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(searched for: doi:10.1080/07900627.2016.1142862)
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, Pitchaya Anantawong, Naree Intharawichian
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Volume 192, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08350-x

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Fumihiko Ogata, Chalermpong Saenjum, Eri Nagahashi, Yuhei Kobayashi, Takehiro Nakamura,
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Volume 68, pp 546-551; https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c20-00023

Abstract:
The water quality in a river (water environment) is very important for human health and aquatic organisms. In 2015, the highly regarded Water Resources Management Strategy of Thailand was announced by The Ministry of Industry in Thailand. In this study, the water quality of the Ping river in Northern Thailand, including Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, was focused on and measured for three different seasons (summer, rainy, and winter seasons). Anions (F, Cl, NO2, NO3, and SO42−) and cations (Na+, Mg2+, Si4+, S6+, K+, and Ca2+) were qualified by an ion chromatograph and an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, respectively. The concentration of anions and cations (except for Mg2+ and Ca2+) in the Ping river at upstream (countryside) locations were lower than that at downstream (closer main city) locations, which indicated that the fertilizers, industrial or household wastewaters had been flowing into the Ping river at downstream locations. Additionally, the concentration of anions and cations in the rainy season was higher than other seasons. The present results provide the water quality of the Ping river which was not yet reported officially by the Thailand government.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203906

Abstract:
The water quality of the Mun River, one of the largest tributaries of the Mekong River and an important agricultural area in Thailand, is investigated to determine its status, identify spatiotemporal variations and distinguish the potential causes. Water quality dataset based on monitoring in the last two decades (1997–2017) from 21 monitoring sites distributed across the basin were analyzed using seasonal Kendall test and water quality index (WQI) method. The Kendall test shows significant declines in fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) and ammonia (NH3) in the upper reaches and increases in nitrate (NO3) and NH3 in the lower reaches. Strong temporal and spatial fluctuations were observed in both the concentrations of individual parameters and the WQI values. Seasonal variation of water quality was observed at each monitoring site. WQI values in August (flood season) were generally among the lowest, compared to other seasons. Spatially, sites in the upper reaches generally having lower WQI values than those in the lower reaches. Excessive phosphorus is the primary cause of water quality degradation in the upper reaches, while nitrogen is the primary parameter for water quality degradation in the lower reaches. Urban built-up land is an important “source” of water pollutants in the lower basin, while agricultural land plays a dual role, affecting across the basin.
Ai Yin Sow, Koh Han Dee, Seong Wei Lee,
Published: 15 July 2019
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2019, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1615298

Abstract:
High population density and economic development attributing to the changes in water quality in Pa Sak River, Lopburi River, and Mekong River have attracted great attention. This research aimed to determine the pollution of heavy metals in collected clams at three different study sites. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea) may be likely to cause serious health effects on human beings. The clams sampled from three different rivers (Mekong, Pa Sak, and Lopburi) from Thailand were analyzed for the presence of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb) with an air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Among the heavy metals studied, Zn was recorded as having the highest concentration (127.33-163.65 μg/g) among the three rivers. The observed mean concentration of Cu was in the range of 84.61-127.15 μg/g followed by Mn (13.96-100.63 μg/g), Cr (5.79-15.00 μg/g), Pb (3.43-8.55 μg/g), and Cd (0.88-1.95 μg/g). Overall, Asian clam from Pa Sak River was found to contain high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Pb compared to Mekong and Lopburi River.
, Julien Némery, Nicolas Gratiot, , Viet Quoc Tran, An Truong Nguyen, Joanne Aimé, Alice Peyne
Published: 26 October 2018
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 653, pp 370-383; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.319

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, Pitchaya Anantawong, Naree Intharawichian, Karika Kunta
Published: 10 October 2018
Water Supply, Volume 19, pp 1287-1294; https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2018.167

Abstract:
Land use influences and trends in water quality parameters were determined for the Chao Phraya River, Thailand. Dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) showed significant trends (R2 ≥ 0.5) across the year, while total phosphorus (TP) and faecal coliform bacteria (FCB) showed significant trends only in the wet season. DO increased, but BOD, NO3-N, and TP decreased, from the lower section (river kilometres (rkm) 7–58 from the river mouth) through the middle section (rkm 58–143) to the upper section (rkm 143–379) of the river. Lead and mercury showed weak/no trends (R2 < 0.5). Based on the river section, major land use groups were a combination of urban and built-up areas (43%) and aquaculture (21%) in the lower river basin, paddy fields (56%) and urban and built-up areas (21%) in the middle river basin, and paddy fields (44%) and other agricultural areas (34%) in the upper river basin. Most water quality and land use attributes had significantly positive or negative correlations (at P ≤ 0.05) among each other. The river was in crisis because of high FCB concentrations. Serious measures are suggested to manage FCB and relevant human activities in the river basin.
Published: 12 June 2017
Water Science and Technology, Volume 76, pp 1545-1554; https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2017.350

Abstract:
The water budget of the Bangkok Metropolis system was analyzed using a material flow analysis model. Total imported flows into the system were 80,080 million m3 per year (Mm3 y–1) including inflows from the Chao Phraya and Mae Klong rivers and rainwater. Total exported flows out of the system were 78,528 Mm3 y–1 including outflow into the lower Chao Phraya River and tap water (TW) distributed to suburbs. Total rates of stock exchange (1,552 Mm3 y–1) were found in the processes of water recycling, TW distribution, domestic use, swine farming, aquaculture, and paddy fields. Only 21% of the total amount of wastewater (1,255 Mm3 y–1) was collected, with insufficient treatment capacity of about 415 Mm3 y–1. Domestic and business (industrial and commercial sectors) areas were major point sources, whereas paddy fields were a major non-point source of wastewater. To manage Bangkok's water budget, critical measures have to be considered. Wastewater treatment capacity and efficiency of wastewater collection should be improved. On-site wastewater treatment plants for residential areas should be installed. Urban planning and land use zoning are suggested to control land use activities. Green technology should be supported to reduce wastewater from farming.
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