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(searched for: doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01323-8)
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, Junlei Zhang, Lin Wang, Vincent Tano, Jianghui Tang, Xun Wang, Jiangchao Wu, Jinyuan Song, Yaxing Zhao, Jingxia Rong, et al.
Published: 12 July 2021
by BMJ
Gut; doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2021-324339

Abstract:
Objective Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumour microenvironment (TME) is highly complex with diverse cellular components organising into various functional units, cellular neighbourhoods (CNs). And we wanted to define CN of HCC while preserving the TME architecture, based on which, potential targets for novel immunotherapy could be identified. Design A highly multiplexed imaging mass cytometry (IMC) panel was designed to simultaneously quantify 36 biomarkers of tissues from 134 patients with HCC and 7 healthy donors to generate 562 highly multiplexed histology images at single-cell resolution. Different function units were defined by topological analysis of TME. CN relevant to the patients’ prognosis was identified as specific target for HCC therapy. Transgenic mouse models were used to validate the novel immunotherapy target for HCC. Results Three major types of intratumour areas with distinct distribution patterns of tumorous, stromal and immune cells were identified. 22 cellular metaclusters and 16 CN were defined. CN composed of various types of cells formed regional function units and the regional immunity was regulated reversely by resident Kupffer cells and infiltrating macrophages with protumour and antitumour function, respectively. Depletion of Kupffer cells in mouse liver largely enhances the T cell response, reduces liver tumour growth and sensitises the tumour response to antiprogrammed cell death protein-1 treatment. Conclusion Our findings reveal for the first time the various topological function units of HCC TME, which also presents the largest depository of pathological landscape for HCC. This work highlights the potential of Kupffer cell-specific targeting rather than overall myeloid cell blocking as a novel immunotherapy for HCC treatment.
Xupeng Bai, Jie Ni, Julia Beretov, Peter Graham,
Journal of the National Cancer Center; doi:10.1016/j.jncc.2021.06.001

Abstract:
Clinicians have very limited options to treat triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) due to the lack of effective targeted drugs. Recently, the findings of the mechanism underlying tumor-intrinsic immune escape have fueled a wave of studies into immunotherapy in breast cancer (BC). Compared with other BC subtypes, TNBC shows a better response to immunotherapy due to the higher level of tumor mutation burden and lymphocyte infiltration. Thereinto, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) achieved the first success of immunotherapy for TNBC and are widely utilized with conventional treatments in the neoadjuvant/adjuvant and advanced stages. However, a large number of TNBC patients fail to demonstrate a good response to ICIs, and the acquired resistance to ICI-based therapies is clinically emerging, which is a major challenge for immunotherapy in TNBC. Here we review the latest advances in TNBC immune microenvironment, immunotherapy, and immunotherapeutic resistance and discuss the challenges and potential approaches to improve the clinical benefit of immunotherapy against TNBC.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 22; doi:10.3390/ijms22136932

Abstract:
In the past decade, immunotherapies have been emerging as an effective way to treat cancer. Among several categories of immunotherapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the most well-known and widely used options for cancer treatment. Although several studies continue, this treatment option has yet to be developed into a precise application in the clinical setting. Recently, omics as a high-throughput technique for understanding the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome has revolutionized medical research and led to integrative interpretation to advance our understanding of biological systems. Advanced omics techniques, such as multi-omics, single-cell omics, and typical omics approaches, have been adopted to investigate various cancer immunotherapies. In this review, we highlight metabolomic studies regarding the development of ICIs involved in the discovery of targets or mechanisms of action and assessment of clinical outcomes, including drug response and resistance and propose biomarkers. Furthermore, we also discuss the genomics, proteomics, and advanced omics studies providing insights and comprehensive or novel approaches for ICI development. The overview of ICI studies suggests potential strategies for the development of other cancer immunotherapies using omics techniques in future studies.
, Kevin Punie, Chris Twelves, Stefanella Bortini, , Steven Anderson, Carmen Criscitiello, , Sherene Loi
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, Volume 21, pp 945-962; doi:10.1080/14712598.2021.1936494

Abstract:
: Advanced breast cancer (aBC) remains incurable and the quest for more effective systemic anticancer agents continues. Promising results have led to the FDA approval of three antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and two immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) to date for patients with aBC. : With the anticipated emergence of newer ADCs and ICIs for patients with several subtypes of breast cancer, and given their potential synergy, their use in combination is of clinical interest. In this article, we review the use of ADCs and ICIs in patients with breast cancer, assess the scientific rationale for their combination, and provide an overview of ongoing trials and some early efficacy and safety results of such dual therapy. : Improvement in the medicinal chemistry of next-generation ADCs, their rational combination with ICIs and other agents, and the development of multiparametric immune biomarkers could help to significantly improve the outlook for patients with refractory aBC.
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