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, , Michael T. Feyder, Ashley C. Whiteman, Yue-Fang Chang, Luke C. Henry, Jordan F. Karp,
Translational Psychiatry, Volume 12, pp 1-10;

Patients with psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and visual hallucinations, may be at increased risk for adverse effects following deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for Parkinson’s disease, but there have been relatively few studies of associations between locations of chronic stimulation and neuropsychological outcomes. We sought to determine whether psychiatric history modulates associations between stimulation location within the subthalamic nucleus and postoperative affective and cognitive changes. We retrospectively identified 42 patients with Parkinson’s disease who received bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation and who completed both pre- and postoperative neuropsychological testing. Active stimulation contacts were localized in MNI space using Lead-DBS software. Linear discriminant analysis identified vectors maximizing variance in postoperative neuropsychological changes, and Pearson’s correlations were used to assess for linear relationships. Stimulation location was associated with postoperative change for only 3 of the 18 neuropsychological measures. Variation along the superioinferior (z) axis was most influential. Constraining the analysis to patients with a history of depression revealed 10 measures significantly associated with active contact location, primarily related to location along the anterioposterior (y) axis and with worse outcomes associated with more anterior stimulation. Analysis of patients with a history of anxiety revealed 5 measures with location-associated changes without a predominant axis. History of visual hallucinations was not associated with significant findings. Our results suggest that a history of depression may influence the relationship between active contact location and neuropsychological outcomes following subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. These patients may be more sensitive to off-target (nonmotor) stimulation.
, Ya-Nan Zhu, Suhao Qiu, , Chencheng Zhang, Bomin Sun, Xiaoqun Zhang,
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Volume 69, pp 2294-2304;

Objective: Interventional MRI (i-MRI) is crucial for MR image-guided therapy. Current image reconstruction methods for dynamic MR imaging are mostly retrospective that may not be suitable for real-time i-MRI. Therefore, an algorithm to reconstruct images without a temporal pattern as in dynamic imaging is needed for i-MRI. Methods: We proposed a low-rank and sparsity (LS) decomposition algorithm with framelet transform to reconstruct the interventional feature with a high temporal resolution. Different from the existing LS-based algorithms, the spatial sparsity of both the low-rank and sparsity components was used. We also used a primal dual fixed point (PDFP) method for optimization of the objective function to avoid solving sub-problems. Intervention experiments with gelatin and brain phantoms were carried out for validation. Results: The LS decomposition with framelet transform and PDFP could provide the best reconstruction performance compared with those without. Satisfying reconstruction results were obtained with only 10 radial spokes for a temporal resolution of 60 ms. Conclusion and Significance: The proposed method has the potential for i-MRI in many different application scenarios.
, Konstantin V. Slavin, Joshua M. Rosenow, Jerrold L. Vitek Md, Pepijn Munckhof
Published: 29 September 2021
by Wiley
Movement Disorders, Volume 36, pp 2763-2766;

Brett A. Campbell Ba, Hanbin Cho, Riley M. Faulhammer Ba, Olivia Hogue, Jenny Peih-Chir Tsai, M. Shazam Hussain, Andre G. Machado Md,
Neuromodulation: Technology At the Neural Interface, Volume 25, pp 804-816;

Objectives To characterize and compare the stability of cortical potentials evoked by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) across the naïve, parkinsonian, and pharmacologically treated parkinsonian states. To advance cortical potentials as possible biomarkers for DBS programming. Materials and Methods Serial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings were made more than nine months from a single non-human primate instrumented with bilateral ECoG grids spanning anterior parietal to prefrontal cortex. Cortical evoked potentials (CEPs) were generated through time-lock averaging of the ECoG recordings to DBS pulses delivered unilaterally in the STN region using a chronically implanted, six-contact, scaled DBS lead. Recordings were made across the naïve followed by mild and moderate parkinsonian conditions achieved by staged injections of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxin. In addition to characterizing the spatial distribution and stability of the response within each state, changes in the amplitude and latency of CEP components as well as in the frequency content were examined in relation to parkinsonian severity and dopamine replacement. Results In the naïve state, the STN DBS CEP presented as a multiphase response maximal over M1 cortex, with components attributable to physiological activity distinguishable from stimulus artifact as early as 0.45–0.75 msec poststimulation. When delivered using therapeutically effective parameters in the parkinsonian state, the CEP was highly stable across multiple recording sessions within each behavioral state. Across states, significant differences were present with respect to both the latency and amplitude of individual response components, with greater differences present for longer-latency components (all p < 0.05). Power spectral density analysis revealed a high-beta peak within the evoked response, with significant changes in power between disease states across multiple frequency bands. Conclusions Our findings underscore the spatiotemporal specificity and relative stability of the DBS-CEP associated with different disease states and with therapeutic benefit. DBS-CEP may be a viable biomarker for therapeutic programming.
, Jaysingh Singh, Kevin Reeves, Barbara Changizi, Steven Goetz, Lorenzo Rossi, Srivatsan Pallavaram, Stephen Carcieri, Noam Harel, Ammar Shaikhouni, et al.
Published: 22 July 2021
Frontiers in Neurology, Volume 12;

