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(searched for: doi:10.1186/s40623-015-0219-x)
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, Pedro A. Hernández, Nemesio M. Pérez, María Asensio-Ramos, Eleazar Padrón, Mar Alonso, Germán D. Padilla, José Barrancos, Francesco Sortino, Hirochicka Sumino, et al.
Frontiers in Earth Science, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2021.631190

Abstract:
We report the results of the geochemical monitoring of the fumarolic discharges at the Pico do Fogo volcano in Cape Verde from 2007 to 2016. During this period Pico do Fogo experienced a volcanic eruption (November 23, 2014) that lasted 77 days, from a new vent ∼2.5 km from the fumaroles. Two fumaroles were sampled, a low (F1∼100°C) and a medium (F2∼300°C) temperature. The variations observed in the δ18O and δ2H in F1 and F2 suggest different fluid source contributions and/or fractionation processes. Although no significant changes were observed in the outlet fumarole temperatures, two clear increases were observed in the vapor fraction of fumarolic discharges during the periods November 2008–2010 and 2013–2014. Also, two sharp peaks were observed in CO2/CH4 ratios at both fumaroles, in November 2008 and November 2013. This confirms that gases with a strong magmatic component rose towards the surface within the Pico do Fogo system during 2008 and 2013. Further, F2 showed two CO2/Stotal peaks, the first in late 2010 and the second after eruption onset, suggesting the occurrence of magmatic pulses into the volcanic system. Time series of He/CO2, H2/CO2 and CO/CO2 ratios are low in 2008–2009, and high in 2013–2014 period, supporting the hypothesis of fluid input from a deeper magmatic source. Regarding to the isotopic composition, increases in air-corrected 3He/4He ratios are observed in both fumaroles; F1 showed a peak in 2010 from a minimum in 2009 during the first magmatic reactivation onset and another in late 2013, while F2 displayed a slower rise to its maximum in late 2013. The suite of geochemical species analyzed have considerably different reactivities, hence these integrated geochemical time-series can be used to detect the timing of magmatic arrivals to the base of the system, and importantly, indicate the typical time lags between gas release periods at depth and their arrival at the surface. The high 3He/4He ratios in both fumaroles in the range observed for mid-ocean ridge basalts, indicating that He is predominantly of upper mantle origin. This work supports that monitoring of the chemical and isotopic composition of the fumaroles of the Pico do Fogo volcano is a very important tool to understand the processes that take place in the magmatic-hydrothermal system and to be able to predict future episodes of volcanic unrest and to mitigate volcanic risk.
Abigail K. Barker, Elin M. Rydeblad, Sónia M. D. M. Silva
Published: 21 May 2021
Magma Redox Geochemistry pp 45-78; https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119564485.ch3

Abstract:
The Cape Verde archipelago is a group of ocean islands in the Central Atlantic that forms two chains of islands trending northwest and southwest. Several of the islands are considered to be volcanically active, with frequent eruptions on Fogo. We examine the mineral chemistry and thermobarometry of the southern islands—Santiago, Fogo, and Brava—together with the Cadamosto Seamount. Our objective is to explore the magmatic storage system and implications for volcanic eruptions and associated hazards at Cape Verde. The volcanic rocks at Cape Verde are alkaline and dominantly mafic, whereas the island of Brava and the Cadamosto Seamount are unusually felsic. Clinopyroxene compositions range from 60 to 90 Mg# at Santiago and Fogo. In contrast, at Brava and the Cadamosto Seamount, the clinopyroxene compositions are 5 to 75 Mg#. Mineral chemistry and zonation records fractional crystallization, recharge, aggregation of crystals, magma mixing, and variations in thermal conditions of the magma at temperatures from 925 to 1250 °C. Magma storage depths at Santiago, Fogo, Brava, and the Cadamosto Seamount are between 12 and 40 km, forming deep sub-Moho magma storage zones. Transient magma storage in the crust is suggested by fluid inclusion re-equilibration and pre-eruption seismicity. A global compilation of magma storage at ocean islands suggests that deep magma storage is a common feature, and volcanic eruptions are often associated with rapid magma ascent through the crust. Shallow magma storage is more variable and likely reflects local variations in crustal structure, sediment supply, and tectonics. Petrological constraints on the magma plumbing system at Cape Verde and elsewhere are vital to integrate with deformation models and seismicity in order to improve understanding and mitigation of the volcanic hazards.
, Vincent Realmuto, Paul Lundgren
Published: 11 March 2021
Nature Geoscience, Volume 14, pp 238-241; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-021-00705-4

