness on social media through the lens of small stories research. We explore how Facebook and YouTube commenters “bash” political leaders and perceived political opponents and attribute blame to them for the crisis, through comments that attest to specific links of doing impoliteness with storying the crisis. Bashing has been previously related to the affective reactions of participants in online comments on current affairs. In this case, we bring to the fore a salient combination in our data of (mainly on-record) impoliteness strategies for bashing politicians with specific narrating positions in stories about the crisis: the narrator as sufferer, as witness of suffering, and as spokesperson for collective suffering. We argue that in all these cases, on-record impoliteness is normally placed at the end of a small story and presented as legitimated and justified by the preceding account. We conclude with the implications of the association of impoliteness targeting public figures with social-mediatized processes of personalizing and constructing expertise on the basis of experience on the one hand and, on the other hand, of jointly (re)asserting moral order in political affairs.
Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, Volume 6, pp 79-106; https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00004.lor

Abstract:
This paper examines how the jihadist terrorist groups Al Qaeda and the so-called Islamic State discursively construct ‘the West’ as an alien, aberrant ‘other’ in their respective online propaganda magazines Inspire and Dabiq over a 5 year period (2010–2015). The analysis integrates insights from the field of Terrorism Studies into a Corpus Assisted Discourse Studies approach, working centrally with the notions of othering and conventionalised impoliteness. Our findings reveal not only that othering is a key discursive process in the groups’ online propaganda machinery but that it is discursively realised via homogenisation, suppression (stereotyping) and pejoration strategies. The latter are further examined via the notion of conventional impoliteness. Pointed criticism emerges as the most frequent conventionalised impoliteness strategy in both magazines. Threats, condescension and exclusion strategies are also saliently used, albeit with different relative frequencies within each magazine. The findings show the value of Discourse Analysis to research into (jihadist) terrorism, including the possibility of drawing upon its findings to develop tailored counter-messages to those advanced by (jihadist) terrorist groups.
, , Iftikhar Haider, , Jeriel Melgares, Cristina Mostacero-Pinilla, Julie Nelson, Benjamin Weissman
Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, Volume 6, pp 26-57; https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00002.ter

Abstract:
Using four tweets by Steven Salaita about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict that resulted in the retraction of his academic job offer in September 2014 as our case study, we investigate the role of Twitter in the shaping and reception of the controversial messages. Our analysis combines Gricean pragmatics with im/politeness and hate-speech research to reveal a complex layering of potential meanings stemming from what is linguistically encoded in each tweet. Their construal as hate speech, in particular, depends on which of these potential meanings critics chose to focus upon. We account for this finding by considering the diversity of potential audiences of a tweet and suggest that the effects of context collapse on implicated meanings can be especially detrimental. Competition for attention among incoming tweets, Twitter’s central affiliative function and applicable length restrictions can, nevertheless, place a premium on communicating such meanings.
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