Over the last few years, while expanding its clinical indications from movement disorders to epilepsy and psychiatry, the field of deep brain stimulation (DBS) has seen significant innovations. Hardware developments have introduced directional leads to stimulate specific brain targets and sensing electrodes to determine optimal settings via feedback from local field potentials. In addition, variable-frequency stimulation and asynchronous high-frequency pulse trains have introduced new programming paradigms to efficiently desynchronize pathological neural circuitry and regulate dysfunctional brain networks not responsive to conventional settings. Overall, these innovations have provided clinicians with more anatomically accurate programming and closed-looped feedback to identify optimal strategies for neuromodulation. Simultaneously, software developments have simplified programming algorithms, introduced platforms for DBS remote management via telemedicine, and tools for estimating the volume of tissue activated within and outside the DBS targets. Finally, the surgical accuracy has improved thanks to intraoperative magnetic resonance or computerized tomography guidance, network-based imaging for DBS planning and targeting, and robotic-assisted surgery for ultra-accurate, millimetric lead placement. These technological and imaging advances have collectively optimized DBS outcomes and allowed “asleep” DBS procedures. Still, the short- and long-term outcomes of different implantable devices, surgical techniques, and asleep vs. awake procedures remain to be clarified. This expert review summarizes and critically discusses these recent innovations and their potential impact on the DBS field.
Michael Dinsmore, Lashmi Venkatraghavan
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, Volume 34, pp 563-568;

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a rapidly expanding surgical modality for the treatment of patients with movement disorders. Its ability to be adjusted, titrated, and optimized over time has given it a significant advantage over traditional more invasive surgical procedures. Therefore, the success and popularity of this procedure have led to the discovery of new indications and therapeutic targets as well as advances in surgical techniques. The aim of this review is to highlight the important updates in DBS surgery and to exam the anesthesiologist's role in providing optimal clinical management. New therapeutic indications have a significant implication on perioperative anesthesia management. In addition, new technologies like frameless stereotaxy and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging to guide electrode placement have altered the need for intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring and hence increased the use of general anesthesia. With an expanding number of patients undergoing DBS implantation, patients with preexisting DBS increasingly require anesthesia for unrelated surgery and the anesthesiologist must be aware of the considerations for perioperative management of these devices and potential complications. DBS will continue to grow and evolve requiring adaptation and modification to the anesthetic management of these patients.
, Nova B. Thani, Omar K. Bangash, Christopher R.P. Lind
Published: 24 May 2021
World Neurosurgery, Volume 151;

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ian H. Kratter, Jordan F. Karp, Yue-Fang Chang, Ashley C. Whiteman, Michael T. Feyder, Ahmed Jorge, R. Mark Richardson, Luke C. Henry
The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Volume 33, pp 144-151;

Objective: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although most patients benefit with minimal cognitive side effects, cognitive decline is a risk, and there is little available evidence to guide preoperative risk assessment. Visual illusions or visual hallucinations (VHs) and impulse-control behaviors (ICBs) are relatively common complications of PD and its treatment and may be a marker of more advanced disease, but their relationship with postoperative cognition has not been established. The authors aimed to determine whether any preoperative history of VHs or ICBs is associated with cognitive change after DBS. Methods: Retrospective chart review identified 54 patients with PD who received DBS of the subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus internus and who completed both pre- and postoperative neuropsychological testing. Linear regression models were used to assess whether any preoperative history of VHs or ICBs was associated with changes in attention, executive function, language, memory, or visuospatial cognitive domains while controlling for surgical target and duration between evaluations. Results: The investigators found that a history of VHs was associated with declines in attention (b=−4.04, p=0.041) and executive function (b=−4.24, p=0.021). A history of ICBs was not associated with any significant changes. Conclusions: These results suggest that a history of VHs may increase risk of cognitive decline after DBS; thus, specific preoperative counseling and targeted remediation strategies for these patients may be indicated. In contrast, a history of ICBs does not appear to be associated with increased cognitive risk.
Fadi Almahariq, , Vladimira Vuletić, Domagoj Dlaka, Darko Orešković, Petar Marčinković, , Darko Chudy
Journal of Neurological Surgery Part A: Central European Neurosurgery, Volume 82, pp 518-525;