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, Georg Rümpker, Ingo Wölbern
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Volume 20, pp 3627-3638; https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-20-3627-2020

Abstract:
During the first two days of August 2016 a seismic crisis occurred on Brava, Cabo Verde, which – according to observations based on a local seismic network – was characterized by more than a thousand volcano-seismic signals. Brava is considered an active volcanic island, although it has not experienced any historic eruptions. Seismicity significantly exceeded the usual level during the crisis. We report on results based on data from a temporary seismic-array deployment on the neighbouring island of Fogo at a distance of about 35 km. The array was in operation from October 2015 to December 2016 and recorded a total of 1343 earthquakes in the region of Fogo and Brava; 355 thereof were localized. On 1 and 2 August we observed 54 earthquakes, 25 of which could be located beneath Brava. We further evaluate the observations with regards to possible precursors to the crisis and its continuation. Our analysis shows a significant variation in seismicity around Brava, but no distinct precursory pattern. However, the observations suggest that similar earthquake swarms commonly occur close to Brava. The results further confirm the advantages of seismic arrays as tools for the remote monitoring of regions with limited station coverage or access.
Cynthia Werner, Tobias P. Fischer, Alessandro Aiuppa, Marie Edmonds, Carlo Cardellini, Simon Carn, Giovanni Chiodini, Elizabeth Cottrell, Mike Burton, Hiroshi Shinohara, et al.
Published: 31 October 2019
, Toshiya Mori, Akihiko Yokoo, Takahiro Ohkura, Yuichi Morita
Published: 7 January 2019
Earth, Planets and Space, Volume 71; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0980-8

Abstract:
Continuous measurements of soil CO2 flux are useful for understanding degassing processes and for monitoring volcanic activities. Recent studies at many volcanoes have revealed that soil CO2 flux variations are significantly influenced by environmental parameters as well as volcanic processes. In this study, we conducted continuous monitoring of soil CO2 flux in the flank of Nakadake cone, Aso volcano, Japan, from January 2016 to November 2017. The results of our observations during an active period before and after a large phreatomagmatic eruption on 8 October 2016 and during a calm period from 2017 showed variations in soil CO2 flux due to oscillations in environmental parameters. Excluding these variations from the raw time series by multivariate linear regression analysis, the time series of soil CO2 flux presented some anomalous peaks in both the active and calm periods. Careful comparison of the anomalous peaks with the environmental parameters revealed that most of the anomalous peaks were likely due to an increase in wind speed and/or a decrease in barometric pressure. However, the anomaly after the 8 October 2016 eruption was not completely explicable by the variations in the environmental parameters and coincided with increases in seismic amplitude and plume SO2 flux. This anomaly was possibly attributed to an increase in magmatic CO2 flux. These findings emphasized the importance of careful statistical treatment of the soil CO2 flux data after excluding the influences of the environmental parameters at each measurement site. These statistical treatments will contribute to a better understanding of the degassing processes and monitoring of volcanic activities, including phreatic or phreatomagmatic eruptions.
Published: 12 July 2018
by MDPI
Remote Sensing, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071115

