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(searched for: doi:10.1680/jadcr.19.00118)
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Egglestone Kayleigh, Mawada Abdellatif, Amoako-Attah Joseph, Saif S. AlQuzweeni,
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 877; https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/877/1/012018

Abstract:
It is currently established that one of the paramount concerns in the built environment is the energy efficiency of new and existing UK dwellings, respective to the unfavourable impacts posed to climate change. The Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy in the United Kingdom have reported that the UK’s highest recording temperatures have transpired in the years since 2002. With over 90% of England homes currently in use of high carbon systems for space heating and domestic hot water. Contributing to increased atmospheric carbon emissions in the dependency on fossil fuel burning; alluding to human-produced atmospheric temperature increase. To help tackle these issues in the residential sector, the capacity of zero-energy technologies has been introduced. Zero-energy implementation has potential to revolutionise the power system, with on-site power generation at the forefront of this. This paper will explore the influence of zero-energy implementation on two UK residential dwellings of disparate locations, using Integrated Environmental Solutions Virtual Environment (IESVE) by focusing on renewable on-site micro-generation systems. The ASHRAE climate zones of Edinburgh and London Gatwick has been selected to examine the performance of the building over varied regional climates of disparate locations. The selected design variables were finally implemented in combination for building simulation in IESVE and compared with a basic model dwelling. The processed simulation results showed a reduction in the buildings energy consumption of 43.4538MWh (71%) for Edinburgh and 33.9929MWh (64%) for London respective to the baseline model. The greatest savings in mitigation of UK climate change can be evaluated in relation to reduction of carbon emissions, which were 7880kgCO2 (46%) and 5423kgCO2 (36%) respectively.
Qasim S. Kadhim, , Nagham T. Ibraheem
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012047

Abstract:
The paper describes the technical means, methods, and results of experimental studies of the spread of ice-forming agents in the boundary layer of the atmosphere under the action of ground-based aerosol generator NAG-07M. Comparison of the data on sampling by an AVA 3-240-01S probe mounted aboard Vilga-35A aircraft with aerosol propagation calculations using a 3-D SeedDisp model shows 1. The concentration of silver iodide measured in the atmosphere was above background one to a height of 1200 m at distances of 3 to 9 km from the place of the generator installation. 2. The developed SeedDisp numerical model in general qualitatively correctly describes the distribution of silver iodide aerosols in the boundary layer and the free atmosphere under the action of ground-based aerosol generator NAG-07M. Thus, the coefficient of correlation of the measured and calculated by model values of the silver iodide particles concentration in the sub-cloud layer exceeded the value of 0.7.
Jacob Cotterill, Saleem Ethaib, , , Anas Y. Al-Hayawi, Mawada Abdellatif, Michaela Gkantou, Ali Shubbar
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012023

Abstract:
Preserving the temperature of the indoor environment within the acceptable limits during the cold weather using a minimal amount of energy consumption is an important factor in the modern housing systems and green buildings. Therefore, this study aims to provide eco-friendly insulation material (organic material). The utlised organic material in this study was Lignocellusic Biomass (it is also known as Poaceae common reed, and Phragmites australis) and straw. The insulation efficiency of this organic matter was evaluated via testing its performance under controlled conditions. The experimental work included three types of insulation, namely organic insulation (straw and reeds), industrial insulation material (fiberglass), and bricks (without insulation). The insulation level was monitored using an infrared camera. The thermal profile was created for each insulation scenario. The results showed that the efficiency of the organic insulation was similar to the fiberglass; only a 0.84% difference was noticed between the industrial and the organic insulation materials in terms of efficiency, which proves that the Lignocellusic Biomass is a potential eco-friendly alternative for the industrial insulation materials.
Rasha S. Alkizwini, Saif S. Alquzweeni, Khalida A. Thejeel, , Patryk Kot, Michaela Gkantou, A. H. AlKhayyat
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012022

