(searched for: doi:10.1007/s13566-012-0017-z)
Antioxidants, Volume 4, pp 82-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4010082
Ionizing irradiation induces acute and chronic injury to tissues and organs. Applications of antioxidant therapies for the management of ionizing irradiation injury fall into three categories: (1) radiation counter measures against total or partial body irradiation; (2) normal tissue protection against acute organ specific ionizing irradiation injury; and (3) prevention of chronic/late radiation tissue and organ injury. The development of antioxidant therapies to ameliorate ionizing irradiation injury began with initial studies on gene therapy using Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD) transgene approaches and evolved into applications of small molecule radiation protectors and mitigators. The understanding of the multiple steps in ionizing radiation-induced cellular, tissue, and organ injury, as well as total body effects is required to optimize the use of antioxidant therapies, and to sequence such approaches with targeted therapies for the multiple steps in the irradiation damage response.
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Management Strategies pp 97-110; https://doi.org/10.2217/ebo.13.612
Summary Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has always been treated definitively via radiation, either as a single modality in early stage or with concurrent chemotherapy in locally advanced disease . In the treatment of early-stage NPC, the standard of care has traditionally been empirical irradiation to the bilateral whole neck, but, awkwardly, without clinical evidence backing such practice. Several retrospective studies and a recently published meta-analysis have shown that level I cervical lymph nodes and lower-neck lymph nodes possess a lower probability of disease involvement for NPC patients at presentation. This, coupled with the fact that skip metastasis only occurs rarely in NPC, have formed the basis of sparing these lymph nodes in the definitive irradiation of early-stage NPC patients.