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(searched for: doi:10.1186/s42238-021-00063-3)
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Published: 1 December 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Plants
Abstract:
The published health benefits of Cannabis sativa has caught the attention of health-conscious consumers and the food industry. Historically, seeds have long been utilized as a food source and currently there is an increasing number of edibles on the market that contain cannabis. Cannabinoids include the psychoactive constituent, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) that are both compounds of interest in Cannabis sativa. This paper looks at the distribution of nutrients and phytocannabinoids in low-THC Cannabis sativa, the historical uses of hemp, cannabis edibles, and the possible side-effects and concerns related to cannabis edibles. Several authors have pointed out that even though the use of cannabis edibles is considered safe, it is important to mention their possible side-effects and any concerns related to its consumption that negatively influence consumer acceptance of cannabis edibles. Such risks include unintentional overdose by adults and accidental ingestion by children and adolescents resulting in serious adverse effects. Therefore, cannabis edibles should be specifically packaged and labelled to differentiate them from known similar non-cannabis edibles so that, together with tamperproof packaging, these measures reduce the appeal of these products to children.
, Kerry Hughes
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Volume 11, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1186/s43088-022-00277-1

Abstract:
Background: Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus, ethnomedicinal plants have been used in diverse geographical locations for their purported prophylactic and pharmacological effects. Medicinal plants have been relied on by people around the globe for centuries, as 80% of the world’s population rely on herbal medicines for some aspect of their primary health care needs, according to the World Health Organization. Main body: This review portrays advances in traditional phytomedicine by bridging the knowledge of ethno-phytomedicine and COVID-19 healthcare. Ethnomedicinal plants have been used for symptoms related to COVID-19 as antiviral, anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antipyretic, and lung–gut immune boosters. Traditionally used medicinal plants have the ability to inhibit virus entry and viral assembly, bind to spike proteins, membrane proteins, and block viral replications and enzymes. The efficacy of traditional medicinal plants in the terms of COVID-19 management can be evaluated by in vitro, in vivo as well as different in silico techniques (molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, machine learning, etc.) which have been applied extensively to the quest and design of effective biotherapeutics rapidly. Other advances in traditional phytomedicines against COVID-19 are controlled clinical trials, and notably the roles in the gut microbiome. Targeting the gut microbiome via medicinal plants as prebiotics is also found to be an alternative and potential strategy in the search for a COVID-19 combat strategy. Conclusions: Since medicinal plants are the sources of modern biotherapeutics development, it is essential to build collaborations among ethnobotanists, scientists, and technologists toward developing the most efficient and the safest adjuvant therapeutics against the pandemic of the twenty-first century, COVID-19.
, Claudete da Costa-Oliveira, Ygor Jessé Ramos, Diogo Fonseca Mantovanelli, Marilia Santoro Cardoso, Larissa Dias Viana-Oliveira, Jose Luiz Costa, Davyson De Lima Moreira, Magno Maciel-Magalhães
Published: 28 June 2022
Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research; https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2022.0076

Abstract:
Introduction:Cannabis sativa L. medicinal oils are good therapeutic options due to their wide spectrum of pharmacological applications and the easy adjustment of individual doses. The lack of standardization of methodology in the preparation of medicinal oil using the Cannabis crude extract results in elevated variability of cannabinoid concentration in the final product. The elevated variability impairs the understanding of beneficial and adverse effects related to dose–response pharmacological activities. Objective: This study aimed to conduct a review on the current methods of Cannabis oil preparation present in the literature, to demonstrate the most appropriate methodologies to ensure a product with high content of cannabinoids and terpenes. Results: The decarboxylation stage is essential for the conversion of acid cannabinoids into neutral cannabinoids, which are substances with the highest bioavailability. Lower temperatures for longer periods of time instead of high temperatures in less time are highly recommended to ensure that all the acidic cannabinoids have passed through decarboxylation. For the guarantee of a high terpene content, the separate addition of essential oil to the fixed oil prepared from the crude extract should be considered. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is one of the best performing methodologies because it is cheaper than other techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, besides that, ultrasound extraction is effective in short extraction times and uses small amounts of solvent when compared with other techniques. Conclusion: Although the literature about the methods of preparation of Cannabis medicinal oil is scarce, it is possible to standardize an optimized, low-cost, and effective Cannabis extractive methodology from the results found in the literature; however, this will depend on new research for methodological validation.
Published: 1 October 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Horticulturae
Abstract:
The aim of current study is to provide a significant traditional knowledge on wild medicines used for ethnoveterinary purposes in the rural area of Maraog region in district Shimla. The medicinal plants have played a significant role in the treatment of human as well as animal’s diseases. The rural people of the Maraog region were interviewed through a questionnaire and extensive field surveys were conducted from June 2020 to July 2021. The discussion, observations and interviews were conducted in study site and included 96 informants. The information gathered from the residents is presented in a table format and includes scientific and local names, different parts used, diseases treated and mode administration. The most commonly used taxa are calculated with used value. The study revealed 100 plants in which trees (7), shrubs (26), herbs (56), ferns (5), grasses (3) and climbers (3) were identified. The most commonly documented livestock diseases were found to be hoof infections, eyes infections, poisoning and skin infections. In the current study, the Rosaceae family was reported as being the highest number (11), followed by Asteraceae (10) and then Lamiaceae (6). It was found that leaves, roots, flowers and fruits are the commonly used parts for ethnoveterinary medications. The phytochemicals present in the plant, such as alkaloids, sterols, glycosides, flavonoids, lignin, coumarins and terpenoids, etc., may be responsible for their medicinal properties. In this documentation, it was observed that the younger generation does not have good knowledge of medicinal plants as compared to the older ones. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve the traditional knowledge of these medicinal plants before their permanent loss. The documentation and conservation of medicinal plants can be a good start for novel phytopharmacological research in the veterinary field.
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