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(searched for: doi:10.1177/0899764011417720)
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Michael Meyer, Michaela Neumayr, Paul Rameder
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 48, pp 1162-1185; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764019848492

Abstract:
Numerous studies demonstrate the effectiveness of university-based community service programs on students’ personal, social, ethical, and academic domains. These effects depend on both, the characteristics of students enrolled and the characteristics of the programs, for instance whether they are voluntary or mandatory. Our study investigates whether effects of voluntary service programs are indeed caused by the service experience or by prior self-selection. Using data from a pre–post quasi-experimental design conducted at a public university in Europe and taking students’ socioeconomic background into account, our findings on self-efficacy, generalized trust, empathic concern, and attributions for poverty show that there are no participation effects. Instead, students who join in community service differ significantly from nonparticipants with regard to almost all investigated domains a priori, indicating strong self-selection. Our results underline the importance of structured group reflection, most notably with regard to attitude-related topics.
James Griffith
Published: 27 January 2019
Armed Forces & Society, Volume 46, pp 323-341; https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327x18821399

Abstract:
Research studies have shown an association between military service and later civic involvement, largely defined as political activities. The National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 2008 ( N = 95,650) was used to compare veteran and nonveteran students on community service activities and voting. Proportionately more nonveteran than veteran students reported community service (i.e., working with children both in educational and noneducational settings and fund-raising). Nonveteran students also were more likely to have participated in community service in last 12 months. The two groups did not differ in average hours spent on community service per month (16 hr). Veterans compared to nonveterans were far more likely to have registered to vote (78% vs. 59%) and to have voted (90% vs. 82%). When gender, age, race, and income were considered in comparisons, previous differences were not statistically different. Results are discussed relative to past proposals and research regarding veterans’ civic engagement.
P. Wesley Routon,
Published: 18 December 2016
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 627-651; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764016682111

Abstract:
National statistics disclose that college graduates are more prone to volunteerism than nongraduates. These statistics motivate the question of exactly what college experiences are most likely to change a student’s altruistic goals and whether these same experiences alter a student’s self-interest. Using data from a longitudinal survey of American college students from 457 institutions of higher learning, we examine how the importance of altruistic acts and personal wealth aspirations changes during undergraduate tenure, and estimate the determinants of these changes. Among other results, we find major of study, certain collegiate activities, relative academic success, the ethnicity and background of roommates, institutional characteristics, and within-college labor market participation all play roles in shaping both the altruistic and personal wealth aspirations of individuals.
Ram A. Cnaan, Sohyun Park
Published: 30 September 2016
Voluntaristics Review, Volume 1, pp 1-73; https://doi.org/10.1163/24054933-12340001

Abstract:
Our aim in this article is to demonstrate the complexity, scope and diversity of civic participation. The quality of life in a society depends, to a certain degree, on the government’s ability to offer security, order, and services. Equally important, if not more important, are the many activities that residents voluntarily, or not so voluntarily, do for the benefit of others outside their household and immediate family, and often for the collective welfare or public good/benefit/interest. Numerous studies since the early 1990s focus on social capital and the decline in civic participation. In this review article, we claim that most studies of civic participation focus on small and narrow definitions of civic participation. Furthermore, scholars from one discipline rarely measure aspects of civic participation from the perspective of other disciplines. After discussing the problem of disciplinary perspectives in civic participation and the lack of a comprehensive measure of civic participation, we show how the various definitions and attempts at measuring social participation are inadequate. We contrast civic participation with the popular concept of social capital. The former focuses on both individual and organizational activities while the latter focuses on group activities only. To overcome the narrow approach of studying civic participation, we demonstrate that many activities are omitted from most studies. We list a long and varied set of activities that individuals can do on their own or in groups that enhance the quality of life of others. We organize these activities into six key sub-groups: (1) association participation, (2) giving, (3) volunteering, (4) environment-friendly behaviors, (5) political and social behaviors, and (6) supporting-helping individuals. The six categories are not offered as a typology of civic behaviors, but, rather, as a preliminary way to organize our enlarged list of pro-social behaviors. In each of these six sub-groups, we attempt to list as many activities as possible that exemplify different modes of civic participation. We start by naming the behavior or activity, and then give examples of its various forms. Where data are available, we provide data that relate to the specific behavior, how it was measured, and what existing findings tell us about the behavior’s frequency. We attempted, where possible, to use u.s.-based data. In our discussion, limitations, and conclusions, we acknowledge that more conceptual work is to be done. Yet we call for the first comprehensive and inter-disciplinary study of civic participation. We envision this topic being taken up by a large number of scholars as well as future initiatives to compare communities and countries based on a comprehensive set of civic participation activities. Our aim in this article is to demonstrate the complexity, scope and diversity of civic participation. The quality of life in a society depends, to a certain degree, on the government’s ability to offer security, order, and services. Equally important, if not more important, are the many activities that residents voluntarily, or not so voluntarily, do for the benefit of others outside their household and immediate family, and often for the collective welfare or public good/benefit/interest. Numerous studies since the early 1990s focus on social capital and the decline in civic participation. In this review article, we claim that most studies of civic participation focus on small and narrow definitions of civic participation. Furthermore, scholars from one discipline rarely measure aspects of civic participation from the perspective of other disciplines. After discussing the problem of disciplinary perspectives in civic participation and the lack of a comprehensive measure of civic participation, we show how the various definitions and attempts at measuring social participation are inadequate. We contrast civic participation with the popular concept of social capital. The former focuses on both individual and organizational activities while the latter focuses on group activities only. To overcome the narrow approach of studying civic participation, we demonstrate that many activities are omitted from most studies. We list a long and varied set of activities that individuals can do on their own or in groups that enhance the quality of life of others. We organize these activities into six key sub-groups: (1) association participation, (2) giving, (3) volunteering, (4) environment-friendly behaviors, (5) political and social behaviors, and (6) supporting-helping individuals. The six categories are not offered as a typology of civic behaviors, but, rather, as a preliminary way to organize our enlarged list of pro-social behaviors. In each of these six sub-groups, we attempt to list as many activities as possible that exemplify different modes of civic participation. We start by naming the behavior or activity, and then give examples of its various forms. Where data are available, we provide data that relate to the specific behavior, how it was measured, and what existing findings tell us about the behavior’s frequency. We attempted, where possible, to use u.s.-based data. In our discussion, limitations, and conclusions, we acknowledge that more conceptual work is to be done. Yet we call for the first comprehensive and inter-disciplinary study of civic participation. We envision this topic being taken up by a large number of scholars as well as future initiatives to compare communities and countries based on a comprehensive set of civic participation activities.
Published: 18 November 2015
Armed Forces & Society, Volume 42, pp 483-500; https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327x15614552

