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(searched for: doi:10.1042/bss0740199)
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Jessy Silva, Ricardo Ferraz, Paul DuPree, Allan M. Showalter,
Published: 15 December 2020
Frontiers in plant science, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.610377

Abstract:
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are a large, complex, and highly diverse class of heavily glycosylated proteins that belong to the family of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Approximately 90% of the molecules consist of arabinogalactan polysaccharides, which are composed of arabinose and galactose as major sugars and minor sugars such as glucuronic acid, fucose, and rhamnose. About half of the AGP family members contain a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid anchor, which allows for an association with the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. The mysterious AGP family has captivated the attention of plant biologists for several decades. This diverse family of glycoproteins is widely distributed in the plant kingdom, including many algae, where they play fundamental roles in growth and development processes. The journey of AGP biosynthesis begins with the assembly of amino acids into peptide chains of proteins. An N-terminal signal peptide directs AGPs toward the endoplasmic reticulum, where proline hydroxylation occurs and a GPI anchor may be added. GPI-anchored AGPs, as well as unanchored AGPs, are then transferred to the Golgi apparatus, where extensive glycosylation occurs by the action of a variety glycosyltransferase enzymes. Following glycosylation, AGPs are transported by secretory vesicles to the cell wall or to the extracellular face of the plasma membrane (in the case of GPI-anchored AGPs). GPI-anchored proteins can be released from the plasma membrane into the cell wall by phospholipases. In this review, we present an overview of the accumulated knowledge on AGP biosynthesis over the past three decades. Particular emphasis is placed on the glycosylation of AGPs as the sugar moiety is essential to their function. Recent genetics and genomics approaches have significantly contributed to a broader knowledge of AGP biosynthesis. However, many questions remain to be elucidated in the decades ahead.
Jessy Silva, Ricardo Ferraz, Paul Dupree, Allan M. Showalter,
Published: 15 December 2020
Abstract:
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are a large, complex, and highly diverse class of heavily glycosylated proteins that belong to the family of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Approximately 90% of the molecules consist of arabinogalactan polysaccharides, which are composed of arabinose and galactose as major sugars and minor sugars such as glucuronic acid, fucose, and rhamnose. About half of the AGP family members contain a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid anchor, which allows for an association with the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. The mysterious AGP family has captivated the attention of plant biologists for several decades. This diverse family of glycoproteins is widely distributed in the plant kingdom, including many algae, where they play fundamental roles in growth and development processes. The journey of AGP biosynthesis begins with the assembly of amino acids into peptide chains of proteins. An N-terminal signal peptide directs AGPs toward the endoplasmic reticulum, where proline hydroxylation occurs and a GPI anchor may be added. GPI-anchored AGPs, as well as unanchored AGPs, are then transferred to the Golgi apparatus, where extensive glycosylation occurs by the action of a variety glycosyltransferase enzymes. Following glycosylation, AGPs are transported by secretory vesicles to the cell wall or to the extracellular face of the plasma membrane (in the case of GPI-anchored AGPs). GPI-anchored proteins can be released from the plasma membrane into the cell wall by phospholipases. In this review, we present an overview of the accumulated knowledge on AGP biosynthesis over the past three decades. Particular emphasis is placed on the glycosylation of AGPs as the sugar moiety is essential to their function. Recent genetics and genomics approaches have significantly contributed to a broader knowledge of AGP biosynthesis. However, many questions remain to be elucidated in the decades ahead.
Published: 3 February 2011
Journal: The FEBS Journal
The FEBS Journal, Volume 278, pp 1035-1046; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08012.x

