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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.jep.2017.09.025)
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Published: 13 October 2022
by MDPI
Neurology International, Volume 14, pp 804-823; https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint14040066

Abstract:
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive and devastating brain tumor characterized by poor prognosis and high rates of recurrence. Despite advances in multidisciplinary treatment, GBM constinues to have a poor overall survival. The Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata (RGP) has been reported to possess anti-allergic, neuroprotective, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, it not clear what effect it may have on tumorigenesis in GBM. This study demonstrated that RGP reduced glioma cell viability and attenuated glioma cell locomotion in GBM8401 and U87MG cells. RGP treated cells had significant increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells and rise in the percentage of caspase-3 activity. In addition, the results of study’s cell cycle analysis also showed that RGP arrested glioma cells at G2/M phase and Cell failure pass the G2 checkpoint by RGP treatment in GBM8401 Cells. Based on the above results, it seems to imply that RGP activated DNA damage checkpoint system and cell cycle regulators and induce apoptosis in established GBM cells. In conclusion, RGP can inhibit proliferation, cell locomotion, cell cycle progression and induce apoptosis in GBM cells in vitro.
Published: 20 July 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Plants
Abstract:
Prunus armeniaca L. (Rosaceae)-syn. Amygdalus armeniaca (L.) Dumort., Armeniaca armeniaca (L.) Huth, Armeniaca vulgaris Lam is commonly known as the apricot tree. The plant is thought to originate from the northern, north-western, and north-eastern provinces of China, although some data show that it may also come from Korea or Japan. The apricot fruit is used medicinally to treat a variety of ailments, including use as an antipyretic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, emetic, and ophthalmic remedy. The Chinese and Korean pharmacopeias describe the apricot seed as an herbal medicinal product. Various parts of the apricot plant are used worldwide for their anticancer properties, either as a primary remedy in traditional medicine or as a complementary or alternative medicine. The purpose of this review was to provide comprehensive and up-to-date information on ethnobotanical data, bioactive phytochemicals, anticancer potential, pharmacological applications, and toxicology of the genus Prunus armeniaca, thus providing new perspectives on future research directions. Included data were obtained from online databases such as PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Science direct, and Wiley Online Library. Multiple anticancer mechanisms have been identified in in vitro and in vivo studies, the most important mechanisms being apoptosis, antiproliferation, and cytotoxicity. The anticancer properties are probably mediated by the contained bioactive compounds, which can activate various anticancer mechanisms and signaling pathways such as tumor suppressor proteins that reduce the proliferation of tumor cells. Other pharmacological properties resulting from the analysis of experimental studies include neuroprotective, cardioprotective, antioxidant, immunostimulatory, antihyperlipidemic, antibacterial, and antifungal effects. In addition, data were provided on the toxicity of amygdalin, a compound found in apricot kernel seeds, which limits the long-term use of complementary/alternative products derived from P. armeniaca. This updated review showed that bioactive compounds derived from P. armeniaca are promising compounds for future research due to their important pharmacological properties, especially anticancer. A detailed analysis of the chemical structure of these compounds and their cytotoxicity should be carried out in future research. In addition, translational pharmacological studies are required for the correct determination of pharmacologically active doses in humans.
Bin Luo, Ming Yang, Zixin Han, Zujun Que, Tianle Luo,
Published: 8 July 2022
Frontiers in Oncology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.882278