Abstract:
Fogo volcano erupted in 2014–2015 producing an extensive lava flow field in the summit caldera that destroyed two villages, Portela and Bangaeira. The eruption started with powerful explosive activity, lava fountains, and a substantial ash column accompanying the opening of an eruptive fissure. Lava flows spreading from the base of the eruptive fissure produced three arterial lava flows. By a week after the start of the eruption, a master lava tube had already developed within the eruptive fissure and along the arterial flow. In this paper, we analyze the emplacement processes based on observations carried out directly on the lava flow field, remote sensing measurements carried out with a thermal camera, SO2 fluxes, and satellite images, to unravel the key factors leading to the development of lava tubes. These were responsible for the rapid expansion of lava for the ~7.9 km length of the flow field, as well as the destruction of the Portela and Bangaeira villages. The key factors leading to the development of tubes were the low topography and the steady magma supply rate along the arterial lava flow. Comparing time-averaged discharge rates (TADR) obtained from satellite and Supply Rate (SR) derived from SO2 flux data, we estimate the amount and timing of the lava flow field endogenous growth, with the aim of developing a tool that could be used for hazard assessment and risk mitigation at this and other volcanoes.
, , , Nemesio M. Pérez, , Sónia V. Silva, Jeremias Cabral,
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Volume 121, pp 2290-2303; https://doi.org/10.1002/2015jb012666

Abstract:
Satellite remote sensing techniques and lava flow forecasting models have been combined to enable a rapid response during effusive crises at poorly monitored volcanoes. Here we used the HOTSAT satellite thermal monitoring system and the MAGFLOW lava flow emplacement model to forecast lava flow hazards during the 2014–2015 Fogo eruption. In many ways this was one of the major effusive eruption crises of recent years, since the lava flows actually invaded populated areas. Combining satellite data and modeling allowed mapping of the probable evolution of lava flow fields while the eruption was ongoing and rapidly gaining as much relevant information as possible. HOTSAT was used to promptly analyze MODIS and SEVIRI data to output hot spot location, lava thermal flux, and effusion rate estimation. This output was used to drive the MAGFLOW simulations of lava flow paths and to continuously update flow simulations. We also show how Landsat 8 OLI and EO-1 ALI images complement the field observations for tracking the flow front position through time and adding considerable data on lava flow advancement to validate the results of numerical simulations. The integration of satellite data and modeling offers great promise in providing a unified and efficient system for global assessment and real-time response to effusive eruptions, including (i) the current state of the effusive activity, (ii) the probable evolution of the lava flow field, and (iii) the potential impact of lava flows.
Published: 18 February 2016
Bulletin Volcanologique, Volume 78; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-016-1008-5

Abstract:
We measured diffuse carbon dioxide (CO2) flux and soil temperature around the summit of Asama volcano, Japan to assess the diffuse degassing structure around the summit area. Soil CO2 flux was measured using an accumulation chamber method, and the spatial distributions of CO2 flux and soil temperature were derived from the mean of 100 sequential Gaussian simulations. Results show that soil CO2 flux was high on the eastern flank of Kamayama cone and the eastern rim of Maekake crater, the outer cone. These areas mostly correspond to high-temperature anomalies. The average emission rate of diffuse CO2 was calculated to be 12.6 t day−1 (12.2–14.6 t day−1). Such diffuse emissions account for 12 % of the total (diffuse and plume) CO2 emissions from the summit area. The diffuse CO2 anomalies probably reflect permeable zones controlled by local topography and hidden fractures bordering Maekake crater. The permeable zones are connected to the low-electrical-resistivity zone inferred to indicate both a hydrothermal fluid layer and an upper sealed layer made of clay minerals. Magmatic gas from the main conduit ascends to the volcano surface through this fluid layer and the permeable zones. These insights emphasize that the pathways and the connection between the pathways and the source of diffuse CO2 combine to create the pattern of heterogeneous diffuse CO2 emission seen at the surface. Only by using a combination of gas measurements and geophysical tools can we begin to understand the dynamics of this system as a whole.
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