Abstract:
Although the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, can acquire lipids from its environment, recent reports have shown that it is also capable of de novo synthesis of all major phospholipids. Here we provide an overview of the biosynthetic pathways involved in phospholipid formation in T. brucei and highlight differences to corresponding pathways in other eukaryotes, with the aim of promoting trypanosomes as an attractive model organism to study lipid biosynthesis. We show that de novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine involving CDP-activated intermediates is essential in T. brucei and that a reduction in its cellular content affects mitochondrial morphology and ultrastructure. In addition, we highlight that reduced levels of phosphatidylcholine inhibit nuclear division, suggesting a role for phosphatidylcholine formation in the control of cell division. Furthermore, we discuss possible routes leading to phosphatidylserine and cardiolipin formation in T. brucei and review the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol, which seems to take place in two separate compartments. Finally, we emphasize that T. brucei represents the only eukaryote so far that synthesizes all three sphingophospholipid classes, sphingomyelin, inositolphosphorylceramide and ethanolaminephosphorylceramide, and that their production is developmentally regulated
Francisco Aresta-Branco, André Cordeiro, , , ,
Published: 1 February 2011
Journal of Biological Chemistry, Volume 286, pp 5043-5054; https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m110.154435

Abstract:
The plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied using the probes trans-parinaric acid and diphenylhexatriene. Diphenylhexatriene anisotropy is a good reporter of global membrane order. The fluorescence lifetimes of trans-parinaric acid are particularly sensitive to the presence and nature of ordered domains, but thus far they have not been measured in yeast cells. A long lifetime typical of the gel phase (>30 ns) was found in wild-type (WT) cells from two different genetic backgrounds, at 24 and 30 °C, providing the first direct evidence for the presence of gel domains in living cells. To understand their nature and location, the study of WT cells was extended to spheroplasts, the isolated plasma membrane, and liposomes from total lipid and plasma membrane lipid extracts (with or without ergosterol extraction by cyclodextrin). It is concluded that the plasma membrane is mostly constituted by ordered domains and that the gel domains found in living cells are predominantly at the plasma membrane and are formed by lipids. To understand their composition, strains with mutations in sphingolipid and ergosterol metabolism and in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor remodeling pathway were also studied. The results strongly indicate that the gel domains are not ergosterol-enriched lipid rafts; they are mainly composed of sphingolipids, possibly inositol phosphorylceramide, and contain glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, suggesting an important role in membrane traffic and signaling, and interactions with the cell wall. The abundance of the sphingolipid-enriched gel domains was inversely related to the cellular membrane system global order, suggesting their involvement in the regulation of membrane properties.
Régine Bosson, , Christine Vionnet, Carole Roubaty,
Published: 1 March 2009
Journal: Eukaryotic Cell
Eukaryotic Cell, Volume 8, pp 306-314; https://doi.org/10.1128/ec.00257-08

Abstract:
After glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are added to GPI proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a fatty acid of the diacylglycerol moiety is exchanged for a C 26:0 fatty acid through the subsequent actions of Per1 and Gup1. In most GPI anchors this modified diacylglycerol-based anchor is subsequently transformed into a ceramide-containing anchor, a reaction which requires Cwh43. Here we show that the last step of this GPI anchor lipid remodeling can be monitored in microsomes. The assay uses microsomes from cells that have been grown in the presence of myriocin, a compound that blocks the biosynthesis of dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and thus inhibits the biosynthesis of ceramide-based anchors. Such microsomes, when incubated with [ 3 H]DHS, generate radiolabeled, ceramide-containing anchor lipids of the same structure as made by intact cells. Microsomes from cwh43 Δ or mcd4 Δ mutants, which are unable to make ceramide-based anchors in vivo, do not incorporate [ 3 H]DHS into anchors in vitro. Moreover, gup1 Δ microsomes incorporate [ 3 H]DHS into the same abnormal anchor lipids as gup1 Δ cells synthesize in vivo. Thus, the in vitro assay of ceramide incorporation into GPI anchors faithfully reproduces the events that occur in mutant cells. Incorporation of [ 3 H]DHS into GPI proteins is observed with microsomes alone, but the reaction is stimulated by cytosol or bovine serum albumin, ATP plus coenzyme A (CoA), or C 26:0 -CoA, particularly if microsomes are depleted of acyl-CoA. Thus, [ 3 H]DHS cannot be incorporated into proteins in the absence of acyl-CoA.
Vikram Ghugtyal, Christine Vionnet, Carole Roubaty,
Published: 21 August 2007
Molecular microbiology, Volume 65, pp 1493-1502; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05883.x

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