Abstract:
Nowadays, Jin-Fu-Kang oral liquid (JFK), one of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) preparations, has been widely used as an adjuvant therapy for primary non-small cell lung cancer (PNSCLC) patients with the syndrome of deficiency of both Qi and Yin (Qi–Yin deficiency pattern) based on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. However, we found insufficient evidence of how long-term CHM treatment influence PNSCLC patients’ progression-free survival (PFS). Thus, using electronic medical records, we established a nomograph-based prognostic model for predicting PNSCLC patients’ PFS involved with JFK supplementary formulas (JFK-SFs) over 6 months, in order to preliminarily investigate potential predictors highly related to adjuvant CHMs therapies in theoretical epidemiology. In our retrospective study, a series of 197 PNSCLC cases from Long Hua Hospital were enrolled by non-probability sampling and divided into 2 datasets at the ratio of 5:4 by Kennard–Stone algorithm, as a result of 109 in training dataset and 88 in validation dataset. Besides, TNM stage, operation history, sIL-2R, and CA724 were considered as 4 highly correlated predictors for modeling based on LASSO-Cox regression. Additionally, we respectively used training dataset and validation dataset for establishment including internal validation and external validation, and the prediction performance of model was measured by concordance index (C-index), integrated discrimination improvement, and net reclassification indices (NRI). Moreover, we found that the model containing clinical characteristics and bio-features presented the best performance by pairwise comparison. Next, the result of sensitivity analysis proved its stability. Then, for preliminarily examination of its discriminative power, all eligible cases were divided into high-risk or low-risk progression by the cut-off value of 57, in the light of predicted nomogram scores. Ultimately, a completed TRIPOD checklist was used for self-assessment of normativity and integrity in modeling. In conclusion, our model might offer crude probability of uncertainly individualized PFS with long-term CHMs therapy in the real-world setting, which could discern the individuals implicated with worse prognosis from the better ones. Nevertheless, our findings were prone to unmeasured bias caused by confounding factors, owing to retrospective cases series.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084521

Abstract:
Air pollutants, especially particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and PM ≤ 10 µm (PM10), are a major concern in upper northern Thailand. Data from a retrospective cohort comprising 9820 lung cancer patients diagnosed from 2003 to 2018 were obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry, and used to evaluate mortality and survival rates. Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify the association between the risk of death and risk factors including gender, age, cancer stage, smoking history, alcohol-use history, calendar year of enrollment, and time-updated PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and O3 concentrations. The mortality rate was 68.2 per 100 persons per year of follow-up. In a multivariate analysis, gender, age, cancer stage, calendar year of enrollment, and time-varying residential concentration of PM2.5 were independently associated with the risk of death. The lower the annually averaged PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations, the higher the survival probability of the patient. As PM2.5 and PM10 were factors associated with a higher risk of death, lung cancer patients who are inhabitant in the area should reduce their exposure to high concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 to increase survival rates.
Yue-Rong Gui, Ying Zhang, Xue-Qian Wang, Bing-Jie Fan, Jing-Lei Li, Lan-Xin Zhang, Fen Fan, Kang-Di Cao, Xiao-Gang Zhang,
Published: 3 March 2022
Chinese Journal of Integrated Medicine pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11655-022-3465-3

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Haifang Chen, Guofeng Li, Ye Liu, Yifan Lang, Wuliang Yang, Wugang Zhang, Xinli Liang
Published: 25 February 2022
Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.827520

Abstract:
Paclitaxel (PTX) has been the first-line treatment for lung cancer; however, its clinical use is limited due to multidrug resistance (MDR) and adverse effects. Thus, there is an urgent need to explore agents that can enhance the anticancer efficacy of PTX by reducing drug resistance and adverse reactions. Jiegeng decoction (JG) was used as the meridian guide drug and adjuvant drug in treatment of lung cancer. However, the mechanism of adjuvant effect was unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether JG could potentiate the anticancer effect of PTX. Tissue distribution of PTX was detected using HPLC-MS/MS. The anti-lung cancer effect of the combination of PTX and JG in Lewis lung cancer C57BL/6J mice was evaluated based on the body weight and tumor-inhibition rate. PTX concentration in tumors was determined using HPLC-MS and in vivo imaging. Biochemical indices were detected using biochemical analyzer and ELISA. The anticancer mechanism of the PTX-JG combination in A549/PTX cells was elucidated based on cell proliferation, annexin V-FITC apoptosis assay, and western blotting. Tissue distribution analysis showed that the distribution of PTX increased in the lungs, liver, and heart upon administering the combination of PTX and JG. JG remarkably enhanced the anticancer effect of PTX by increasing the red blood cell and platelet counts; increasing hemoglobin, interleukin (IL)-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels; increasing CD4+T cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio; and decreasing IL-10 levels. JG administration led to the increased distribution of PTX at the tumor lesion sites and also potentiated the anticancer effect of PTX by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Moreover, JG reversed PTX resistance by inhibiting the expression of lung resistance-related proteins, multiresistance protein 1, P-glycoprotein, and breast cancer-resistant protein. Furthermore, the combination of JG and PTX decreased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels and did not affect creatine kinase-MB levels. Therefore, our discovery suggests that JG increased the anticancer effect of PTX by downregulating the MDR-related protein and demonstrated a synergistic enhancement of immunity. Thus, the combination of PTX with JG shows potential in the management of lung cancer owing to its synergistic and detoxifying effects.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020857

