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(searched for: doi:10.4236/detection.2016.43008)
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Wei-Hsiang Huang, Chao-Min Huang, Ting-Chien Chen, Yung-Yu Liu, Chih-Chung Lin,
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, Volume 57, pp 737-745; https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2022.2105630

Abstract:
This study determined the activity concentrations and corresponding transfer factors (TF) of 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th in three tobacco components (root, stem, and leaf). The radiation hazard index parameters were assessed for the tobacco leaf. The activity concentrations in the soil were 589–762, 32–43, and 49–59 Bq kg-dw−1 (dry weight) for 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th, respectively. The average activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th were 447, 5.41 and 5.69 Bq/kg-dw for the root, 670, 9.64 and 7.61 Bq kg-dw−1 for the stem, and 793, 6.79 and 6.15 Bq kg-dw−1 for the leaf, respectively. The TF values were 0.42–1.42, 0.10–0.49 and 0.06–0.23 for 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th, respectively. The stem and leaf 40K TF values were significantly higher than the root values. The stem 226Ra TF values were significantly higher than the root values. The 226Ra and 232Th activity concentrations and TFs of tobacco components had a significant positive correlation. Based on the activity concentrations of the tobacco leaves, the annual inhalation effective dose to the lungs for an adult smoker was 0.32–0.81 mSv y−1 (average 0.60 mSv y−1). The Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) caused by smoking was an average of 2.39 × 10−3.
Nada Farhan Kadhim, , Hassan Ali Hassan,
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319.2021.1901897

Abstract:
The aim of present work is measuring the natural radioactivity of uranium-238, thorium-232 and potassium-40 in some spice samples that widely use in Iraq. Based on these measurements, the corresponding radiological hazardous parameters were evaluated. Ten types of spices retailed throughout Iraq were tested. Gamma spectrometry NaI (Tl) reagent was used for the radiometric assessment. The average activity concentration values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K ranged from 0.43–1.7, 0.16–0.67 and 18.7–220.4 Bq kg−1, respectively. The annual external effective doses due to exposure for each radionuclide (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in these spices were ranged from 14.7 μSv (black pepper) to 110.4 μSv (thyme), 11.9 μSv (black pepper) to 106.3 μSv (cumin) and 16.7 μSv (black pepper) to 181 μSv (majoram), respectively. The annual effective ingestion of 226Ra varied from 0.48 μSv y−1in cubeb to 0.12 μSv y−1 in black pepper. The dose from the ingestion of 40K in all samples can be considered low when compared to UNSCEAR dose level (170 μSv y−1). The results show that, these types of spices do not present any serious hazard and are considered radiologically safe for human consumption.
Ihsan Ullah Khan, , Elfed Lewis
Published: 1 February 2020
Journal of Food Protection, Volume 83, pp 377-382; https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028x.jfp-19-403

