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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.jep.2017.06.039)
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, Sakshi Painuli, Kartik M. Painuli, Gizem Antika, Tugba Boyunegmez Tumer, Ashish Thapliyal, William N. Setzer, , , Yasaman Taheri, et al.
Published: 2 September 2021
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Volume 2021, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/1917890

Abstract:
The genus Diplazium (family: Athyriaceae) comprises approximately 350 species of pteridophytes. Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. is an important member of this genus and commonly known as a wild vegetable in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan communities. According to the literature analysis, D. esculentum was traditionally used for the prevention or treatment of several diseases such as diabetes, smallpox, asthma, diarrhea, rheumatism, dysentery, headache, fever, wounds, pain, measles, hypertension, constipation, oligospermia, bone fracture, and glandular swellings. Various extracts of D. esculentum were evaluated to elucidate their phytochemical and pharmacological activities. A wide array of pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, CNS stimulant, and antianaphylactic activities have been recognized in different parts of D. esculentum. The review covers a systematic examination of pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, and pharmacological applications of D. esculentum, but scientifically, it is not fully assessed regarding complete therapeutic effects, toxicity, and safety in the human body. The published literature on D. esculentum and its therapeutic properties were collected from different search engines including Wiley online, PubMed, Springer Link, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and ACS publications by using specific terms such as Diplazium esculentum, bioactive compounds, biological activities and health benefits from 1984 to 2021 (March). Therefore, further studies are required to identify the detailed action mechanism of D. esculentum in vitro/in vivo, and also, more studies should focus on conservation, cultivation, and sustainable utilization of the species.
, Jhamine C O Freitas, Ari S O Lemos, Lara M Campos, Irley O M Diniz, Nícolas C C Pinto, Thiago P Silva, Cinthia Palazzi, Paula Marchesini, Caio Monteiro, et al.
Published: 1 September 2021
Journal: Medical mycology
Medical mycology, Volume 59, pp 1210-1224; https://doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myab054

Abstract:
Spilanthol is a bioactive alkylamide from the native Amazon plant species, Acmella oleracea. However, antifungal activities of spilanthol and its application to the therapeutic treatment of candidiasis remains to be explored. This study sought to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of spilanthol previously isolated from A. oleracea (spilanthol(AcO)) against Candida albicans ATCC® 10231™, a multidrug-resistant fungal strain. Microdilution methods were used to determine inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations of spilanthol(AcO). In planktonic cultures, the fungal growth kinetics, yeast cell metabolic activity, cell membrane permeability and cell wall integrity were investigated. The effect of spilanthol(AcO) on the proliferation and adhesion of fungal biofilms was evaluated by whole slide imaging and scanning electron microscopy. The biochemical composition of the biofilm matrix was also analyzed. In parallel, spilanthol(AcO) was tested in vivo in an experimental vulvovaginal candidiasis model. Our in vitro analyses in C. albicans planktonic cultures detected a significant inhibitory effect of spilanthol(AcO), which affects both yeast cell membrane and cell wall integrity, interfering with the fungus growth. C. albicans biofilm proliferation and adhesion, as well as, carbohydrates and DNA in biofilm matrix were reduced after spilanthol(AcO) treatment. Moreover, infected rats treated with spilanthol(AcO) showed consistent reduction of both fungal burden and inflammatory processes compared to the untreated animals. Altogether, our findings demonstrated that spilanthol(AcO) is an bioactive compound against planktonic and biofilm forms of a multidrug resistant C. albicans strain. Furthermore, spilanthol(AcO) can be potentially considered for therapeutical treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by C. albicans. This study sought to evaluate the antifungal activity of spilanthol against Candida albicans ATCC® 10 231™, a multidrug-resistant fungal strain. Our findings demonstrated that spilanthol(AcO) can be potentially considered for therapeutical treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by C. albicans.
, Adeyemi O. Aremu
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Volume 62, pp 3535-3552; https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1867055

Abstract:
Cleome gynandra (Syn. Gynandropsis gynandra) is fast emerging as one of the most widely consumed leafy vegetables due to its nutrition and health-promoting properties. In addition to its high nutritional content, the plant has a rich pool of diverse antioxidant phytochemicals. The current review provides a critical appraisal on the increasing nutritional significance of Cleome gynandra due to its rich pool of natural bioactive compounds and beneficial health-promoting qualities. The rich nutritional content especially the high levels of macro- and micronutrients is an indication of its potential to mitigate malnutrition and the increasing incidence of diet-related obesity and non-communicable diseases. The presence of health-promoting natural compounds, notably polyphenols, glucosinates and terpernoids has been confirmed in Cleome gynandra using different analytical methods. Cleome gynandra possesses high levels of α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. These nutritional compounds could be useful in food applications as supplements, colorants and extending shelf-life of food products. Cleome gynandra extracts have demonstrated promising effects in several biological assays using in vitro and in vivo systems. Clearly, diversified diets that include a regular intake of dark green leafy vegetables including Cleome gynandra, holds great promise in ensuring food and nutrition security. Graphical Abstract
Huimin Li, Yanfei Qu, Jiawei Zhang, Jingze Zhang, Wenyuan Gao
Published: 1 January 2018
Pharmaceutical biology, Volume 56, pp 559-566; https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2018.1492000

Abstract:
Context: Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR), the dry rhizome of Aquilaria agallocha R. (Thymelaeaeeae), has been widely used to treat emesis, stomachache and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Objective: This study evaluates the effects of ALR methanol extract on gastrointestinal motility (GIM) and possible mechanisms of the action involved. Materials and methods: In vivo, the study evaluated the effects of ALR (200–800 mg/kg) on gastric emptying and small intestinal motility in normal and neostigmine-induced adult KM mice. The in vitro effects of ALR (0.2–1.6 mg/mL) on GIM were performed on isolated jejunum of Wistar rats, pretreated with acetylcholine (ACh), KCl, CaCl2, and pre-incubation with l-NAME (a selective inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthase). Results: In vivo, ALR (800 mg/kg) decreased gastric emptying (70.82 ± 9.81%, p < 0.01, compared with neostigmine group 91.40 ± 7.81%), small intestinal transit (42.82 ± 3.82%, p < 0.01, compared with neostigmine group 85.53 ± 5.57%). In vitro, ALR concentration dependently decreased the contractions induced by ACh (10−5 M) and KCl (60 mM) with respective EC50 values of 0.35 and 0.32 mg/mL. The Ca2+ concentration–response curves were shifted by ALR to the right, similar to that caused by verapamil (the positive). The spasmolytic activity of ALR was inhibited by pre-incubation with l-NAME. Discussion and conclusions: ALR played a spasmolytic role in GIM, which is probably mediated through inhibition of muscarinic receptors, blockade of Ca2+ influx and NO release. This is the first study presenting a comprehensive description of the effects of ALR on GIM.
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