(searched for: doi:10.3390/v14102256)
Published: 24 March 2023
Antibiotics, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12040646
There are concerns with excessive antibiotic prescribing among patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Most studies have been conducted in adults with limited data on neonates and children, including in Pakistan. A retrospective study was conducted among four referral/tertiary care hospitals, including the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, the prevalence of bacterial co-infections or secondary bacterial infections and antibiotics prescribed among neonates and children hospitalized due to COVID-19. Among 1237 neonates and children, 511 were admitted to the COVID-19 wards and 433 were finally included in the study. The majority of admitted children were COVID-19-positive (85.9%) with severe COVID-19 (38.2%), and 37.4% were admitted to the ICU. The prevalence of bacterial co-infections or secondary bacterial infections was 3.7%; however, 85.5% were prescribed antibiotics during their hospital stay (average 1.70 ± 0.98 antibiotics per patient). Further, 54.3% were prescribed two antibiotics via the parenteral route (75.5%) for ≤5 days (57.5), with most being ‘Watch’ antibiotics (80.4%). Increased antibiotic prescribing was reported among patients requiring mechanical ventilation and high WBCs, CRP, D-dimer and ferritin levels (p < 0.001). Increased COVID-19 severity, length of stay and hospital setting were significantly associated with antibiotic prescribing (p < 0.001). Excessive antibiotic prescribing among hospitalized neonates and children, despite very low bacterial co-infections or secondary bacterial infections, requires urgent attention to reduce AMR.
Published: 23 January 2023
Diagnostics, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13030421
The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has caused a large number of cases and hospitalizations in the pediatric population. Infants due to their age are susceptible to viral infections that may have a worse prognosis. Therefore, the aim of the current study has been to characterize the clinical features and the outcome of infants hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during the Omicron wave. We conducted a retrospective study of all consecutive infants hospitalized with symptomatic COVID-19 and no other co-infections, from January to September 2022 in one of the largest infectious diseases hospitals from Bucharest, Romania. A total of 613 infants were included in the analysis. The median age was 5 months (IQR: 3, 8 months). The clinical features were dominated by fever (96.4%), cough (64.8%) and loss of appetite (63.3%), and overall, respiratory symptoms were the most numerous (76.0%). Infants between 1-3 months old had a 1.5-fold increased risk of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values, and a longer length of hospitalization as compared to older infants. Infants between 7-9 months of age had 1.5-fold higher odds of loss of appetite, 1.7-fold more frequent cough and 1.6-fold more frequent digestive symptoms compared to infants in other age groups. The presence of digestive symptoms increased the probability of hepatic cytolysis (increased ALT) by 1.9-fold. Continued monitoring of COVID-19 among infants is very necessary, given the progressive character of SARS-CoV-2, in order to take correct and rapid therapeutic measures and to adapt to clinical changes driven by viral variant change.