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(searched for: doi:10.4236/jbise.2015.81001)
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, G. Duursma, A. Arif
Published: 16 October 2021
Advances in colloid and interface science, Volume 298; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2021.102546

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Natalia Borisovna Bodrova, Stephan Baumgartner
Published: 1 September 2021
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 208; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.112092

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 5 February 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Biomolecules
Biomolecules, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020231

Abstract:
The drying of bio-colloidal droplets can be used in many medical and forensic applications. The whole human blood is the most complex bio-colloid system, whereas bovine serum albumin (BSA) is the simplest. This paper focuses on the drying characteristics and the final morphology of these two bio-colloids. The experiments were conducted by varying their initial concentrations, and the solutions were dried under various controlled substrate temperatures using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The droplet parameters (the contact angle, the fluid front, and the first-order image statistics) reveal the drying process’s unique features. Interestingly, both BSA and blood drying droplets’ contact angle measurements show evidence of a concentration-driven transition as the behavior changes from non-monotonic to monotonic decrease. This result indicates that this transition behavior is not limited to multi-component bio-colloid (blood) only, but may be a phenomenon of a bio-colloidal solution containing a large number of interacting components. The high dilution of blood behaves like the BSA solution. The ring-like deposition, the crack morphology, and the microstructures suggest that the components have enough time to segregate and deposit onto the substrate under ambient conditions. However, there is insufficient time for evaporative-driven segregation to occur at elevated temperatures, as expected.
, Amalesh Gope, John D. Obayemi, Germano S. Iannacchione
Published: 3 November 2020
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76082-6

Abstract:
Multi-colloidal systems exhibit a variety of structural and functional complexity owing to their ability to interact amongst different components into self-assembled structures. This paper presents experimental confirmations that reveal an interesting sharp phase transition during the drying state and in the dried film as a function of diluting concentrations ranging from 100% (undiluted whole blood) to 12.5% (diluted concentrations). An additional complementary contact angle measurement exhibits a monotonic decrease with a peak as a function of drying. This peak is related to a change in visco-elasticity that decreases with dilution, and disappears at the dilution concentration for the observed phase transition equivalent to 62% (v/v). This unique behavior is clearly commensurate with the optical image statistics and morphological analysis; and it is driven by the decrease in the interactions between various components within this bio-colloid. The implications of these phenomenal systems may address many open-ended questions of complex hierarchical structures.
Published: 15 September 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Sensors
Sensors, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185266

Abstract:
It is known that the processes of self-organization of the components of drying a liquid drop on a solid substrate are well reproduced under the same external conditions and are determined only by the composition and dispersion of the liquid. If the drop dries on the surface of the sensor device, these processes can be recorded and used as a passport characteristic of the liquid. The first half of the article is devoted to the description of the principles of the method and the proof of the validity of our assumptions. The second half of the article is devoted to the development of a user-friendly version of the device, where the change in the real and imaginary parts of the electrical impedance of the resonator was used as an informative parameter. The measure of the closeness of the relative positions of the hodographs of the compared samples on the complex plane is used as a criterion for the similarity-/-difference of various liquids. The design of a new sensor device and the results of its tests for distinguishing between different brands of alcoholic beverages and reconstituted milk of different concentrations are presented.
Nathalie Bridonneau, Menghua Zhao, Nicolas Battaglini, Giorgio Mattana, Véonique Thevenet, , Matthieu Roché, Samia Zrig,
Published: 10 September 2020
Journal: Langmuir
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Manikuntala Mukhopadhyay, Rudra Ray, Manish Ayushman, Pourush Sood, Maitreyee Bhattacharyya, Debasish Sarkar,
Published: 7 April 2020
Journal of colloid and interface science, Volume 573, pp 307-316; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.04.008

Abstract:
Dried blood droplet morphology may potentially serve as an alternative biomarker for several patho-physiological conditions. The deviant properties of the red blood cells and the abnormal composition of diseased samples are hypothesized to manifest through unique cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions leading to different morphological patterns. Identifying distinctive morphological trait from a large sample size and proposing confirmatory explanations are necessary to establish the signatory pattern as a potential biomarker to differentiate healthy and diseased samples.
, Samia Imran, , Graham R. Sharpe, Michael A. Johnson,
Published: 24 February 2020
Scientific Reports, Volume 10, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59847-x

