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(searched for: doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001436)
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Jiahui Liu, Ye Liu, Yue Fang, Lili Zhang, Kaixin Yu, Xiaoyun Wu,
Published: 13 September 2021
Phytopathology Research, Volume 3, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42483-021-00099-6

Abstract:
Potato virus X (PVX) is a widely distributed viral pathogen that causes significant losses in potato production by co-infecting with potato virus Y or potato virus A. In this study, the resistance of 23 potato cultivars to PVX was dissected in detail using a PVX infectious clone containing a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Among them, four potato cultivars (Longshu-3, Eugene, Atlantic and Waiyin-2) were found to carry an Rx gene that confers extreme resistance to PVX; one cultivar (Waiyin-1) displayed partial resistance and was able to delay PVX infection by ~ 5 days; while the rest eighteen potato cultivars were susceptible to PVX. Moreover, we found that the replication but not cell-to-cell or long-distance movement of PVX was inhibited in Waiyin-1. Finally, we determined that the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in Waiyin-1 was not triggered by PVX infection at early infection stage, whereas they were triggered in the Rx-carrying cultivar Atlantic during this period of time. In conclusion, our results confirm that Rx is a major type of resistance gene in potato cultivars in the Northeast part of China. Furthermore, the possible mechanism underlying Waiyin-1 resistance to PVX is discussed.
Erika Corrales-Cabra, Mónica Higuita, Rodrigo Hoyos, Yuliana Gallo, , Pablo Gutiérrez
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, Volume 116; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmpp.2021.101715

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Oki Matsumoto, Akio Miyazaki, Jun Tokoshima, Takumi Suzuki, Tetsuya Yoshida, Yukari Okano, Takamichi Nijo, Kensaku Maejima, Shigetou Namba,
Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung, Volume 166, pp 2343-2346; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05129-4

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 28 April 2021
by MDPI
Viruses, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050791

Abstract:
Advances in viral metagenomics have paved the way of virus discovery by making the exploration of viruses in any ecosystem possible. Applied to agroecosystems, such an approach opens new possibilities to explore how viruses circulate between insects and plants, which may help to optimise their management. It could also lead to identifying novel entomopathogenic viral resources potentially suitable for biocontrol strategies. We sampled the larvae of a natural population of alfalfa weevils (Hypera postica), a major herbivorous pest feeding on legumes, and its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Insect and plant samples were collected from a crop field and an adjacent meadow. We characterised the diversity and abundance of viruses associated with weevils and alfalfa, and described nine putative new virus species, including four associated with alfalfa and five with weevils. In addition, we found that trophic accumulation may result in a higher diversity of plant viruses in phytophagous pests compared to host plants.
Published: 9 April 2021
by MDPI
Viruses, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040644

Abstract:
Potato virus X (PVX) occurs worldwide and causes an important potato disease. Complete PVX genomes were obtained from 326 new isolates from Peru, which is within the potato crop′s main domestication center, 10 from historical PVX isolates from the Andes (Bolivia, Peru) or Europe (UK), and three from Africa (Burundi). Concatenated open reading frames (ORFs) from these genomes plus 49 published genomic sequences were analyzed. Only 18 of them were recombinants, 17 of them Peruvian. A phylogeny of the non-recombinant sequences found two major (I, II) and five minor (I-1, I-2, II-1, II-2, II-3) phylogroups, which included 12 statistically supported clusters. Analysis of 488 coat protein (CP) gene sequences, including 128 published previously, gave a completely congruent phylogeny. Among the minor phylogroups, I-2 and II-3 only contained Andean isolates, I-1 and II-2 were of both Andean and other isolates, but all of the three II-1 isolates were European. I-1, I-2, II-1 and II-2 all contained biologically typed isolates. Population genetic and dating analyses indicated that PVX emerged after potato’s domestication 9000 years ago and was transported to Europe after the 15th century. Major clusters A–D probably resulted from expansions that occurred soon after the potato late-blight pandemic of the mid-19th century. Genetic comparisons of the PVX populations of different Peruvian Departments found similarities between those linked by local transport of seed potato tubers for summer rain-watered highland crops, and those linked to winter-irrigated crops in nearby coastal Departments. Comparisons also showed that, although the Andean PVX population was diverse and evolving neutrally, its spread to Europe and then elsewhere involved population expansion. PVX forms a basal Potexvirus genus lineage but its immediate progenitor is unknown. Establishing whether PVX′s entirely Andean phylogroups I-2 and II-3 and its Andean recombinants threaten potato production elsewhere requires future biological studies.
, John Hammond, Rosemarie W. Hammond
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Volume 105, pp 627-645; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-11066-0

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Sari Nurulita, Andrew D. W. Geering, Kathleen S. Crew, Stephen Harper, John E. Thomas
Australasian Plant Disease Notes, Volume 15, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13314-020-00400-0

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Andrey G. Solovyev
Published: 1 January 2020
AIMS Microbiology, Volume 6, pp 305-329; https://doi.org/10.3934/microbiol.2020019

Abstract:
Most plant viruses code for movement proteins (MPs) targeting plasmodesmata to enable cell-to-cell and systemic spread in infected plants. Small membrane-embedded MPs have been first identified in two viral transport gene modules, triple gene block (TGB) coding for an RNA-binding helicase TGB1 and two small hydrophobic proteins TGB2 and TGB3 and double gene block (DGB) encoding two small polypeptides representing an RNA-binding protein and a membrane protein. These findings indicated that movement gene modules composed of two or more cistrons may encode the nucleic acid-binding protein and at least one membrane-bound movement protein. The same rule was revealed for small DNA-containing plant viruses, namely, viruses belonging to genus Mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae) and the family Nanoviridae. In multi-component transport modules the nucleic acid-binding MP can be viral capsid protein(s), as in RNA-containing viruses of the families Closteroviridae and Potyviridae. However, membrane proteins are always found among MPs of these multicomponent viral transport systems. Moreover, it was found that small membrane MPs encoded by many viruses can be involved in coupling viral replication and cell-to-cell movement. Currently, the studies of evolutionary origin and functioning of small membrane MPs is regarded as an important pre-requisite for understanding of the evolution of the existing plant virus transport systems. This paper represents the first comprehensive review which describes the whole diversity of small membrane MPs and presents the current views on their role in plant virus movement.
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