Refine Search

New Search

Results: 11

(searched for: doi:10.1080/10888691.2012.667343)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 1
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
, Jay Joseph, Mike Jones
Published: 13 July 2015
Journal: Psychosis
Psychosis, Volume 8, pp 72-84; https://doi.org/10.1080/17522439.2015.1081269

Abstract:
The main justification for molecular genetics studies of enduring psychosis (schizophrenia) are high heritability estimates obtained from classical twin studies. The classical twin method rests upon the equal environment assumption (EEA), which holds that reared-together identical and fraternal twin pairs grow up experiencing equally similar environmental exposures. However, a review of prior twin studies shows that identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins on childhood exposures that are central to the etiology of psychosis. Such exposures include bullying, sexual abuse, physical maltreatment, emotional neglect and abuse, and general trauma. An additional assumption presented by twin researchers, that the differential intraclass correlation for child social adversities can be explained by evocative gene–environment covariation, is not consistent with the available evidence. Moreover, due to an array of methodological problems and questionable assumptions, adoption studies provide misleading indications in support of genetic effects. As a result, direct studies of DNA variations in schizophrenia must stand on their own ground. Possible minor findings from such molecular genetics studies, when combined with the available evidence of environmental effects, support a stress-based sociopsychobiological model of schizophrenia etiology.
, Jay Joseph, Ken Richardson
Published: 28 April 2015
Frontiers in Psychiatry, Volume 6, pp 62-62; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00062

Abstract:
The classical twin method (CTM) is central to the view that schizophrenia is ~80% heritable. The CTM rests on the equal environments assumption (EEA) that identical and fraternal twin pairs experience equivalent trait relevant environmental exposures. The EEA has not been directly tested for schizophrenia with measures of child social adversity, which is particularly etiologically relevant to the disorder. However, if child social adversity is more similar in identical than fraternal pairs in the general twin population, the EEA is unlikely to be valid for schizophrenia, a question which we tested in this study. Using results from prior twin studies, we tested if intraclass correlations for the following five categories of child social adversity are larger in identical than fraternal twins: bullying, sexual abuse, physical maltreatment, emotional neglect and abuse, and general trauma. Eleven relevant studies that encompassed 9119 twin pairs provided 24 comparisons of intraclass correlations, which we grouped into the five social exposure categories. Fisher’s z-test revealed significantly higher correlations in identical than fraternal pairs for each exposure category (z ≥ 3.53, p <.001). The difference remained consistent across gender, study site (country), sample size, whether psychometric instruments were used, whether interviewing was proximate or distant to the exposures, and whether informants were twins or third persons. Combined with other evidence that the differential intraclass correlation for child social adversity cannot be explained by evocative gene-environment covariation, our results indicate that the CTM does not provide any valid indication of genomic effects in schizophrenia.
Ethical human psychology and psychiatry, Volume 16, pp 20-28; https://doi.org/10.1891/1559-4343.16.1.20

Abstract:
The scientific status of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly controversial. Much of the controversy hinges on whether ADHD is a biological disorder. Advocates of biological causation often argue that it has a genetic basis. Etiology of ADHD has implications for treatment options, which is also a source of controversy. Given the ongoing interest in establishing the genetic basis of ADHD, this article critically examines the claims of a genetic basis to ADHD. We conclude that although genes may have a role to play in the expression of ADHD behaviors, available evidence suggests that the effect size of a genetic contribution is likely to be small.
Jacob Peedicayil, Natalie J. Beveridge
Published: 1 January 2014
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 12 March 2013
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 1282, pp 92-106; https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12088

Abstract:
Large imaging genetic studies are becoming increasingly common in psychiatric research. In order to fully explore the collected information, analytical strategies that allow comprehensive investigations of the genetic and neural underpinnings of psychiatric disorders are needed. On the basis of our experience with the IMAGEN study, this review evaluates univariate and multivariate analytical strategies for exploring large imaging genetic datasets, with particular focus on reinforcement mechanisms in adolescents. Heritability estimates of functional and structural MRI endophenotypes are presented along with analytical strategies, ranging from those used in univariate candidate gene studies to genome‐wide association studies. Finally, data reduction strategies are discussed at both the genotype level, in the form of expression SNPs and pathway analyses, and the phenotype level, as network analyses of neuroimaging data. Overall, imaging genetic studies have the potential to significantly contribute to our understanding of neurophysiological processes underlying human behavior. The analytical strategies presented here may aid in the comprehensive investigation of reinforcement and other neurobehavioral phenotypes.
Noel Hunter
Ethical human psychology and psychiatry, Volume 15, pp 160-179; https://doi.org/10.1891/1559-4343.15.3.160

Abstract:
Concerns have been made highlighting the need for true informed consent and choice when patients and/or parents are confronted with seeking treatment for severe emotional states and crises. Yet, psychosocial treatments are often derided or recommended only in conjunction with psychotropic medications because of the assumed biological basis of mental distress. At the same time, the benefits of medications are often inflated, whereas the harmful effects are drastically minimized or not reported at all. This misinformation is distributed to the public, and to patients, in part through the education of students and trainees. Early educational experiences can shape the thinking of trainees as they begin to formulate their respective approaches to clinical populations, and textbooks are a fundamental part of this education. The purpose of this study was to analyze popular abnormal psychology textbooks to evaluate their representation of the current scientific literature regarding psychopathology. Content areas that were explored were those related to depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Misrepresentations of the literature were pervasive in areas associated with biological findings. In addition, there were multiple omissions or biased statements related to psychosocial findings, distortions regarding the efficacy of and adverse effects of various treatments, and a lack of reports of the existence of effective alternative approaches to standard mental health care. Concerns regarding the dissemination of distorted and false information in higher education as it pertains to ethics and informed consent are discussed.
Published: 24 November 2012
Journal of the History of Biology, Volume 46, pp 1-30; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10739-012-9344-6

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Daniel Skehan, Warren Larkin, John Read
Published: 22 November 2012
Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, Volume 17, pp 373-391; https://doi.org/10.1057/pcs.2012.33

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Page of 1
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top