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(searched for: doi:10.1145/2984450.2984459)
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O. A. Jasim,
The Aeronautical Journal pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1017/aer.2022.45

Abstract:
A control system verification framework is presented for unmanned aerial vehicles using theorem proving. The framework’s aim is to set out a procedure for proving that the mathematically designed control system of the aircraft satisfies robustness requirements to ensure safe performance under varying environmental conditions. Extensive mathematical derivations, which have formerly been carried out manually, are checked for their correctness on a computer. To illustrate the procedures, a higher-order logic interactive theorem-prover and an automated theorem-prover are utilised to formally verify a nonlinear attitude control system of a generic multi-rotor UAV over a stability domain within the dynamical state space of the drone. Further benefits of the procedures are that some of the resulting methods can be implemented onboard the aircraft to detect when its controller breaches its flight envelope limits due to severe weather conditions or actuator/sensor malfunction. Such a detection procedure can be used to advise the remote pilot, or an onboard intelligent agent, to decide on some alterations of the planned flight path or to perform emergency landing.
Published: 9 January 2022
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020610

Abstract:
Safety is the primary concern when it comes to air traffic. In-flight safety between Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAVs) is ensured through pairwise separation minima, utilizing conflict detection and resolution methods. Existing methods mainly deal with pairwise conflicts, however, due to an expected increase in traffic density, encounters with more than two UAVs are likely to happen. In this paper, we model multi-UAV conflict resolution as a multiagent reinforcement learning problem. We implement an algorithm based on graph neural networks where cooperative agents can communicate to jointly generate resolution maneuvers. The model is evaluated in scenarios with 3 and 4 present agents. Results show that agents are able to successfully solve the multi-UAV conflicts through a cooperative strategy.
Balita Heriniaina Rakotonarivo, Nicolas Drougard, Stéphane Conversy, Jérémie Garcia
32e Conférence Francophone sur l'Interaction Homme-Machine; https://doi.org/10.1145/3450522.3451328

Abstract:
In this paper, we focus on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) operations safety support. This is a key issue for operators, who must comply with the european regulation. First, we introduce the important elements of a civil UAS, including the European regulation. Then we describe a systematic literature review on this topic. This results in the identification of the main approaches: Detect & Avoid, Human-Computer Interactions and Human Factors (HCI/HF), aircraft integrity, safety assessment, path planning, geofencing, cybersecurity and UAS traffic management. We further analyze the contributions related to HCI by identifying user tasks, interaction design recommendations for improving the safety of UAS operations and research perspectives. Finally, we discuss aspects that are poorly covered in the reviewed articles.
Donald H. Costello Iii, Jason Jewell, Huan Xu
Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 29, pp 93-106; https://doi.org/10.2514/1.d0220

Abstract:
The current safety of flight clearances for unmanned aircraft requires a qualified operator who can make decisions and ultimately bears the responsibility for the safe operations of the vehicle. The future of aviation is unmanned, and ultimately autonomous. Yet, a method for certifying an autonomous vehicle to make decisions currently reserved for qualified pilots does not exist. Before we can field autonomous systems, a process needs to be approved to certify them. This paper analyzes the flight-test data (both developmental and operational) of an autonomous decision engine selecting an appropriate landing site for a large rotorcraft in an unprepared landing zone. In particular, this paper focuses on using legacy test and evaluation methods to determine their suitability for obtaining a safety of flight clearance for a system that possesses autonomous functionality. We will show that the autonomous system under test was able to complete a mission currently reserved for qualified pilots under controlled conditions. However, when confronted with conditions that were not anticipated (or programmed), the software lacked the judgment a pilot uses to complete a mission under off-nominal conditions.
Donald H. Costello Iii, Huan Xu
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems, Volume 18, pp 3-13; https://doi.org/10.2514/1.i010848

Abstract:
The last 15 years have seen a large uptick in the use of unmanned aircraft. However, the current safety of flight clearances for unmanned aircraft requires a qualified operator who can make decisions and ultimately bear the responsibly for the safe operations of the vehicle. The future of aviation is unmanned, and ultimately autonomous. Yet, a clear path for certifying an autonomous vehicle to make decisions currently reserved for qualified pilots does not exist. This paper presents a preliminary approach for certifying an autonomous controller to select an appropriate landing site for a large rotorcraft in an unprepared landing zone. In particular, this paper will decompose the steps currently used by qualified pilots to the basic requirements to define an envelope where the vehicle will be allowed to operate autonomously while landing. These requirements are the basis for a specification that we examine to ensure it met the requirements. A protocol is developed based on the analyzed specification that will ensure what the vehicle “will not do” while operating autonomously. Finally, we describe how this protocol can be used as the safety of flight evidence, and eventually for clearing an autonomous controller to complete a task reserved for qualified pilots.
Sa’Ed Abed, Adnan Rashid, Osman Hasan
Journal of Aerospace Information Systems, Volume 17, pp 481-495; https://doi.org/10.2514/1.i010730

Abstract:
The continuous dynamics of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are generally modeled as a set of differential equations. Traditionally, these continuous dynamics of UAVs are analyzed using paper-and-pencil proof and computer-based testing or simulations to study the performance, stability, and various other control characteristics of the aircraft flying in the air. However, these techniques suffer from their inherent limitations such as human error proneness, sampling-based analysis, approximations of the mathematical results, and the usage of unverified algorithms. Thus, these methods cannot be trusted when considering the utility of UAVs in many safety-critical applications. To overcome the limitations of the aforementioned techniques, it is proposed to use higher-order-logic theorem proving for formally analyzing the continuous dynamics of UAVs. In particular, a formalization of complex-valued matrices in higher-order logic is provided using the HOL Light theorem prover, which is in turn used for the formalization of the navigation’s and aircraft’s body-fixed frames, as well as their associated transformations. Formal reasoning support is also provided for analyzing the multiple-input multiple-output systems, which are in turn used for formally analyzing the continuous dynamics of UAVs using HOL Light. For illustration, we use our proposed framework for the formal stability analysis of the CropCam UAV using HOL Light.
Yixiang Lim, Alessandro Gardi, , , Trevor Kistan, Neta Ezer, Julian Vince, Robert Bolia
Published: 3 August 2018
Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Volume 102, pp 1-46; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paerosci.2018.05.002

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Journal of Combinatorial Optimization, Volume 37, pp 901-920; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10878-018-0328-0

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Héctor Cadavid, Alexander Pérez,
Communications in Computer and Information Science pp 611-626; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66562-7_44

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