Introduction In 33 consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing awake deep brain stimulation (DBS) without microelectrode recording (MER), we assessed and validated the precision and accuracy of direct targeting of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and stereotactic computed tomography (CT) image fusion combined with immediate postoperative stereotactic CT and postoperative MRI, and we report on the side effects and clinical results up to 6 months' follow-up. Materials and Methods Preoperative nonstereotactic MRI and stereotactic CT images were merged and used for planning the trajectory and final lead position. Immediate postoperative stereotactic CT and postoperative nonstereotactic MRI provided the validation of the final electrode position. Changes in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III (UPDRS III) scores and the levodopa equivalent daily doses (LEDD) and appearance of adverse side effects were assessed. Results The mean Euclidian distance (ED) error between the planned position and the final position of the lead in the left STN was 1.69 ± 0.82 mm and that in the right STN was 2.12 ± 1.00. The individual differences between planned and final position in each of the three coordinates were less than 2 mm. The UPDRS III scores improved by 75% and LEDD decreased by 45%. Few patients experienced complications, such as postoperative infection (n = 1), or unwanted side effects, such as emotional instability (n = 1). Conclusion Our results confirm that direct targeting of an STN on stereotactic CT merged with MRI could be a valid method for placement the DBS electrode. The magnitude of our targeting error is comparable with the reported errors when using MER and other direct targeting approaches.
Published: 21 September 2020
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 9;

Bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established treatment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Traditionally, STN DBS for PD is performed by using microelectrode recording (MER) and/or intraoperative macrostimulation under local anesthesia (LA). However, many patients cannot tolerate the long operation time under LA without medication. In addition, it cannot be even be performed on PD patients with poor physical and neurological condition. Recently, it has been reported that STN DBS under general anesthesia (GA) can be successfully performed due to the feasible MER under GA, as well as the technical advancement in direct targeting and intraoperative imaging. The authors reviewed the previously published literature on STN DBS under GA using intraoperative imaging and MER, focused on discussing the technique, clinical outcome, and the complication, as well as introducing our single-center experience. Based on the reports of previously published studies and ours, GA did not interfere with the MER signal from STN. STN DBS under GA without intraoperative stimulation shows similar or better clinical outcome without any additional complication compared to STN DBS under LA. Long-term follow-up with a large number of the patients would be necessary to validate the safety and efficacy of STN DBS under GA.
, , , Pamala Courtney, Min Jae Kim, Ankur A. Butala, William S. Anderson
Published: 10 July 2020
British Journal of Neurosurgery, Volume 35, pp 301-305;

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead revision due to suboptimal therapy is common but there is no standardised protocol. We describe a novel technique using iMRI to perform concurrent new Globus Pallidus Internus (GPi) DBS lead implantation and old lead removal in a dystonia patient. Case-description: A 60-year-old woman with medication and neurotoxin-refractory isolated cervical dystonia underwent awake bilateral GPi DBS surgery with MER-guided lead implantation. She initially had a favourable response but later reported suboptimal benefit despite reprogramming. MRI demonstrated suboptimal lead placement and MRI-guided revision surgery under general anesthesia was planned. The goal was to place new leads superior and medial to the existing leads. Using a 1.5 T iMRI and the ClearPoint® NeuroNavigation system, new leads were placed through the existing burr holes, into the new targets with radial errors < 0.08mm bilaterally without crossing the old leads. The old leads were then removed and the new leads connected to the existing pulse generator. The patient tolerated the procedure well and had improved side-effect profile at all contacts at 1-month follow-up. Non-staged iMRI-guided DBS revision surgery under general anesthesia is technically feasible and is an alternative strategy to a staged iMRI-guided revision surgery or an awake MER-guided revision surgery in select patients.
, Christina Dastolfo-Hromack, Witold J Lipski, Ian H Kratter, Libby J Smith, Jackie L Gartner-Schmidt,
Published: 21 March 2020
Journal: Neurosurgery
Neurosurgery, Volume 87, pp 788-795;

Despite the impact of Parkinson disease (PD) on speech communication, there is no consensus regarding the effect of lead location on voice-related outcomes in subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS). To determine the relationship of stimulation location to changes in cepstral analyses of voice following STN DBS. Speech pathology evaluations were obtained from 14 PD subjects, before and after STN DBS, including audio-perceptual voice ratings (overall severity, loudness, hoarseness changes), measured indices of dysphonia (cepstral peak prominence and cepstral spectral index of dysphonia), and phonatory aerodynamics. The contact locations used for active stimulation at the time of postoperative voice evaluations were determined and assessed in relation to voice outcomes. Voice outcomes remained relatively unchanged on average. Stimulation locations in the anterior portion of the sensorimotor region of the left STN, however, were associated with improvements in voice severity scores, cepstral spectral index of dysphonia, shortness of breath, and phonatory airflow during connected speech. Posterior locations were associated with worsening of these outcomes. Variation in the medial-lateral or dorsal-ventral position on the left, and in any direction on the right, did not correlate with any voice outcome. Active contact placement within the anterior sensorimotor STN was associated with improved perceptual and acoustic-aerodynamic voice-related outcomes. These findings suggest an STN topography for improving airflow for speech, in turn improving how PD patients' voices sound.
, , James C Sweat, Donald J Crammond,
Operative Neurosurgery, Volume 19, pp 444-452;

