(searched for: doi:10.24966/aad-7276/100023)
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Volume 121, pp 2257-2264; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2022.04.009
Toxics, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10070386
Predictors of mortality in illicit drug users involving Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) and multiple substances have not been elucidated. We aimed to define predictors of mortality in the NPS endemic era’s illicit drug users to strengthen patient care in emergency treatment. This was a retrospective study. LC-MS/MS-confirmed positive illicit drug users who visited the emergency departments (ED) of six medical systems were enrolled. Demographic information, physical examinations, and laboratory data were abstracted for mortality analysis. There were 16 fatalities in 355 enrolled patients. The most frequently used illicit drugs were amphetamines, followed by opioids, cathinones, and ketamine. The most frequently detected cathinones among the 16 synthetic cathinones were eutylone, followed by mephedrone. The combined use of cathinones and ketamine was most commonly observed in our results. Univariate analysis revealed that the mortality patients were older, with deep coma, faster heart rate and respiratory rate, lower blood pressures and O2 room air saturation, more seizures, abnormal breath sounds, and had urine incontinence compared to the survivor patients. The mortality patients also had acute kidney injury, higher potassium, blood sugar, liver function test, and lactate level. The results of multiple logistic regression demonstrated that SBP < 90 mmHg, dyspnea, blood sugar > 140 mg/dl, and HCO3 < 20.6 mmHg were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Regardless of the pattern of the use of illicit drugs, the predictors allow for risk stratification and determining the optimal treatment.
Published: 6 December 2019
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, Volume 40, pp 80-83; https://doi.org/10.1097/jcp.0000000000001151
Nitrous oxide (N2O), a commonly used anesthetic agent in dentistry, has emerged as a global public health threat in young population. Although N2O-related neurological sequelae such as spinal cord degeneration and sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy are well known, psychiatric manifestations of heavy N2O use remain unclear. Here, we presented 7 treatment-seeking patients with severe N2O use disorder to delineate the psychiatric profiles of N2O users in Asia. Seven patients with severe N2O use disorder who sought treatment in Taipei City Psychiatric Center between 2017 and 2018 were enrolled. We used chart review method to retrospectively collect their clinical information including sociodemographics, psychiatric and substance history, urine toxicology findings, and treatment course. These N2O users all had diagnoses of severe N2O use disorder. They usually initiated N2O use in late adolescence and early adulthood. Six of them had histories of mood disorders; all of them reported other illicit substance use before using N2O. The main reasons for treatment seeking were irritability, psychotic symptoms, self-harm, or violent behaviors as four of them were given a diagnosis of substance-induced psychotic disorder. Urine drug screen showed negative for other illicit drug use except for 1 positive case for cannabis and 1 for amphetamine. Three of 7 cases were hospitalized because of the severity of their psychiatric symptoms and suicidal risk. These cases with severe N2O use disorder showed high prevalence of psychotic symptoms and dangerous behaviors such as suicide or violence. This study highlights the addiction potential of N2O and its related adverse consequences in the psychiatric aspect.