(searched for: doi:10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.2.1)
European journal of medicinal chemistry, Volume 224; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113682
Addressing the global need for the development of safe and potent NSAIDs, new series of oxadiazolo and thiadiazolo fused pyrmidinones were synthesized and initially tested for their analgesic activity. All tested compounds showed promising analgesic activity compared with the reference standard indomethacin. Moreover, anti-inflammatory activity evaluation, ulcerogenic liability, and in vitro COX-1, COX-2 enzyme inhibition assays were also performed for the most active derivatives. The methoxyphenyl piperazinyl derivative 3d showed analgesic activity surpassing indomethacin with protection of 100%, and 83%; respectively. Also 3d showed good anti-inflammatory activity with relatively lower ulcer index compared with other tested compounds, and potent COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity with IC50 = 0.140, 0.007 μm, respectively, and with a selectivity index of 20.00 which was better than the reference standards and the other tested congeners. Additionally, compounds 3b, 3g and 3h revealed moderate selectivity (SI = 3.53, 3.70 and 5.87, respectively). Moreover, in silico physicochemical parameters revealed that the new fused pyrimidinones demonstrated promising pharmacokinetic properties. Furthermore, computational studies in form of 2D-quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) and 3D-pharmacophore confirmed the potential analgesic properties of the new target compounds.
Drug Research, Volume 71, pp 62-72; https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1323-2813
Piperazine, a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic has acquired an inimitable position in medicinal chemistry because of its versatile structure, which has fascinated researchers to design novel piperazine based molecules having various biological actions. The subsistence of various compounds possessing diverse pharmacological activities in the literature further confirms this fact. Currently available analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with side effects that limit their use. Moreover, the literature reveals the incredible anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of piperazine derivatives along with their method of synthesis, therefore; the present review has been designed to collate the development made in this area that will surely be advantageous in designing novel piperazine based candidates with enhanced efficacy and less toxicity. An extensive literature survey was carried by scrutinizing peer reviewed articles from worldwide scientific databases available on GOOGLE, SCOPUS, PUBMED, and only relevant studies published in English were considered.