(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.02.003)
Frontiers in Oncology, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.692728
Objective To establish a prognostic model for Bladder cancer (BLCA) based on demographic information, the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) 7th staging system, and additional treatment using the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database. Methods Cases with BLCA diagnosed from 2010–2015 were collected from the SEER database, while patient records with incomplete information on pre-specified variables were excluded. All eligible cases were included in the full analysis set, which was then split into training set and test set with a 1:1 ratio. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were conducted to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in BLCA patients. With selected independent prognosticators, a nomogram was mapped to predict OS for BLCA. The nomogram was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and calibration plot in both the training and test sets. The area under curve [AUC] of the nomogram was calculated and compared with clinicopathological indicators using the full analysis set. Statistical analyses were conducted using the R software, where P-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results The results indicated that age, race, sex, marital status, histology, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages based on the AJCC 7th edition, and additional chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors for OS in patients with BLCA. Patients receiving chemotherapy tend to have better survival outcomes than those without. The proposed nomogram showed decent classification (AUCs >0.8) and prediction accuracy in both the training and test sets. Additionally, the AUC of the nomogram was observed to be better than that of conventional clinical indicators. Conclusions The proposed nomogram incorporated independent prognostic factors including age, race, sex, marital status, histology, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages, and additional chemotherapy. Patients with BLCA benefit from chemotherapy on overall survival. The nomogram-based prognostic model could predict overall survival for patients with BLCA with accurate stratification, which is superior to clinicopathological factors.