(searched for: doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01336-3)
Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology; doi:10.1080/17512433.2021.1951473
Irish Journal of Medical Science pp 1-13; doi:10.1007/s11845-021-02668-2
Introduction Despite the rapid advance of psychedelic science and possible translation of psychedelic therapy into the psychiatric clinic, very little is known about mental health service user attitudes. Objectives To explore mental health service user attitudes to psychedelics and psilocybin therapy. Methods A questionnaire capturing demographics, diagnoses, previous psychedelic and other drug use, and attitudes to psychedelics and psilocybin therapy was distributed to mental health service users. Results Ninety-nine participants completed the survey (52% female, mean age 42 years). The majority (72%) supported further research, with 59% supporting psilocybin as a medical treatment. A total of 27% previously used recreational psilocybin, with a male preponderance (p = 0.01). Younger age groups, those with previous psychedelic experience, and those with non-religious beliefs were more likely to have favourable attitudes towards psilocybin. A total of 55% of the total sample would accept as a treatment if doctor recommended, whereas 20% would not. Fewer people with depression/anxiety had used recreational psychedelics (p = 0.03) but were more likely to support government funded studies (p = 0.02). A minority (5%) of people with conditions (psychosis and bipolar disorder) that could be exacerbated by psilocybin thought it would be useful for them. One fifth of the total sample viewed psychedelics as addictive and unsafe even under medical supervision. Concerns included fear of adverse effects, lack of knowledge, insufficient research, illegality, and relapse if medications were discontinued. Conclusions The majority supported further research into psilocybin therapy. Younger people, those with previous recreational psychedelic experience, and those with non-religious beliefs were more likely to have favourable attitudes towards psilocybin therapy.
International Review of Psychiatry pp 1-21; doi:10.1080/09540261.2021.1919062
This review examines the role of trauma in psychiatric morbidity and analogous psychoneurobiological changes. Trauma is a necessary criterion for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), however, trauma history is highly correlated with a variety of psychiatric conditions. Some evidence suggests that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric condition that arises following trauma. Approximately 50% of PTSD cases present with co-morbid MDD. Overlapping symptomatology and neurobiology between these conditions underlie the debate over whether these phenomena result from problematic nosology or whether comorbid MDD + PTSD is a distinct phenotype of trauma-related psychopathology. Regardless, similar treatment approaches have been employed historically, with varying success. The drug-assisted psychotherapy treatment model, which combines pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches, is currently being trialled as a novel treatment approach in psychiatry. Both psilocybin- and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy have received Food and Drug Administration ‘breakthrough therapy’ designation for the treatment of resistant MDD and PTSD, respectively. This paper reviews the therapeutic rationale of both psilocybin and MDMA for treating both trauma-related MDD and PTSD.
Schizophrenia Research; doi:10.1016/j.schres.2021.06.005
While genetic factors play a critical role in the risk for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, increasing evidence points to the role of childhood adversity as one of several environmental factors that can significantly impact the development, manifestations and outcome of these disorders. This paper reviews the epidemiological evidence linking childhood adversity and psychotic disorders and explores various theoretical models that seek to explain the connection. We discuss neurobiological parallels between the impact of childhood trauma and psychosis on the brain and then explore the impact of childhood adversity on different domains of clinical presentation. Finally, implications for prevention and treatment are considered, both on individual and structural levels.
Nature Medicine, Volume 27, pp 950-951; doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01385-8
A phase 3 study shows that MDMA may be a promising treatment for PTSD, which will require a shift in how this drug is perceived.