Abstract:
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term consumption of bitter apricot seeds phytonutrients on cardiovascular risk factors with a special focus on LDL cholesterol subfractions using the Lipoprint system. A group of 34 adult volunteers (21 female/13 male) consumed 60 mg kg−1 of body weight of bitter apricot seeds daily for 42 days. Subjects were divided into two groups: one with normal cholesterol levels (NTC) and one with elevated total cholesterol levels (ETC). Blood serum levels of total cholesterol (T-C), low-density cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) did not change significantly (p > 0.05) in NTC group. However, there were significant decreasing of T-C (p ˂ 0.05) and LDL-C (p< 0.01) in ETC group. The LDL1, LDL2, and atherogenic LDL3−7 subfractions progressively decreased after 42 days of apricot seeds consumption in ETC group (p< 0.05). Apricot seeds consumption was associated with a significant increase in the mean LDL particle size especially in ETC group (p ˂ 0.01). The results of the present study support the hypothesis that daily consumption of bitter apricot seeds for 42 days positively modified the lipoprotein profile in the group with elevated total cholesterol.
Li-Li Xu, Su-Fang Zhang, Yu-Li Wang, , Zhi-Hong Fang, Yuan Fang, Rong-Zhong Xu, Peng Guo, ,
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2021, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5522934

Abstract:
Objective. To explore the efficacy of long-term use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) on survival time of lung cancer. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on lung cancer patients. A propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to balance the covariates. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint and overall survival (OS) was the secondary endpoint. Patients who received CHM therapy from the initial date of diagnosis of lung cancer were included in the CHM group. Patients who were not treated with CHM during the same interval were categorized in the control group. A Cox regression model was used to explore the prognostic factors related to lung cancer. Hazard ratios of different subgroups were also analyzed. Results. A total of 1134 patients were included in our study: 761 patients were in the CHM group and 373 patients were in the control group. After PSM, the mPFS and mOS in the CHM group were 70.4 months and 129.1 months, respectively, while the mPFS and mOS in the control group were 23.8 months and 99.7 months, respectively. The results of survival analysis on each stage demonstrated that patients may benefit from the long-term CHM treatment especially for patients with early stage. One-year to ten-year progression-free survival rates in the CHM group were higher than those in the control group ( p<0.001 ). COX multivariate regression analysis indicated that CHM treatment, female, low age at diagnosis, early tumor stage, and surgery were independent protective factors against recurrence and metastasis of lung cancer. Subgroup analysis showed that CHM treatment could reduce the risk of recurrence and metastasis in each subgroup ( p<0.01 ). Conclusion. Long-term CHM treatment with the Fuzheng Quxie Formula, which can be flexibly applied in the course of lung cancer treatment, not only has a positive influence on the progression-free survival time of lung cancer patients, but also reduces the risk of recurrence and metastasis of lung cancer.
Chien-Chen Huang, Yu-Cih Yang, Iona MacDonald, Ching-Yuan Lai, Cheng-Hao Tu,
Published: 26 May 2021
Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.614606

Abstract:
Background: Chemotherapy is suspected to be a risk factor for stroke in patients with cancer, athough the results from large-scale studies are controversial. Few strategies are available for reducing the stroke-related risks.Methods: We analyzed stroke incidence rates in Taiwan’s Longitudinal Health Insurance database 2000 (LHID2000) for patients aged ≥20 years with newly-diagnosed cancer between Jan 1, 2000 and Dec 31, 2006, who did or did not receive chemotherapy. Moreover, we compared stroke incidence rates among chemotherapy users who did or did not use traditional Chinese medicine. All study participants were followed-up for 5 years or until they had a stroke.Results: In adjusted Kaplan-Meier analysis, the incidence of stroke was higher within the first year of cancer diagnosis among chemotherapy recipients compared with those who did not receive chemotherapy (31.1 vs. 9.75; adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR] 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52–3.20; p < 0.001). This between-group difference persisted at 4 years of follow-up (13.6 vs. 5.42; adjusted sHR 1.94; 95% CI, 1.53–2.46; p < 0.001). Similarly, the 5-year incidence rate of stroke was significantly lower among chemotherapy recipients using TCM vs. non-TCM users (0.19 vs. 0.46; adjusted sHR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.26–0.79; p < 0.001), as was the mortality rate (adjusted sHR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44–0.68; p < 0.001).Conclusion: These Taiwanese data suggest that chemotherapy is a risk factor for stroke and that the use of TCM can significantly mitigate this risk. TCM also appears to reduce the mortality risk associated with chemotherapy.
Yiwen Li, Yanfei Liu, Jing Cui, Hui Zhao, Yue Liu,
Published: 19 March 2021
Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.639860