Abstract:
Manganese (Mn) is expected in the majority of freshwater sources due to the wide usage of this element in many industries, such as steel and battery industries, where its concentration in some water bodies could exceed 9600 μg/L. High concentrations of Mn cause many diseases such as Parkinsonism, and lung diseases. The present investigation explores an electrocoagulation unit to remove manganese from water. The electrodes of the electrocoagulation unit are made from iron and aluminium (iron anode, and aluminium cathode). This cell is employed to remediate water samples with 2000 μg/L of manganese. The impacts of many different operating factors, specifically the initial pHs, electric currents, and distances between electrodes, on manganese removals was tested to attend the best performance of manganese removal. The central composite method was applied for the optimization of the operating conditions. Additionally, the estimated power consumption was calculated under the optimum conditions. The outcomes of this investigation revealed that at initial pH of 6.0, the current density of 0.5 mA/cm2, and inter-electrode distances of 5 mm, the maximum manganese removal efficiency (97.2 %) was achieved. Additionally, the reuired power consumption was 3.2 kWh/m3, while the operating cost was £0.48 per m3.
M Abdulredha, Adnan A. Muhsin, Abduljaleel Al-Janabi, , M. Gkantou, Joseph Amoako-Attah, Dhiya Al-Jumeily, Jamila Mustafina, Ahmed AlKhayyat
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012007

Abstract:
When considering binding materials, cement mortar is thought to be one of the most conventional and effective materials. The cement mortar is mainly containing cement, sand (fine and rough), and water. In fact, there are many environmental and economical limitations to the usage of raw materials in mortar blends. For considering these limitations, many researchers studied the ability to incorporate waste-materials to fully or partially replace conventional raw materials. In this research, compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) will be studied by incorporating (SF) and (CKD) of mortar specimens and study the effect after 7,14, and 28 days. The obtained results from the collected samples (M1, M2, and M3) were compared with the reference mortar samples that contain ordinary Portland cement (OPC) only. The collected results showed that samples with CKD and SF have less compressive strength than ones with OPC with 28 days of curing. In addition, with higher CKD content, lower compressive strength was obtained. Samples (M1, M2) have the highest (UPV) values at different curing periods.
M Abdulredha, N R Kadhim, Ameer H Hussein, , Rafid Alkhaddar, David Yeboah, K Hashim, Ahmed AlKhayyat
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012009

Abstract:
Water is a vital element to the survival of humans and other life forms. Yet, this source is being contaminated due to pollution leading to significantly limited freshwater, which threatens humans' existence. Nitrates and ammonium are water contaminants and their concentration has vividly increased owing to their applications as farm nourishments. High concentrations of such contaminants in water can lead to health issues. Thus, controlling the concentration levels of these pollutants in water grows into the main task for environmentalist. Thus, a natural zeolite filter was employed in this study to minimize the traces of contaminants from water. Samples of synthetic water have been prepared and used in the laboratory tests that contain 50 mg/l of each contaminant. Using natural zeolite dose ranged from 1-5 g/l at various pH level (between 3-10) showed that the zeolite filter significantly improved the water quality for initial concentrations of each pollutant ranged from 10 to 50 mg/l. The outcomes showed that more than 93 % of both contaminates (nitrate and ammonium) were separated after using 5 g/l dose of zeolite in neutral pH level range for 120 minutes.
Zinah K. K. Dosh, Ammar K. A. Maslookhi, Alyaa N. Al-Saidi, , Joseph Amoako-Attah
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012003

Abstract:
Biological pollution of water and wastewater is a global grave concern, especially in developing countries due to insufficient treatment and sanitation. Additionally, the poor economy of the majority of the developing countries limits both applications of advanced treatment technologies and modern monitoring systems, which intensifies the problem of biological pollution. In this investigation, the electrocoagulation method, which is in situ production of coagulation agents by passing electric current via metallic electrodes, has been used as an affordable treatment method for the removal of bacteria from municipal wastewater (E. coli as an indicator). Wastewater sample was collected from Al-Rustamyiah wastewater treatment plant, Baghdad city, Iraq. In this investigation, the electrocoagulation unit was supplied with iron electrodes (Fe-ELE). The impacts of current density (CD) and electrodes gapping (EG) on the performance of the Fe-ELE performance were optimized to attain the best activation percentage. The obtained results showed that the Fe-ELE achieved full deactivation of the E. coli after 45 minutes of treatment at EG of 5 mm, CD of 2 mA/cm2, and an initial pH of 6.0.
Elaf S. Hamooda, Aeed S. Al-Fahdawi
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012083