Abstract:
This paper builds a case for examining suicide in the U.S. military relative to broad societal context, specifically, the unique experiences of birth cohorts relating to processes described by Durkheim’s theory of suicide. In more recent birth cohorts, suicide rates have increased among teenagers and young adults. In addition, suicide rates of age intervals at a given time period have been reliably predicted by the size of the birth cohort and the percentage of nonmarital births—supposed indicators of Durkheim’s diminished social integration and behavioral regulation. Consequences of these trends are likely more evident in the U.S. military due to having proportionally more individuals known to be at risk for suicide, that is, young males who are from nontraditional households. The all-volunteer force compared to draft force has fewer applicants to select, and proportionally more of applicants are accepted for military service. Consequently, more recruits having varied conditions now than before, perhaps including greater vulnerability to suicide, serve in the U.S. military. These points are further elaborated with supporting evidence, concluding with a call for new directions in suicide research, practice, and policy.
Mary Ho, Stephanie O’Donohoe
Published: 6 May 2014
European Journal of Marketing, Volume 48, pp 854-877; https://doi.org/10.1108/ejm-11-2011-0637

Abstract:
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to seek to enhance the understanding of non-profit marketing and consumer identities by exploring volunteering as a form of symbolic consumption. Specifically, it seeks to examine how young people – both volunteers and non-volunteers – understand and relate to volunteer stereotypes, and how they manage stigma in negotiating their social identities in relation to volunteering. Design/methodology/approach – Grounded in consumer culture theory, the study uses mixed qualitative methods, incorporating focus groups, paired and individual interviews and a projective drawing task. Findings – Five volunteering-related stereotypes were identified: the older charity shop worker, the sweet singleton, the environmental protestor, the ordinary volunteer and the non-volunteer. Participants related to positive and negative attributes of these stereotypes in different ways. This led volunteers and non-volunteers to engage in a range of impression management strategies, some of which bolstered their own identities by stigmatising other groups. Research limitations/implications – The sample was drawn from 39 individuals aged 16-24 years and living in Scotland. Practical implications – Because stereotypes are acknowledged as a major barrier to volunteering, particularly among young people, a greater understanding of how these stereotypes are understood and negotiated can assist non-profit marketers in recruiting and retaining volunteers. Originality/value – This paper draws on theories of consumer culture and stigma to explore volunteering as a form of symbolic consumption, examines volunteering stereotypes among both volunteers and non-volunteers and uses multiple qualitative methods to facilitate articulation of young people’s experiences in this area.
, Tara D. Hudson, Jeremy B. Tuchmayer
Published: 1 May 2014
The Journal of higher education, Volume 85, pp 312-338; https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2014.11777330

Abstract:
Using longitudinal data collected as part of the 2004/09 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study, this study employed structural equation modeling to examine how multiple dimensions of college students’ service participation shape life goals oriented toward meaning, purpose, and citizenship and subsequent service engagement. The findings suggest that life goals and subsequent service participation are a function of students’ citizenship predispositions, the intensity and context of service involvement, and, importantly, the benefits that students derive from their service participation. Becoming a more compassionate and socially aware person as a result of service work is positively linked to committing oneself to a meaningful life marked by helping others, civic engagement, and service.
, Laura Littlepage, Teresa A. Bennett
Published: 3 April 2012
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 41, pp 1029-1050; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764012438698

Abstract:
College student volunteerism and interest in community-based learning are on the rise. Are communities ready for them? This article examines the “supply side” of student engagement: nonprofit capacity to accommodate students. Our analysis of a large random sample of nonprofit managers in two contrasting communities finds that many of the volunteer management (VM) functions assumed to be important in any volunteer context also are important to student engagement. We also find role differentiation between interns, service learners, and general volunteers in the VM tools used to engage these students and the outcomes that can be expected. Despite variation in reported outcomes, nonprofit managers consider some aspects of VM to be essential to all campus–community partnerships. We find that each type of student involvement contributes to organizational capacity in specific ways and that student engagement depends on adequate VM capacity (VMC). Our conclusion discusses how the findings challenge service learning as presently formulated.
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