Abstract:
Cohort studies investigating the treatment of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have considerably accumulated in recent years. To systematically and for the first time present the achievements and dilemmas of cohort studies, strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to search publications from the Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for cohort studies on NCDs with TCM since the establishment of these databases. Information on the year of publication, exposure factors, diseases, and outcome indicators was obtained, and a literature quality assessment and bibliometric descriptive analysis were conducted. A total of 182 published articles involving 1,615,106 cases were included. There were 110 non-prospective cohort studies and 72 prospective cohort studies. The diseases involved in the cohort studies were, in the order of the number of published articles, malignant tumors (82 articles, 45.05%), cardiovascular diseases (35 articles, 19.23%), neurological diseases (29 articles, 15.93%), chronic kidney diseases (16 articles, 8.79%), liver cirrhosis (8 articles, 4.40%), diabetes mellitus (8 articles, 4.40%), and chronic respiratory diseases (4 articles, 2.20%). The study participants were mainly from China (177 articles, 97.25%). The number of cohort studies increased significantly in the last 5 years (65 articles, 35.71%), and following the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) literature quality evaluation, the number of articles that received a score of four to five was high (116 articles, 63.73%), and the overall quality needs to be improved. The application of cohort studies in the field of TCM for the prevention and treatment of NCDs has developed rapidly in the past 5 years, focusing on the prevention and treatment of tumors as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the design and implementation of cohort studies still have considerable limitations. To provide more clinical evidence, researcher should actively cooperate with evidence-based methodologists and standardize the implementation of cohort studies.
, Wonjun Ji, Chang-Min Choi, Chaeuk Chung, Jae Myoung Noh, Cheol-Kyu Park, In-Jae Oh, Hong In Yoon, Hyeong Ryul Kim, Ho Young Kim, et al.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, Volume 84, pp 105-114; https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2020.0098

Abstract:
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used frequently, and its use continues to increase in lung cancer patients, despite insufficient scientific of its efficacy. To investigate this situation, we analyzed the current awareness and use of CAM in Korean lung-cancer patients. This prospective survey–based study was performed at seven medical centers in South Korea between August and October 2019. The survey assessed general patient characteristics and the awareness and use of CAM. We analyzed differences in the clinical parameters of patients aware and not aware of CAM and of CAM non-users and users. Of the 434 patients included in this study, 68.8% responded that they were aware of CAM and 30.9% said they had experienced it. In univariate analysis, the patients aware of CAM were younger with poor performance status, had advanced-stage lung cancer, received more systemic therapy, and received concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). By multiple logistic regression, younger age, poor performance status, advanced stage, and prior CCRT were identified as independent risk factors for CAM awareness. There were no significant differences in the general characteristics and cancer-associated clinical parameters of CAM non-users and users. Specific clinical parameters were associated with patients’ awareness of CAM, although there were no significantly different characteristics between CAM users and non-users.
Ming-Hsien Yeh, Hsien-Chang Wu, Nai-Wei Lin, Jin-Jian Hsieh, Jin-Wen Yeh, Hung-Pin Chiu, Mei-Chun Wu, , ,
Published: 19 May 2020
Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Volume 52; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102427

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Xiaohui Tang, Haisheng Chen, Guanxuan Chen, Cunxian Duan, Qing Fan, Hui Li, Yanhong Wang, Zhijun Li, Wenna Shi, Yuguo Liu
Published: 31 March 2020
Journal: Thoracic Cancer
Thoracic Cancer, Volume 11, pp 1443-1452; https://doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13409

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ming-Hsien Yeh, Hung-Pin Chiu, Mei-Chun Wu, , Nai-Wei Lin, Kou-Kai Liao, ,
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2020, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/4561040

