(searched for: pmid:1108792)
Published: 1 May 1991
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 57, pp 1546-1553
3-Chlorobenzoate (3Cba)-degrading bacteria were isolated from the waters and sediments of flowthrough mesocosms dosed with various concentrations of 3Cba and inoculated with a 3Cba-degrading Alcaligenes sp., strain BR60. Bacteria capable of 3Cba degradation which were distinct from BR60 were isolated. They carried pBRC60, a plasmid introduced with Alcaligenes sp. strain BR60 that carries a transposable element (Tn5271) encoding 3Cba degradation. The isolates expressed these genes in different ways. The majority of pBRC60 recipients were motile, yellow-pigmented, gram-negative rods related to the group III pseudomonads and to BR60 by substrate utilization pattern. They were capable of complete 3Cba degradation at both millimolar and micromolar concentrations. Two isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens PR24B(pBRC60) and Pseudomonas sp. strain PR120(pBRC60), are more distantly related to BR60 and both produced chlorocatechol when exposed to 3Cba at millimolar concentrations in the presence of yeast extract. These species showed poor growth in liquid 3Cba minimal medium but could degrade 3Cba in continuous cultures dosed with micromolar levels of the chemical. Laboratory matings confirm that pBRC60 can transfer from BR60 to species in both the beta and gamma subgroups of the proteobacteria and that 3Cba gene expression is variable between species. Selection pressures acting on pBRC60 recipients are discussed.
Published: 1 July 1985
Infection and Immunity, Volume 49, pp 132-40
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Published: 1 December 1984
Journal of Bacteriology, Volume 160, pp 1003-1009
Pseudomonas putida PpF1 degraded toluene via a dihydrodiol pathway to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The initial reaction was catalyzed by a multicomponent enzyme, toluene dioxygenase, which oxidized toluene to (+)-cis-1(S),2(R)-dihydroxy-3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene (cis-toluene dihydrodiol). The enzyme consisted of three protein components: NADH-ferredoxintol oxidoreductase (reductasetol), ferredoxintol, and a terminal oxygenase which is an iron-sulfur protein (ISPtol). Mutants blocked in each of these components were isolated after mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine. Mutants occurred as colony morphology variants when grown in the presence of toluene on indicator plates containing agar, mineral salts, a growth-supporting nutrient (arginine), 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT). Under these conditions, wild-type colonies appeared large and red as a result of TTC reduction. Colonies of reductasetol mutants were white or white with a light blue center, ferredoxintol strains were light blue with a dark blue center, and strains that lacked ISPtol gave dark blue colonies. Blue color differences in the mutant colonies were due to variations in the extent of NBT reduction. Strains lacking all three components appeared white. Toluene dioxygenase mutants were characterized by assaying toluene dioxygenase activity in crude cell extracts which were complemented with purified preparations of each protein component. Between 40 and 60% of the putative mutants selected from the NBT-TTC indicator plates were unable to grow with toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy. This method should prove extremely useful in isolating mutants in other multicomponent oxygenase enzyme systems.
Published: 1 April 1982
Infection and Immunity, Volume 36, pp 17-23
A virulent isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, which had been obtained from eight sequential intraperitoneal infections in mice compromised with iron and methotrexate, expressed greater lethality than the avirulent parent strain when both strains were injected into mice treated with iron. The present study demonstrates that pyochelin, a siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa, also increases the lethality of the virulent bacteria but not of the avirulent bacteria. Analysis of the growth and clearance of both virulent and avirulent strains in mice revealed that pyochelin increased the growth and lethality of virulent bacteria but only increased the survival of the avirulent bacteria. A streptomycin-dependent mutant of strain PAO1 (strd1) was used to demonstrate that pyochelin did not affect the clearance activity of mice. This strongly suggests that the effects of pyochelin in stimulating the persistence of avirulent bacteria and in increasing the lethality of virulent bacteria are due solely to the promotion of bacterial growth. Since the virulent bacteria were equivalent to the avirulent bacteria in utilizing pyochelin during in vitro growth in the presence of transferrin, it appears that the stimulation of growth by pyochelin allows the expression of additional virulence properties by the virulent bacteria.
Published: 1 June 1981
Journal of Bacteriology, Volume 146, pp 920-927
Significant selective enrichments of mutants defective in catabolic pathways can be achieved by exposure of pseudomonad cells to halogenated analogs of growth substrates. Between 3 and 95% of viable clones rescued from such enrichments have been defective in specific catabolic pathways. This has been demonstrated for eight different catabolic pathways for aromatic compounds in pseudomonads, in which the genes are located on plasmids or on the chromosome. The plasmid-encoded pathways studied include those for the catabolism of p-cymene (CYM), m- and p-xylenes (TOL), naphthalene (NAH), salicylate (SAL), and 4-methylphthalate (MOP), and the chromosome-encoded pathways include those for p-hydroxybenzoate, monohydric phenols, and p-anisate utilization. The recalcitrance of halogenated compounds may, in part, be explained by these observations, which introduce an as yet not widely recognized factor in assessment of biodegradability of halogenated compounds and their effects on the transformation of the natural substrates.
Published: 1 August 1980
Journal of Bacteriology, Volume 143, pp 816-24
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Published: 1 July 1980
Journal of Bacteriology, Volume 143, pp 59-69
Study of the reaction sequence by which Pseudomonas alcaligenes (P25X1) and derived mutants degrade m-cresol, 2,5-xylenol, and their catabolites has provided indirect evidence for the existence of two or more isofunctional enzymes at three different steps. Maleylpyruvate hydrolase activity appears to reside in two different proteins with different specificity ranges, one of which (MPH1) is expressed constitutively; the other (MPH11) is strictly inducible. Two gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase activities were found, one of which is constitutively expressed and possesses a broader specificity range than the other, which is inducible. From oxidation studies with intact cells, there appear to be two activities responsible for the 6-hydroxylation of 3-hydroxybenzoate, and again a broadly specific activity is present regardless of growth conditions; the other is inducible by 3-hydroxybenzoate. Three other enzyme activities are also detected in uninduced cells, viz., xylenol methylhydroxylase, benzylalcohol dehydrogenase, and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase. All apparently possess broad specificity. Fumarylpyruvate hydrolase was also detected but only in cells grown with m-cresol, 3-hydroxybenzoate, or gentisate. Mutants, derived either spontaneously or after treatment with mitomycin C, are described, certain of which have lost the ability to grow with m-cresol and 2,5-xylenol and some of which have also lost the ability to form the constitutive xylenol methylhydroxylase, benzylalcohol dehydrogenase, benzaldehyde dehydrogenase, 3-hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase, and gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. Such mutants, however, retain ability to synthesize inducibly a second 3-hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase and gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, as well as maleylpyruvate hydrolase (MPH11) and fumarylpyruvate hydrolase; MPH1 was still synthesized. These findings suggest the presence of a plasmid for 2,5-xylenol degradation which codes for synthesis of early degradative enzymes. Other enzymes, such as the second 3-hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase, gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, maleylpyruvate hydrolase (MPH1 and MPH11), and fumarylpyruvate hydrolase, appear to be chromosomally encoded and, with the exception of MPH1, strictly inducible.