Abstract:
One of the most interesting and everyday natural phenomenon is the formation of different patterns after the evaporation of liquid droplets on a solid surface. The analysis of dried patterns from blood droplets has recently gained a lot of attention, experimentally and theoretically, due to its potential application in diagnostic medicine and forensic science. This paper presents evidence that images of dried blood droplets have a signature revealing the exhaustion level of the person, and discloses an entirely novel approach to studying human dried blood droplet patterns. We took blood samples from 30 healthy young male volunteers before and after exhaustive exercise, which is well known to cause large changes to blood chemistry. We objectively and quantitatively analysed 1800 images of dried blood droplets, developing sophisticated image processing analysis routines and optimising a multivariate statistical machine learning algorithm. We looked for statistically relevant correlations between the patterns in the dried blood droplets and exercise-induced changes in blood chemistry. An analysis of the various measured physiological parameters was also investigated. We found that when our machine learning algorithm, which optimises a statistical model combining Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as an unsupervised learning method and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) as a supervised learning method, is applied on the logarithmic power spectrum of the images, it can provide up to 95% prediction accuracy, in discriminating the physiological conditions, i.e., before or after physical exercise. This correlation is strongest when all ten images taken per volunteer per condition are averaged, rather than treated individually. Having demonstrated proof-of-principle, this method can be applied to identify diseases.
Siddharth Singh Yadav, , Priya Ranjan, Rajiv Janardhanan
Published: 22 May 2019
Journal: BioImpacts
BioImpacts, Volume 10, pp 141-150; https://doi.org/10.34172/bi.2020.18

Abstract:
Introduction:A key feature of the 'One Health' concept pertains to the design of novel point of care systems for largescale screening of health of the population residing in resource-limited areas of low- and middle-income countries with a view to obtaining data at a community level as a rationale to achieve better public health outcomes. The physical properties of blood are different for different samples. Our study involved the development of an innovative system architecture based upon the physical properties of blood using automated classifiers to enable large-scale screening of the health of the population living in resource-limited settings.Methods:The proposed system consisted of a simple, robust and low-cost sensor with capabilities to sense and measure even the minute changes in the physical properties of blood samples. In this system, the viscosity of blood was derived from a power-law model coupled with the Rabinowitsch-Mooney correction for non-Newtonian shear rates developed in a steady laminar Poiseuille flow. Surface tension was measured by solving the Young-Laplace equation for pendant drop shape hanging on a vertical needle. An anticipated outcome of this study would be the development of a novel automated classifier based upon the rheological attributes of blood. This automated classifier would have potential application in evaluating the health status of a population at regional and global levels.Results:The proposed system was used to measure the physical properties of various samples like normal, tuberculous and anemic blood samples. The results showed that the physical properties of these samples were different as compared to normal blood samples. The major advantage of this system was low-cost, as well as its simplicity and portability.Conclusion:In this work, we proposed making a case for the validation of a low-cost version of a microfluidic system capable of scanning large populations for a variety of diseases as per the WHO mandate of "One Health".
Published: 1 October 2018
Journal: Leonardo
Leonardo, Volume 51, pp 507-508; https://doi.org/10.1162/leon_a_01406

Abstract:
The author’s visual art project is concentrated in the specific area of scientific photography of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), which has expanded the boundaries of observation and representation of the micro world since it was introduced to scientific research in the mid-1960s. Like a number of other artists who have preceded the author, she investigates how to interpret scientific images captured by the SEM as aesthetic forms. In particular, the author considers microscale drops of water from different aquatic systems after evaporation. She does so in an attempt to discover morphological features of the patterns related to water contamination and thus continue in the lineage of artists’ attempts to turn scientific photography into a creative art form.
Ayantika Sett, Manish Ayushman, ,
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Volume 122, pp 8972-8984; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.8b05325

Abstract:
Pattern formation during evaporation of biofluids has numerous biomedical applications, e.g., in disease identification. The drying of a bidisperse colloidal droplet involves formation of coffee ring patterns owing to the deposition of constituent particles. In the present study, we examine the distinctly different pattern formations during the drying of a colloidal solution depending on the nature of the constituent proteins. The pattern formations of two oppositely charged proteins, namely HSA and lysozyme, have been studied in the presence of fluorescence polystyrene beads of two different sizes (providing better image contrast for further analysis). The variation of pattern formation has been studied by varying the concentrations of the proteins as well as the particles. Furthermore, using image analysis, the patterns are segmented into different regions for quantification. To explain the variations in the patterns, we delve into the interplay of the interactions, especially the capillary and the DLVO forces (between the particles and the substrate). The developed methodology based on the coffee ring effect may be used to identify individual proteins.
, Anatoly Sanin, Vladimir Yakhno, Vyacheslav Kazakov, Alexander Pakhomov, Tatiana Guguchkina, Michail Markovsky
Published: 1 January 2018
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 24 November 2016
Journal: RSC Advances
RSC Advances, Volume 6, pp 112695-112703; https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA22579A