Robotic-assisted stereotaxy has been increasingly adopted for lead implantation in stereoelectroencephalography based on its efficiency, accuracy, and precision. Despite initially being developed for use in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery, adoption for this indication has not been widespread. To describe a recent robotic-assisted stereotaxy experience and workflow for DBS lead implantation in awake patients with and without microelectrode recording (MER), including considerations for intraoperative research using electrocorticography (ECoG). A retrospective review of 20 consecutive patients who underwent simultaneous bilateral DBS lead implantation using robotic-assisted stereotaxy was performed. Radial error was determined by comparing the preoperative target with the DBS lead position in the targeting plane on postoperative computed tomography. Information regarding any postoperative complications was obtained by chart review. A novel method for robot coregistration was developed. We describe a standard workflow that allows for MER and/or ECoG research, and a streamlined workflow for cases in which MER is not required. The overall radial error for lead placement across all 20 patients was 1.14 ± 0.11 mm. A significant difference (P = .006) existed between the radial error of the first 10 patients (1.46 ± 0.19 mm) as compared with the second 10 patients (0.86 ± 0.09 mm). No complications were encountered. Robotic-assisted stereotaxy has the potential to increase precision and reduce human error, compared to traditional frame-based DBS surgery, without negatively impacting patient safety or the ability to perform awake neurophysiology research.
Jun Wang, Francisco A. Ponce, Jun Tao, Hong-Mei Yu, Ji-Yuan Liu, Yun-Jie Wang, Guo-Ming Luan,
Published: 12 December 2019
Neuromodulation: Technology At the Neural Interface, Volume 23, pp 444-450;

Objectives Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been applied to clinic for approximately 30 years. The goal of this review is to explore the similarities and differences between “awake” and “asleep” DBS techniques. Methods A comprehensive literature review was carried out to identify relevant studies and review articles describing applications of “awake” or “asleep” DBS for Parkinson's disease. The surgical procedures, clinical outcomes, costs and complications of each technique were compared in detail through literature review. Results The surgical procedures of awake and asleep DBS surgeries rely upon different methods for verification of intended target acquisition. The existing research results demonstrated that the stereotactic targeting accuracy of lead placement obtained by either method is reliable. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes, costs, or complications between the two techniques. Conclusion The surgical and clinical outcomes of asleep DBS for PD are comparable to those of awake DBS.
Irene E. Harmsen, Gavin J.B. Elias, Michelle E. Beyn, , Aditya Pancholi, Jürgen Germann, Alireza Mansouri, Christopher S. Lozano,
Published: 22 November 2019
Brain Stimulation, Volume 13, pp 378-385;

• 384 clinical trials on deep brain stimulation span 28 disorders across 26 brain targets. • Most trials are US-based, pertain to movement disorders, and are non-industry-sponsored. • 1/3 of studies focus on imaging or electrophysiological changes associated with DBS.
Jonathan Sterman, Alain Cunqueiro, R. Joshua Dym, Michael Spektor, Michael L. Lipton, Margarita V. Revzin, Meir H. Scheinfeld
Radiographics, Volume 39, pp 1056-1074;

Electronic stimulation devices are implanted in various locations in the body to decrease pain, modulate nerve function, or stimulate various end organs. The authors describe these devices using a craniocaudal approach, first describing deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices and ending with sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) devices. The radiology-relevant background information for each device and its imaging appearance are also described. These devices have a common design theme and include the following components: (a) a pulse generator that houses the battery and control electronics, (b) an insulated lead or wire that conveys signals to the last component, which is (c) an electrode that contacts the end organ and senses and/or acts on the end organ. DBS electrodes are inserted into various deep gray nuclei, most commonly to treat the symptoms of movement disorders. Occipital, trigeminal, and spinal nerve stimulation devices are used as second-line therapy to control craniofacial or back pain. For cardiac devices, the authors describe two newer devices, the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator and the leadless pacemaker, both of which avoid complications related to having leads threaded through the venous system. Diaphragmatic stimulation devices stimulate the phrenic nerve to restore diaphragmatic movement. Gastric electrical stimulation devices act on various parts of the stomach for the treatment of gastroparesis or obesity. Finally, SNS devices are used to modulate urinary and defecatory functions. Common complications diagnosed at imaging include infection, hematoma, lead migration, and lead breakage. Understanding the components, normal function, and normal imaging appearance of each device allows the radiologist to identify complications. ©RSNA, 2019
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