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Zunnoorain Khan, Fuwad Bashir, Shahzad Khan
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 13-23; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-3(2021)-2

Abstract:
The rationale of the research is to investigate the importance of organizational culture in a Dynamic era of 21st century where only those organizations remain triumphant who transform change in their business. Whenever organization focused on change they encounter intense resistant from their employees as well as for conceptualizing of organization, culture conceived either as a variable or as a root metaphor. Philosophical stance of research was based on positivism and follows more deductive approach for this study. Cross sectional data of ten private sector organizations of Peshawar region were chosen. The findings of the study were moderately interesting in terms of change management with the important role of leadership found insignificant p> 0.051 and but shows weak relevance. However the results of organizational culture and change management were found significant P< 0.01 at 1% level of significance. Recommendation portion of the study suggest us that for the success of an organization culture play pivotal role in the dynamic parameters of change. On the other hand the role of empowerment played significant role for producing better organizational culture. Keywords: Organizational Culture, Organizational change, Leadership, Empowerment.
Farhan Khan, Sharif Ullah Jan, Alamzeb Aamir
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 24-41; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-3(2021)-3

Abstract:
The objective of this research is to consider the connections between various corporate governance mechanisms, CEO-Duality, and business performance on Car Assembler Companies listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX). The data has been analyzed from 2016-2020. T-test and multiple regressions have been applied to verify the effect of corporate governance on business performance. The investigation results indicate that the Size of the Board, Audit Committee, Annual general meeting, and CEO-duality contain a positive relationship to companies’ performance. As a result, the correlation coefficient explains that return on equity and profit margin has a positive relation with independent variables for example Board size, Audit committee, Annual general meeting, and CEO-Duality but, all of them are statistically insignificant. Moreover, ROE Coefficient Results in Fixed Effects and Random Effects Model indicates that only board size has a negative and significant effect on ROE. More specifically, PM Coefficient Results in Fixed Effects Model explain that the Size of the Board shows a negative and insignificant impact on PM. Moreover, the other two independent variables i.e. Audit Committee and Annual General Meeting show a positive and insignificant effect on PM. While in the PM Coefficient Results in Random Effects Model explain that the Size of the Board, Audit Committee, and Annual General Meeting show a positive and insignificant effect on PM. Besides that, Duality shows a negative and insignificant effect on PM. Keywords: Corporate Governance, Board-Size, Audit Committee, Annual, CEO’s Duality.
Chaudhry Rizwan Riaz, Khalilullah Mohammad
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 73-84; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-2(2021)-6

Abstract:
The main concern of this study was to determine the impact of supply chain collaboration on Gwadar port operational performance. The objective of the study has been achieved through conducting a survey and primary data has been analyzed to assess the linkages between explanatory variable and dependent variable. The survey was conducted to collect the primary data from respondents to determine the impact of supply chain collaboration on port performance. The managers of the companies located in Gwardar port remain the unit of analysis and their responses have been collected. A total of 300 questioners had been distributed and a valid number of questionnaires 225 has been obtained which makes the response rate of 75%. Data properties and respondent characteristics have been outlined. The covariance based structural equation modeling has been employed to statistically signify the relationship between the supply chain collaboration on Gwadar port operational performance. Based on statistical analysis the findings of the study suggest that supply chain collaboration positively triggers the operational performance of Gwadar port. Keywords: Port Performance, Supply Chain Collaboration, Gwadar Port, Supply Chain.
Muhammad Nadeem, Seema Arif, Irfana Rasul
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 42-55; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-2(2021)-4

