Refine Search

New Search

Results: 6

(searched for: pmid:16350047)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 1
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
J G Leahy, R R Colwell
Published: 1 September 1990
Microbiological reviews, Volume 54, pp 305-315

Abstract:
The ecology of hydrocarbon degradation by microbial populations in the natural environment is reviewed, emphasizing the physical, chemical, and biological factors that contribute to the biodegradation of petroleum and individual hydrocarbons. Rates of biodegradation depend greatly on the composition, state, and concentration of the oil or hydrocarbons, with dispersion and emulsification enhancing rates in aquatic systems and absorption by soil particulates being the key feature of terrestrial ecosystems. Temperature and oxygen and nutrient concentrations are important variables in both types of environments. Salinity and pressure may also affect biodegradation rates in some aquatic environments, and moisture and pH may limit biodegradation in soils. Hydrocarbons are degraded primarily by bacteria and fungi. Adaptation by prior exposure of microbial communities to hydrocarbons increases hydrocarbon degradation rates. Adaptation is brought about by selective enrichment of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and amplification of the pool of hydrocarbon-catabolizing genes. The latter phenomenon can now be monitored through the use of DNA probes. Increases in plasmid frequency may also be associated with genetic adaptation. Seeding to accelerate rates of biodegradation has been shown to be effective in some cases, particularly when used under controlled conditions, such as in fermentors or chemostats.
Deborah Dean-Ross, Aaron L. Mills
Published: 1 August 1989
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 55, pp 2002-2009

Abstract:
The response of the planktonic, sediment, and epilithic bacterial communities to increasing concentrations of heavy metals was determined in a polluted river. None of the communities demonstrated a pollution-related effect on bacterial numbers (viable and total), heterotrophic activity, resistance to Pb or Cu, or species diversity as determined by either the Shannon-Wiener diversity index or rarefaction. The lack of correlation between concentrations of heavy metals and resistance in the sediment bacterial community was investigated and found to be due at least in part to the high pH of the river water and the resultant reduction in heavy metal toxicity. The three different communities demonstrated characteristic profiles based on the relative abundances of bacterial strains grouped according to functional similarities.
Frederick H. Weber, Fred A. Rosenberg
Published: 1 September 1984
Microbial Ecology, Volume 10, pp 257-269; https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02010939

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Aaron L. Mills, Raymond A. Wassel
Published: 1 September 1980
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 40, pp 578-586

Abstract:
A useful measure of diversity was calculated for microbial communities collected from lake water and sediment samples using the Shannon index (H′) and rarefaction [E(S)]. Isolates were clustered by a numerical taxonomy approach in which limited (<20) tests were used so that the groups obtained represented a level of resolution other than species. The numerical value of diversity for each sample was affected by the number of tests used; however, the relative diversity compared among several sampling locations was the same whether 11 or 19 characters were examined. The number of isolates (i.e., sample size) strongly influenced the value of H′ so that unequal sized samples could not be compared. Rarefaction accounts for differences in sample size inherently so that such comparisons are made simple. Due to the type of sampling carried out by microbiologists, H′ is estimated and not determined and therefore requires a statement of error associated with it. Failure to report error provided potentially misleading results. Calculation of the variance of H′ is not a simple matter and may be impossible when handling a large number of samples. With rarefaction, the variance of E(S) is readily determined, facilitating the comparison of many samples.
Steve K. Alexander, John R. Schwarz
Published: 1 August 1980
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 40, pp 341-345

Abstract:
Two crude oils, South Louisiana and Kuwait, were examined for their impact on glucose utilization by bacterial populations from the Gulf of Mexico. The uptake and mineralization of [U-14C]glucose was assayed after a 4- to 23-h exposure to various concentrations of added crude oil (0, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1% [vol/vol]). The effects of oil were determined in a total of 15 sediment and 13 water samples collected from offshore, open-bay, and salt marsh environments. The utilization of glucose by bacterial populations usually was not affected by added oil; in 10 sediment and 11 water samples, oil had no significant effect on either glucose uptake or mineralization. Stimulation by oil was recorded in four sediment samples. Oil inhibition occurred in one sediment and two water samples, but only in the presence of the highest concentration of added oil, i.e., 0.1%. Our data suggest that short-term exposure to either South Louisiana or Kuwait crude oil, even at 0.1%, usually has no toxic effect on glucose utilization by marine bacterial populations.
Page of 1
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top