(searched for: doi:10.2190/hs.43.2.f)
Published: 25 February 2019
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Volume 116, pp 5478-5486; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1807679116
Cognitive aging is characterized by large heterogeneity, which may be due to variations in childhood socioeconomic conditions (CSC). Although there is substantial evidence for an effect of CSC on levels of cognitive functioning at older age, results on associations with cognitive decline are mixed. We examined by means of an accelerated longitudinal design the association between CSC and cognitive trajectories from 50 to 96 years. Cognition included two functions generally found to decline with aging: delayed recall and verbal fluency. Data are from six waves of the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), conducted between 2004 and 2015 (n = 24,066 at baseline; 56% female, age 50+). We found a consistent CSC pattern in levels of cognitive functioning in later life. Older people with disadvantaged CSC had lower levels of cognitive functioning than those with more advantaged CSC. We also find that decline is almost 1.6 times faster in the most advantaged group compared with the most disadvantaged group. The faster decline for people with more advantaged CSC becomes less pronounced when we additionally control for adulthood socioeconomic conditions and current levels of physical activity, depressive symptoms, and partner status. Our findings are in line with the latency, pathway, and cumulative model and lend support to theories of cognitive reserve, stating that neuronal loss can no longer be repaired in people with more cognitive reserve once the underlying pathology is substantial and speed of decline is accelerated. Significance There is increasing evidence that socioeconomic conditions early in life have an impact on cognitive functioning in later life. Based on the large longitudinal sample from SHARE we find a clear pattern in cognitive functioning in old age, related to childhood socioeconomic conditions: Those from more affluent households show higher levels of fluid intelligence in old age and experience stronger decline over time in executive functions. The latter phenomenon is not often documented. Although modifications in cognitive functioning with aging are inevitable, life course socioeconomic circumstances impact the timing of this process. We conclude that the etiology of cognitive aging is the result of multiple social processes, defined by the socioeconomic conditions in childhood and all along the life course.
Social Science & Medicine (1982), Volume 223, pp 77-88; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.01.013
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Public Health Reports, Volume 133, pp 519-522; https://doi.org/10.1177/0033354918781568
Co-herencia, Volume 14, pp 159-180; https://doi.org/10.17230/co-herencia.14.27.7
En el presente artículo me concentraré en el estudio filosófico de los delirios, como un caso ejemplificador del vínculo que pueden establecer la filosofía de la mente y la psiquiatría. Frente a versiones radicalmente naturalistas, que proponen variantes reduccionistas o eliminativistas para la explicación de ciertos fenómenos mentales y sus variantes “anormales”, defenderé una versión moderada de la perspectiva naturalista. Al respecto, señalaré que retener algún grado de simpatía hacia el naturalismo en las investigaciones filosóficas sobre los delirios es necesario para desarrollar teorías sobre las creencias empíricamente informadas que no resulten contradictorias con los desarrollos actuales en psicología cognitiva y neurociencias. No obstante, afirmaré también que una perspectiva exclusivamente naturalista -tanto por parte de la filosofía como de la psiquiatría misma- es incapaz de dar cuenta del contexto normativo en donde juegan las creencias. Los criterios normativos, especialmente externos (sociales y pragmáticos) que se emplean para clasificar ciertas creencias como delirantes no resultan inteligibles bajo una explicación puramente natural. Por el contrario, para comprender las creencias delirantes qua delirantes, será preciso acercarnos a un abordaje híbrido que pueda contemplar las causas naturales del fenómeno así como su evaluación normativa.
The Behavior analyst, Volume 39, pp 243-258; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40614-016-0068-3
The developmental systems approach is a perspective that has been adopted by increasing numbers of developmental scientists since it emerged in the twentieth century. The overview presented in this paper makes clear that proponents of this approach and proponents of modern behavior analysis should be natural allies. Despite some distinctions between the two schools of thought, the essential ideas associated with each are compatible with the other; in particular, scientists in both camps work to analyze the provenance of behavior and recognize the central role that contextual factors play in behavioral expression.
Science and Engineering Ethics, Volume 22, pp 1627-1647; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-015-9731-4
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Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, Volume 31, pp 1093-1097; https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2016.1227859
Acta naturae, Volume 6, pp 66-75; https://doi.org/10.32607/20758251-2014-6-3-66-75
The review examines the new approaches in modern systems biology, in terms of their use for a deeper understanding of the physiological adaptation of a healthy human in extreme environments. Human physiology under extreme conditions of life, or environmental physiology, and systems biology are natural partners. The similarities and differences between the object and methods in systems biology, the OMICs (proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics) disciplines, and other related sciences have been studied. The latest data on environmental human physiology obtained using systems biology methods are discussed. The independent achievements of systems biology in studying the adaptation of a healthy human to physical activity, including human presence at high altitude, to the effects of hypoxia and oxidative stress have been noted. A reasonable conclusion is drawn that the application of the methods and approaches used in systems biology to study the molecular pattern of the adaptive mechanisms that develop in the human body during space flight can provide valuable fundamental knowledge and fill the picture of human metabolic pathways.
Sociological Theory, Volume 32, pp 208-227; https://doi.org/10.1177/0735275114551611
This article examines Shiao, Bode, Beyer, and Selvig’s (2012) arguments in their article “The Genomic Challenge to the Social Construction of Race” and finds that their claims are based on fundamentally flawed interpretations of current genetic research. We discuss current genomic and genetic knowledge about human biological variation to demonstrate why and how Shiao et al.’s recommendations for future sociological studies and social policy, based on their inadequate understanding of genomic methods and evidence, are similarly flawed and will lead sociology astray.