Abstract:
Teacher’s satisfaction during the conduction of Performance Appraisal System (PAS) is highly dependent on the school management. Therefore, role of the school principal for monitoring the performance of teachers at higher secondary schools is commendable to achieve the targets. Survey research was conducted to review how the school management role impacted achieving the PAS targets for the satisfaction of teachers. Multistage sampling technique was opted for exploring the opinions of school principals and teachers from nine districts of the Punjab by using an already established tool Performance Appraisal Scale for Higher Secondary School Teachers (PAS-HSSTs). This questionnaire comprised of closed-ended items was used to get opinions from 90 principals and 540 teachers of higher secondary schools of Punjab. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. Items were factorized using the explanatory factor analysis technique yielding seven factors. Pearson Correlation was conducted to determine the strength of the relationship among the variables, while multiple linear regressions using the stepwise method was conducted to check the critical risk factors associated with the satisfaction of teachers during conduction of Performance Appraisal System. Management facilitation was rendered the best approach for successful Performance Appraisal System implementation. Performance appraisal was a significant and powerful predictor of teachers’ satisfaction; hence school principals focused on the ways and procedures to manage their teachers’ performance in order to enhance the overall effectiveness of PAS. Results revealed a highly complex situation faced by school mangers; though satisfaction of the teachers during PAS might be enhanced through proper training and awareness of the system. PAS might be more effective if teachers were satisfied. Keywords: Performance Appraisal System, Teacher’s Satisfaction, Management Role and School Improvement.
Muhammad Awais Mehmood, Qaiser Rashid Janjua, Faisal Aftab
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 26-41; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-2(2021)-3

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to explore how HEIs are using Social Media (SM) as a marketing communication tool and to understand their branding focus through SM. It was investigated by understanding the utilization of functional blocks of SM by HEIs, which are believed to contribute towards elements of brand equity. Utilization of functional blocks of SM was studied through theoretical lens of honeycomb framework of SM. This study used qualitative methodology, based on inductive research approach. The data was collected via Netnography method, based on six months usage of SM accounts of seven selected HEIs of Pakistan, out of 225, which exhibited active SM presence. HEIs were found using nine different content types on SM. The content types that showed highest utilization of functional blocks, i.e. endorsements and promotional-messages, were amongst the least preferred content types of HEIs. However, their most preferred content types, i.e. event coverage & announcements, showed lowest engagement level, and were seen contributing towards lower stages of brand building i.e. brand image and awareness only, thus reflecting a myopic focus of HEIs in terms of their brand building through SM. Findings of this study will enable HEIs to revisit their content preference on SM based on the desired branding objectives. This research has extended theoretical knowledge regarding SM Marketing in context of HEIs. Further, it has extended comprehension of various functional blocks of SM, in organizational context, based on literature review. Keywords: Social Media Marketing, Brand Equity, Honeycomb Framework, Higher Education Institutes.
Syed Mudasser Fida Gardazi, Muhammad Asim Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Nawaz
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 367-374; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-1(2021)-32

Abstract:
Price reduction is one of the civil law remedies incorporated in the Vienna sales convention. On the other hand, Pakistan is neither the signatory of the convention nor its national sales law posses this remedy. Therefore a research is highly required to fill this vacuum and find out a solution for international buyer who is involved in trade with parties in Pakistan. Thus the study aims to investigate the suitability of price reduction in compatibility with existing legal regime. The study reveals the raison d'être in contract making via relative analysis of the existence of price reduction as an assurance for performance and certainty. The results depict that adding price reduction as remedy will be a good legal cover to the buyer's claims and a better response to the business practices in Pakistan. Especially, where the buyer is facing difficulties to prove his loss he may simply opt to reduce the price. Hence, study recommends that introducing the 'price reduction' as a remedy in the local legal system will enhance the confidence of a commercial buyer from the international community. Keywords: Sale of Goods, CISG, Price Reduction, Remedy.
Asma Rashid, Masud Akhtar, Muhammad Naveed Riaz
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 361-366; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-1(2021)-31

Abstract:
The study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence, emotional regulation and emotional expressivity in employees. Present study was descriptive research based on survey research design conducted in various offices situated in Sargodha. Data from A purposive sample of employees (N =200) was collected using three scales. Results revealed significant relationship between emotional intelligence, emotional regulation and emotional expressivity in employees.: The finding has theoretical and applied significant in term of relationship between three interrelated constructs based on management of emotions at workplace. Keywords: Emotional Expressivity, Emotional Regulation, Emotional Intelligence, Employees.
Muhammad Tahir Khan, Ihtesham Khan, Adil Zaman
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 497-504; https://doi.org/10.30543/9-4(2020)-42