Abstract:
This research includes synthesization and characterization of dinuclear transition metal(II) macrocyclic dithiocarbamate complexes (DTC) of the general formula [M(L)]2, where M(II) could be Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, while L is the potassium mono-dithiocarbamate. Then, these complexes were used to remove iron and copper from wastewater. DTC complexes are prepared via a one-pot reaction by mixing secondary amine, CS2, KOH, and metal chloride. All compounds are characterized by FTIR, UV-visible, mass spectra, magnetic moment, conductance, melting point, mass spectroscopy, and 1H-, 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The complexes of divalent metal ions appear to be tetrahedral geometry for Fe(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) complexes, while octahedral geometry is suggested for Mn(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes. The ligands showed effective Cu and Fe removal efficiency of up to 75.96, 48.9% from wastewater.
Ruqayah Ali Grmasha, Shahla N. A. Al-Azzawi, Osamah J. Al-Sareji, , Mawada Abdellatif, Hayfaa A. Mubarak, Ahmed Alkhayyat
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012014

Abstract:
Air pollution is the most hazardous form of pollution because simply the amount of air is very limited on this planet and human beings cannot survive for more than a few minutes without air. In this work, air pollution with suspended solids will be investigated, where the concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 in Al-Hillah City have been measured by establishing three monitoring stations in a major street. The street has two main hospitals, a stadium, and many organizations. Temp monitor (model: Airing-1000) was utilized for this purpose. During the study period (five months), the range of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were from 7.8 to 32.5 μg/m3 and 4.5 to 11.1 μg/m3, respectively. The average PM10 concentration from station H2 exceeds the annual standard of WHO while the PM2.5 averages were within the annual standard of WHO except reading from site H2 during May 2019 was higher than the WHO limit. Many factors assist to raise the PMs concentrations in urban areas such as vehicle emission, measurement season type as well as dust events. In this study, we have noticed all factors are playing a significant role in increasing PMs concentrations.
Adnan A. Muhsin, Nabeel Hameed Al-Saati, Suad Mohammed Heil, Khalid Hashim, Ahmed H. AlKhayyat
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012002

Abstract:
This paper presents an experimental work conducted to study the properties of concrete incorporating (0-100) % of local (in Iraq) crushed limestone (CLS) as a partial replacement of coarse aggregate. Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) such as High Reactivity Metacaoline (HRM) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) were added to the mixtures to improve the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. The selective mixtures in this study were arranged into three groups, the first without (SCM), the second with (RHA), and the third with (HRM). Each of them (being with different ratios of (CLS) as a coarse aggregate) was tested for comparison with the reference mixtures. The slump and air contents were evaluated for the fresh concrete. The absorption as well as compressive strength (CS) and flexural strength (FS) were evaluated for the hardened specimens after 7 and 28 days. According to the results, the concrete with CLS as a coarse aggregate gained less performance than the ordinary concrete but the (SCM) improved the properties of the concrete mixtures. The results show that the HRM was more effective than the RHA with respect to the mechanical properties.
Osamah J. Al-Sareji, M Abdulredha, Hayfaa A. Mubarak, Ruqayah A. Grmasha, , Patryk Kot, Rafid Al-Khaddar, Ahmed AlKhayyat
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012015

Abstract:
The occurrence of heavy metals in water sources is grave worldwide concerns for many reasons, firstly because the heavy metals could remain in the water for very long periods because they cannot be degraded by the microorganisms. Secondly, the heavy metals can be accumulated in the bodies of plants and other living cells to toxic levels and could affect humans through the food chain. Finally, the contaminated water by heavy metals causes severe health problems for consumers, such as kidney and brain diseases. Therefore, the development of effective water treatment methods for remediation of water from heavy metals is a vital concern for scientists nowadays. The present work uses sawdust as a chemically activated adsorbent to remove copper. The adsorption experiments were employed in a batch system to investigate the impact of different parameters such as contact time, solution pH, and adsorbent dose. The favorable pH for maximum copper removal was at neutral. After performing the batch experiments, an optimum contact time of 150 min was adopted. The findings indicated that the sawdust dosage of 2 g/L removed about 79% from the copper concentration in the aqueous solution. Sawdust has been successfully utilized as low-cost sorbents for copper removal.
Shaymaa I. Saeed, Rasha Z. T. Ahmed, Ruqayah Ali Grmasha, , Jasim M. Salman, Osamah J. Al-Sareji, Hayfaa A. Mubarak, Ahmed AlKhayyat
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012013

