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(searched for: doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000001595)
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Published: 16 August 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to compare bilateral propulsive forces and coordination while exercising at static and dynamic conditions in the water. A total of 27 older women (age: 65.1 ± 6.7 years old) performed the following exercises: (i) horizontal upper-limbs adduction (HA; static condition) and (ii) rocking horse (RH; dynamic condition) through an incremental protocol with music cadences from 105 up to 150 b·min−1. The duration of each trial was set at 30 second (sec). Propulsive peak force (in Newton, N) of dominant (PFD) and nondominant (PFND) upper limbs was retrieved using hand sensors coupled to a differential pressure system. Significant differences in force production were found between static and dynamic exercises at higher cadences (120, 135, and 150 b·min−1). The static condition elicited higher bilateral propulsive forces and a more symmetric pattern. The in-water static exercise with bilateral action from the upper limbs proved to be the most appropriate strategy for older women to work strength and to reduce asymmetries.
, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Artur Avelino Birk Preissler, Henrique Bianchi Oliveira, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Bruna Machado Barroso, Vitória De Mello Bones Da Rocha, Andressa Freitas Correia, Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel
Published: 14 October 2020
Experimental Gerontology, Volume 142; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111103

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Juan C Colado, Roxana M Brasil
Published: 19 November 2019
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, Volume 18, pp 695-707

Abstract:
Aquatic cycling is a program of physical exercises performed with immersed stationary bikes. Few studies have provided evidence about the intensity control during its practice. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to examine the concurrent and construct validity of a new scale for rating perceived exertion (RPE) during aquatic cycling in young men. Thirty physically active, healthy young men performed a load-incremented aquatic cycle ergometer protocol. Concurrent validity was established by correlating the Aquatic Cycling Scale (ACS) with oxygen uptake, pulmonary ventilation (VE), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate concentration (BL) responses to the maximal load-incremental test. Construct validity was established by correlating RPE derived from the Aquatic Cycling Scale (0-10) from the Borg Scale (6-20). RPE-overall, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), oxygen uptake indexed to body weight (VO2), VE, HR, and BL were measured during each exercise stage. The range of exercise responses across the incremental test were VO2max = 1.07-3.55 L/min, VO2 = 14.26-46.89 ml/Kg/min, VE = 23.17-138.57 L/min, HR = 99.54-173.31 beats/min, BL= 1.18-11.63 mM, ACS RPE-overall = 1.11-9.33. Correlation/regression analyses showed ACS RPE as a positive linear function of VO2max (r = 0.78; p < 0.05), VO2 (r = 0.87; p < 0.05), VE (r = 0.86; p < 0.05), HR (r = 0.77; p < 0.05), and BL (r = 0.85; p < 0.05). RPE-ACS distributed as a positive linear function of the RPE-Borg Scale (r = 0.97; p < 0.05). ANOVA indicated that an incremental pedalling cadence of 15 revolutions per minute (rpm) provoked significant differences (p < 0.05) regarding previous stages in the majority of the variables analysed. The Aquatic Cycling Scale is an appropriate tool for monitoring exertion intensity during aquatic cycling in fit men. A brief increment in aquatic pedalling cadence of 15 rpm increases the intensity of the aquatic pedalling exercise.
, Ana Carolina Kanitz, Thais Reichert, Alexandre Konig Garcia Prado, Leandro Coconcelli, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Laura Frances Pereira, Marcos Paulo Bienert Masiero, Andressa Pellegrini Meinerz, Matheus Oliveira Conceição, et al.
Published: 1 July 2018
Experimental Gerontology, Volume 108, pp 231-239; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2018.04.022

Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of water-based aerobic training and water-based resistance training on muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in older women. Sixty-nine individuals were randomized into the following three groups: the water-based aerobic training (WA, n = 23) group, the water-based resistance training (WR, n = 23) group, and the control group (CG, n = 23). Participants were trained two times per week for 10 weeks. The trainings presented a linear periodization with an increase in the volume-intensity relation. Maximal dynamic muscular strength and the cardiorespiratory fitness were evaluated before the start of training and after 10 weeks of training. Only the WA group showed an increase in maximal oxygen consumption (13.8%) and oxygen consumption at the second ventilatory threshold (16.4%). Maximal dynamic strength of knee extensors improved in 10.6% of WA, 8.0% of WR, and 4.7% of CG participants, without any difference between the groups. Maximal dynamic strength of knee flexors was increased in 14.1% of WA and in 17.7% of WR participants; however, it remains unchanged in CG participants. No differences were observed in resting heart rate, peak heart rate, heart rate at the second ventilatory threshold and maximal dynamic strength of shoulder horizontal flexors. It was concluded that WA seems to be more efficient for improvement in cardiorespiratory responses, and both WA and WR were efficient for development of maximal dynamic strength of knee flexion and extension.
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