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(searched for: doi:10.1192/bjp.123.5.549)
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Pierre Etienne, Michel Baudry
Published: 31 August 1987
Neurobiology of Aging, Volume 8, pp 362-366; https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-4580(87)90081-9

Abstract:
(1) The functional and structural reorganization of dendritic spines by calcium activated proteases is postulated to play a causal role in the production of the phenomenology of brain aging and in particular in the development of pathology and degeneration. Excitatory neurotransmission appears to be essential for the development of irreversible synaptic changes. (2) One of the genes modified in schizophrenia is postulated to be directly or indirectly linked to the control of excitatory neurotransmission; possibly the normal switching on of the expression of the adult form of the NMDA receptor is altered, resulting in an inappropriate functioning of this receptor. This genetic characteristic might explain the apparent resistance of schizophrenic brains to aging.
E. Frangos, G. Athanassenas, S. Tsitourides, N. Katsanou, P. Alexandrakou
Published: 1 October 1985
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Volume 72, pp 382-386; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1985.tb02625.x

Abstract:
The extent of the genetic component, if any, in DSM III schizophrenia still remains unresolved. To further examine the issue, the first-degree relatives of 116 DSM III schizophrenic probands in our department were compared with those of an equal number of normal subjects, randomly selected and matched for age and sex. More than three fourths of the surviving relatives of each group were interviewed and rated according to DSM III criteria. Information of varying degrees of completeness was obtained about the remainder (surviving and dead). The gathered data were sufficiently detailed to provide general evidence that schizophrenia, and schizophrenia-related personality disorders were significantly more common in the first-degree relatives of DSM III schizophrenic probands than in the relatives of the controls. These findings suggest that even narrowly defined schizophrenia, such as that obtained by using DSM III criteria, has also a genetic component.
Kenneth S. Kendler, Alan M. Gruenberg, Ming T. Tsuang
Archives of General Psychiatry, Volume 42, pp 770-779; https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790310032004

Abstract:
• This report examines the risk for psychiatric illness in 723 first-degree relatives of schizophrenics and 1,056 first-degree relatives of matched surgical control patients. Diagnoses in patients and relatives were made "blind" to one another, usingDSM-IIIcriteria. Information on relatives was obtained from personal interview and/or hospital records. Results were analyzed using two levels of diagnostic certainty and with or without relatives on whom only hospital records were obtained. In all analyses, the risk for schizophrenia was significantly greater (at least 18-fold) in the relatives of schizophrenics v controls. Evidence was also found for an increased risk in relatives of schizophrenics for schizoaffective disorder, paranoid disorder, and atypical psychosis but not for unipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, or alcoholism. As defined byDSM-III, schizophrenia is a familial disorder; however, the increased risk for psychotic illness in relatives of schizophrenics does not appear to be confined to schizophrenia alone.
Jon L. Karlsson
The British Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 140, pp 600-606; https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.140.6.600

Abstract:
Summary: The more recent large scale family investigations of schizophrenia are reviewed, particularly studies in which the authors have compared the rates in relatives of index cases with those of the general population. The risk of psychotic illness is increased four-fold in first-degree relatives and two-and-a-half-fold in second-degree relatives over that of the population at large. The possible genetic mechanisms are evaluated, with the conclusion that modified dominant transmission, based on a single major gene, is a plausible system.
W. Douglas Thompson
Archives of General Psychiatry, Volume 39, pp 53-8; https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1982.04290010031006

Abstract:
This methodologic study assessed the accuracy of family history data in ascertaining psychiatric disorders in relatives. Comparison of diagnoses based on family history with diagnoses based on direct interview indicated that the specificity for the family history method is high, but that the sensitivity is generally low. Accuracy was better for affective disorders and alcoholism than for less severe disorders; spouses and offspring provided more accurate information than parents and siblings. The use of multiple information increased sensitivity somewhat, with little adverse effect on specificity. However, because errors were often correlated when more than one person provided information about a particular relative, the use of multiple informants generally did not improve accuracy substantially. Analysis of family-genetic studies should take account of the differential quality of data obtained by the family history method vs direct interview.
Michael Alan Taylor
Archives of General Psychiatry, Volume 38, pp 800-3; https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1981.01780320080009

Abstract:
We evaluated the relation of responsivity of somatic treatment and heterogeneity in a sample of III manics (diagnosed by Feighner criteria) by assessing demographic, clinical, and family illness variables-historical variables potentially related to abnormal brain function and cortical function as measured by neuropsychological and EEG techniques. Except for a positive, perhaps unimportant, relationship between an abnormal EEG and improvement, we could find little evidence for biological differences between responders and nonresponders to treatment. However, 30% of the nonresponders and only 4% of the responders prematurely terminated treatment, suggesting a strong nonbiological mechanism underlying treatment failure. We conclude that there are as yet no adequate predictors of short-term treatment response in mania and that evidence for heterogeneity in mania must be sought elsewhere.
Carol Buck, G. Edgar Hobbs, Helen Simpson, James M. Wanklin
Published: 1 September 1975
The British Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 127, pp 235-239; https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.127.3.235

Abstract:
SummaryThis investigation has provided evidence against the hypothesis that heterozygous carriers of a schizophrenic gene have a reproductive advantage through enhanced fertility. An advantage arising from lower mortality between birth and the end of the reproductive period was not investigated, but should be examined before we search for other explanations of the apparently stable polymorphism of schizophrenia.
Carol Buck
Published: 1 October 1974
The British Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 125, pp 348-349; https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.125.4.348

Abstract:
Arguments about the role of heredity in schizophrenia have largely given way to arguments about the genetic mechanisms involved. Discussions of the various genetic models by leading workers in the field have been presented in recent years (Rosenthal and Kety, 1968; Kaplan, 1972). Single gene theories have prevailed, Slater's intermediate model being preferred because of its good fit with the observed risks of schizophrenia in specific categories of blood relatives (Slater and Cowie, 1971).
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