Abstract:
Wheat flour is a dietary staple of Pakistani population. This study is mainly focused on the measurement of radioactivity concentration due to naturally occurring radioactive nuclides, uranium-238, thorium-232, potassium-40, and the corresponding hazardous radiological parameters, radium equivalent dose (Raeq), annual effective dose, internal hazard index (Hint), and ingestion effective activity \(\def\upalpha{\unicode[Times]{x3B1}}\)\(\def\upbeta{\unicode[Times]{x3B2}}\)\(\def\upgamma{\unicode[Times]{x3B3}}\)\(\def\updelta{\unicode[Times]{x3B4}}\)\(\def\upvarepsilon{\unicode[Times]{x3B5}}\)\(\def\upzeta{\unicode[Times]{x3B6}}\)\(\def\upeta{\unicode[Times]{x3B7}}\)\(\def\uptheta{\unicode[Times]{x3B8}}\)\(\def\upiota{\unicode[Times]{x3B9}}\)\(\def\upkappa{\unicode[Times]{x3BA}}\)\(\def\uplambda{\unicode[Times]{x3BB}}\)\(\def\upmu{\unicode[Times]{x3BC}}\)\(\def\upnu{\unicode[Times]{x3BD}}\)\(\def\upxi{\unicode[Times]{x3BE}}\)\(\def\upomicron{\unicode[Times]{x3BF}}\)\(\def\uppi{\unicode[Times]{x3C0}}\)\(\def\uprho{\unicode[Times]{x3C1}}\)\(\def\upsigma{\unicode[Times]{x3C3}}\)\(\def\uptau{\unicode[Times]{x3C4}}\)\(\def\upupsilon{\unicode[Times]{x3C5}}\)\(\def\upphi{\unicode[Times]{x3C6}}\)\(\def\upchi{\unicode[Times]{x3C7}}\)\(\def\uppsy{\unicode[Times]{x3C8}}\)\(\def\upomega{\unicode[Times]{x3C9}}\)\(\def\bialpha{\boldsymbol{\alpha}}\)\(\def\bibeta{\boldsymbol{\beta}}\)\(\def\bigamma{\boldsymbol{\gamma}}\)\(\def\bidelta{\boldsymbol{\delta}}\)\(\def\bivarepsilon{\boldsymbol{\varepsilon}}\)\(\def\bizeta{\boldsymbol{\zeta}}\)\(\def\bieta{\boldsymbol{\eta}}\)\(\def\bitheta{\boldsymbol{\theta}}\)\(\def\biiota{\\boldsymbol{\iota}}\)\(\def\bikappa{\boldsymbol{\kappa}}\)\(\def\bilambda{\boldsymbol{\lambda}}\)\(\def\\bimu{\boldsymbol{\mu}}\)\(\def\binu{\boldsymbol{\nu}}\)\(\def\bixi{\boldsymbol{\xi}}\)\(\def\biomicron{\boldsymbol{\micron}}\)\(\def\bipi{\boldsymbol{\pi}}\)\(\def\birho{\boldsymbol{\rho}}\)\(\def\bisigma{\boldsymbol{\sigma}}\)\(\def\bitau{\boldsymbol{\\tau}}\)\(\def\biupsilon{\boldsymbol{\upsilon}}\)\(\def\biphi{\boldsymbol{\phi}}\)\(\def\bichi{\boldsymbol{\chi}}\)\(\def\bipsy{\boldsymbol{\psy}}\)\(\def\biomega{\boldsymbol{\omega}}\)\(\def\bupalpha{\bf{\alpha}}\)\(\def\bupbeta{\bf{\beta}}\)\(\def\bupgamma{\bf{\gamma}}\)\(\def\bupdelta{\bf{\delta}}\)\(\def\bupvarepsilon{\bf{\varepsilon}}\)\(\def\bupzeta{\bf{\zeta}}\)\(\def\bupeta{\bf{\eta}}\)\(\def\buptheta{\bf{\theta}}\)\(\def\bupiota{\bf{\iota}}\)\(\def\bupkappa{\bf{\kappa}}\)\(\def\\buplambda{\bf{\lambda}}\)\(\def\bupmu{\bf{\mu}}\)\(\def\bupnu{\bf{\nu}}\)\(\def\bupxi{\bf{\xi}}\)\(\def\bupomicron{\bf{\micron}}\)\(\def\buppi{\bf{\pi}}\)\(\def\buprho{\bf{\rho}}\)\(\def\bupsigma{\bf{\sigma}}\)\(\def\buptau{\bf{\tau}}\)\(\def\bupupsilon{\bf{\upsilon}}\)\(\def\bupphi{\bf{\phi}}\)\(\def\bupchi{\bf{\chi}}\)\(\def\buppsy{\bf{\psy}}\)\(\def\bupomega{\bf{\omega}}\)\(\def\bGamma{\bf{\Gamma}}\)\(\def\bDelta{\bf{\Delta}}\)\(\def\bTheta{\bf{\Theta}}\)\(\def\bLambda{\bf{\Lambda}}\)\(\def\bXi{\bf{\Xi}}\)\(\def\bPi{\bf{\Pi}}\)\(\def\bSigma{\bf{\Sigma}}\)\(\def\bPhi{\bf{\Phi}}\)\(\def\bPsi{\bf{\Psi}}\)\(\def\bOmega{\bf{\Omega}}\)\(\left( {{I_{o,x}}} \right)\) in 12 local brands of wheat flour retailed throughout Pakistan. The radiometric assessment was performed by using a high-purity germanium detector. The specific activities (means ± standard deviations) of uranium-238, thorium-232, and potassium-40 were found to be 5.7 ± 0.41, 1.9 ± 0.02, and 132.4 ± 0.82 Bq/kg, respectively. The mean values of the corresponding radiometric variables, Raeq, Hint, and Io,x (sum), were also found to be 18.651 Bq/kg, 0.313 mSv/year, and 0.213 mSv/year, respectively. The total mean annual effective dose due to the presence of the aforementioned radionuclides in the collected samples was found to be 213.1 μSv/year, which is less than 1.00 mSv/year that is recommended by the World Health Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency. Thus, the natural radioactivity mass concentrations and the corresponding radiological variables were found to be below the recommended specific values and have no health risks for consumers. Background radioactivity levels were assessed in wheat flour brands retailed throughout Pakistan. Assessment of health hazards were conducted for radioactive content in local brands of wheat flour. Radiological impact on general public's health due to consumption of wheat flour was studied.
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