Abstract:
We present a study of pattern formation in drying sessile droplets of aqueous solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)–water system using polarising optical microscopy (POM) and computer simulation.
Ruoyang Chen, , Duyang Zang,
Published: 23 November 2016
Abstract:
When a colloidal droplet is deposited on a solid substrate at ambient condition, it will experience the processes of wetting and drying spontaneously. These ostensibly simple and ubiquitous processes involve numerous physics: droplet spreading and wetting, three-phase contact line motion, flow fields inside droplets, and mass transportation within droplets during drying. Meanwhile, the continuous evaporation of liquid produces inter- and/or intra-molecular interactions among suspended materials and builds up the internal stress within droplets. After drying, interesting and complex desiccation patterns form in the dried droplets. These desiccation patterns are believed to have wide applications, e.g., medical diagnosis. However, many potential applications are limited by the current understanding of wetting and drying of colloidal droplets. This chapter focuses on the complex physics associated with these processes and the pattern formation in the dried colloidal droplets. Moreover, potential applications of these desiccation patterns and prospective works of wetting and drying of the colloidal droplets are outlined in this chapter.
, Mukesh Kumar Roy, Priya Ranjan, Ayush Goyal
Published: 24 August 2016
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing pp 411-424; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1675-2_41

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 1 May 2016
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 231, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2016.01.008

Abstract:
The drying of a drop of blood or plasma on a solid substrate leads to the formation of interesting and complex patterns. Inter- and intra-cellular and macromolecular interactions in the drying plasma or blood drop are responsible for the final morphologies of the dried patterns. Changes in these cellular and macromolecular components in blood caused by diseases have been suspected to cause changes in the dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood, which could be used as simple diagnostic tools to identify the health of humans and livestock. However, complex physicochemical driving forces involved in the pattern formation are not fully understood. This review focuses on the scientific development in microscopic observations and pattern interpretation of dried plasma and whole blood samples, as well as the diagnostic applications of pattern analysis. Dried drop patterns of plasma consist of intricate visible cracks in the outer region and fine structures in the central region, which are mainly influenced by the presence and concentration of inorganic salts and proteins during drying. The shrinkage of macromolecular gel and its adhesion to the substrate surface have been thought to be responsible for the formation of the cracks. Dried drop patterns of whole blood have three characteristic zones; their formation as functions of drying time has been reported in the literature. Some research works have applied engineering treatment to the evaporation process of whole blood samples. The sensitivities of the resultant patterns to the relative humidity of the environment, the wettability of the substrates, and the size of the drop have been reported. These research works shed light on the mechanisms of spreading, evaporation, gelation, and crack formation of the blood drops on solid substrates, as well as on the potential applications of dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood in diagnosis.
, , Priya Ranjan, Ayush Goyal
Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology, Volume 40, pp 245-254; https://doi.org/10.3109/03091902.2016.1162215

Abstract:
This paper examines programmed automatic recognition of infection from samples of dried stains of micro-scale drops of patient blood. This technique has the upside of being low-cost and less-intrusive and not requiring puncturing the patient with a needle for drawing blood, which is especially critical for infants and the matured. It also does not require expensive pathological blood test laboratory equipment. The method is shown in this work to be successful for ailment identification in patients suffering from tuberculosis and anaemia. Illness affects the physical properties of blood, which thus influence the samples of dried micro-scale blood drop stains. For instance, if a patient has a severe drop in platelet count, which is often the case of dengue or malaria patients, the blood’s physical property of viscosity drops substantially, i.e. the blood is thinner. Thus, the blood micro-scale drop stain samples can be utilised for diagnosing maladies. This paper presents programmed automatic examination of the dried micro-scale drop blood stain designs utilising an algorithm based on pattern recognition. The samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of ordinary non-infected people are clearly recognisable as well as the samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of sick people, due to key distinguishing features. As a contextual analysis, the micro-scale blood drop stains of patients infected with tuberculosis have been contrasted with the micro-scale blood drop stains of typical normal healthy people. The paper dives into the fundamental flow mechanics behind how the samples of the dried micro-scale blood drop stain is shaped. What has been found is a thick ring like feature in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of non-ailing people and thin shape like lines in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of patients with anaemia or tuberculosis disease. The ring like feature at the periphery is caused by an outward stream conveying suspended particles to the edge. Concentric rings (brought on by internal Marangoni flow) and deposition in the centre of the stain are patterns that were found in the dried micro-scale drop blood stain samples of ordinary healthy people.
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