Abstract:
One of the worldwide environmental issues is water contamination by toxic heavy metals. Copper is considered one of the most common heavy metals founded in industrial wastes, and it has potential impacts on the ecosystem and human health. In order to remove copper from synthetic water, an economically effective adsorbent is required. Thus, this work evaluated the adsorption of copper by utilizing Westland Irish peat moss. The adsorbent was prepared by washing the Westland Irish peat moss using an acidic bath for half an hour with a continuous shaken process, then the mixture was centrifuged to separate the peat moss particles, which was washed using deionized water and dried using an oven. The dried sample was ground and sieved at 80 mesh screen before it was used as an adsorbent. The experiments were accomplished in a batch system as a function of initial solution pH, contact time as well as peat moss dosage. The maximum copper removal, 94.8%, was obtained at a pH of 6, optimum adsorption-equilibrium time of 80 minutes, and peat moss dosage of 7.5 g/L. Irish peat moss as an economically effective adsorbent was satisfactorily employed to remove copper from synthetic water.
Wisam A. Jawad, Sadiq J. Baqir, Saif S. Alquzweeni, , Rasha S. Alkizwini, Patryk Kot, Ahmed H. AlKhayyat
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012021

Abstract:
The recent studies about water quality indicated a clear increase in the concentrations of many pollutants in the sources of freshwaters, such as nitrate, phosphate, and inorganic pollutants. This increase is attributed to the expansion of the global population, industries, and climate changes. These studies represented a call for the need for efficient treatment for water and wastewater. The current study investigates the possibility of using activated red mud (ARM) as an adsorbent to eliminate nitrates from water/wastewater. The operational parameters such as treatment times, pH, and doses of ARM were tested to assess their effects on the Nitrate removability by ARM. The optimum treatment times, pH, and dose for best removal within this study were 60 min, 7, and 75 g/L for treatment times, pH, and doses, respectively. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models and kinetic models including the pseudo-first-order, the pseudo-second-order, and interparticle diffusion using non-linear regressions were utilized to analyze the observed data which were gained from batch equilibrium tests. The obtained results revealed that the equilibrium data have good and reasonable fitness and agreement with the Langmuir isotherm models. The highest adsorption capacity of ARM was 1.79423925mg/g. The maximum percentage of removal was found to be about 71% at ambient temperature.
Isra’A S. Samaka, Abduljaleel Al-Janabi, M Abdulredha, Abdullah Alkandari, Mawada Abdellatif, David Yeboah
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 1058; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1058/1/012006

Abstract:
Phosphate is a common chemical element that resides extensively in the Earth's crust, and its presence in water results in eutrophication of water. Therefore, many studies were devoted to study the ability of phosphate removal from water and wastewater using different treatment methods. Recent studies have suggested that filtration treatment techniques are effective for phosphate removal with one disadvantage which is the high cost of industrial filtration materials used. As a result, recent studies are concentrating on minimizing the operational costs of the filtration method by using cost-effective alternatives. This study is focusing on the efficiency of using the wastes of the iron industry (furnaces bottom ashes (FBAs)) for phosphates elimination from synthetic water. Several operational conditions which are detention times, FBAs doses, and phosphate concentrations, were studied to obtain the best conditions which ensure the best possible removal rate and a reasonable operational cost. The results indicated that FBAs are an efficient alternative for phosphate removal with an optimum removal rate of 88.9% with 31 min retention time, phosphate concentration of 5 mg/L, and 550 mg/L FBAs doses. The results obtained were used to construct a model with high reliability at R2 = 0.967.
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