Abstract:
Recent studies suggested that Traditional Chinese Medicine could play a beneficial role in conventional cancer treatment. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) combined with Western medicine on the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer identified from the Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital Cancer Registry Database in 2004–2014. Combining with the medical records of the study hospital, patients were classified into CHM users and CHM nonusers. Kaplan–Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to investigate the survival between CHM users and CHM nonusers. A total of 535 patients with colorectal cancer were included in the study with 147 of them were CHM users. The log-rank test for Kaplan–Meier survival curve revealed a statistically significant difference between the survival of CHM users and CHM nonusers (P=0.006). Results from multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that CHM use was significantly associated with better survival (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.77). In addition, the CHM formulae Jia Wei Xiao Yao San, Zhi Bah Di Huang Wan, Ping Wei San, and Qui Pi Tang were significantly associated with better survival. In conclusion, findings from this retrospective cohort study indicated that integrated CHM and Western medicine could improve survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Additional research on integrating TCM with Western medicine to improve cancer survival is warranted.
Published: 30 May 2019
by MDPI
Journal: Molecules
Abstract:
10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) is a broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic drug, although its side effects and multidrug resistance (MDR) limit its clinical application. A range of drug delivery systems have been utilized to overcome its shortcomings and maintain its therapeutic efficacy, however the use of the transport effect of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) to improve the distribution of chemotherapeutic drugs has not been widely reported. Platycodonis Radix (JG) and Glycyrrhizae Radix ET Rhizoma (GC) are common TCMs in clinics and are often combined as drug pairs to act as “transport agents”. In the present study, the effect of JG and GC (JGGC) on the distribution of HCPT in tissues and its antitumor efficacy after being combined as a therapy were investigated, for which ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used. Furthermore, the effect on the protein expression of multidrug resistance proteins (P-gp and LRP), and the immunomodulatory and synergistic antiapoptotic effect on Lewis lung cancer-bearing C57BL/6J mice were also evaluated. The results demonstrate that JGGC significantly increased the area under the concentration time curve (AUC) and mean residence time (MRT) and reduced the clearance rate (CL) of HCPT. In addition, the combined use of JGGC decreased the levels of LRP, P-gp and Bcl-2/Bax when treated with HCPT. JGGC also significantly elevated the levels of RBCs, PLTs, HGB, IL-2, and IFN-γ, and decreased IL-10 levels. In summary, an increased concentration of HCPT in tissues was observed when it was combined with JGGC through inhibition of efflux protein, with a synergistic enhancement of the anticancer effect observed through promotion of apoptosis and immunity due to a reversion of the Th1/Th2 shift. Our findings provide a reference for the feasibility of combining JGGC with chemotherapy drugs in clinical applications.
Xiaoli Liu, Mengge Li, Xinhui Wang, Zhibo Dang, Lihua Yu, Xianbo Wang, Yuyong Jiang,
Published: 11 May 2019
Journal: Phytomedicine
Abstract:
Many patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Asian countries seek adjuvant therapy with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study aims to explore the benefits of TCM therapy in the long-term survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in China.
, , Marek Halenar, Katarina Tokarova, Lubica Chrastinova, , , Eduard Kolesar, Jozef Valuch,
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Volume 103, pp 695-703; https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13055

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Shao-Yi Lu, Jian-Jung Chen, Jiann-I Pan, Zi-Xuan Fu, Jung-Lun Wu,
Published: 25 January 2019
Integrative Cancer Therapies, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735418823273

Abstract:
Background: Cancer patients receiving Western medical treatment, frequently seek Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to alleviate adverse effects and prolong survival. Objective: This study evaluated the association between the use of TCM and cancer survival rate. Research into the effect of TCM on patient survival is limited, this analysis focused on 3 patterns of TCM use. Methods: Three retrospective cohorts with different patterns of TCM use were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan and analyzed. Patients with newly diagnosed cancer between 1997 and 2012 were classified into groups of prediagnosis, postdiagnosis, and continuous TCM use associated with awareness of cancer diagnosis. All demographic and clinical data were analyzed. Results: After propensity score matching, longevity of the postdiagnosis and continuous TCM user was significantly longer than the non-TCM user. The adjusted hazard ratios of death in postdiagnosis and continuous TCM use groups (0.59 and 0.61, respectively) were lower than the non-TCM use group. Conclusion: The analysis suggests that cancer patients using TCM in conjunction with Western medical treatment exhibited a higher survival rate than patients not using TCM treatment.
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