Abstract:
Besides, the corporate level governance factors and country level governance factors there is another crucial factor that affect the earnings manipulation practices, is country level Financial Development. Financial development would likely act to discipline managers, thereby minimizing their engagement in EM, therefore an effective financial development system helps to reduce the EM practices. Hence the main purpose of this research work is to investigate the impact of Financial development on accruals based earnings management by using panel data analysis taking sample of 257 non-financial firms listed in Pakistan stock exchange for the period of 2012 to 2019 through Fixed effect model.The results disclose that the financial development system of Pakistan negatively and significantly influence the EM activities of registered firm’s in Pakistan stock exchange. Hence, conclude that the strong financial system is effectively restrain the EM activities.The overall results are consistent with earlier literature that the advance FD enhance the controlling and analyzing of accounting informationby reducing the interference of management in the procedure of accounting accruals. Keywords: Earnings Management, Financial Development, Financial Development Index.
Masud Akhtar, Muhammad Naveed Riaz, Shazma Waheed
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 268-284; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-1(2021)-23

Abstract:
The present study is based on the Process Model of Time Management by Macan (1994). The study aimed to examine the mediating role of perceived control of time between time management behaviour and psychological outcomes among university teachers. Data of university teachers (N = 300) was collected through Time Management Behaviour Scale, Perceived Control of Time Scale, Warwick Edinberg Mental Well-being Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale, In Role Performance Scale and Role Overload Scale. Regression analysis explained that perceived control of time mediated between time management behaviour and well-being among university teachers. Perceived control of time mediated between time management behaviour and stress among university teachers. Perceived control of time mediated between time management behaviour and job satisfaction among university teachers. Similarly, perceived control of time mediated between time management behaviour and job performance among university teachers. The study has both theoretical as well as applied significance. The findings confirmed the underlying theoretical assumptions of the Process Model of Time Management Overall the findings are valuable in the fields of educational and organizational psychology. Keywords: Time Management Behaviour, Perceived Control of Time, Well-Being, Scale, Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, Role Overload.
Muhammad Aqib Ali, Talat Hussain
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 247-258; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-1(2021)-21

Abstract:
The study is aimed at assessing the opinions of vital Islamic banking stakeholders including members of various Islamic banking Shariah Supervisory Boards (SSBs) and pertinent personnel from Pakistan’s central bank – The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP). The research analyzes the percepts of respondents regarding various aspects relevant to Islamic banking (IB) products, service and objectives. The paper employs qualitative research approach in analyzing the Shariah and regulatory experts’ viewpoints regarding Islamic banking. The study is conducted using semi-structured interviews of twelve Shariah supervisors and nine SBP staff members serving in the Islamic banking department and Islamic banking focus groups in the regional/field offices of the State Bank of Pakistan. The study is of pioneering nature involving qualitative research design and inclusion of two of the most significant stakeholder groups from the Islamic banking sector of Pakistan who have not been included in the past studies regarding Islamic banking perceptions. The research findings highlighted that Shariah objectives are top priority of Islamic banks as per the views expressed by members of Shariah boards of various banks while in opinion of Islamic banking regulators, Islamic banks’ major concern is to achieve their business objectives. Keywords: Islamic Banking, Islamic Finance, Pakistan, Products, Perceptions, Shariah Compliance.
Nosheen Sarwat, Ammar Hussain, Tariq Iqbal Khan
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 227-235; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-1(2021)-19

Abstract:
Competitive pressures and dynamic workplaces have presented individuals with numerous challenges at the work place. Work seems more like a necessity and lacks passion and purpose and meaning. Moreover, unemployment rates in developing countries force individuals to take up work in which they are not even interested. The present study investigated the effect of work to family enrichment (WFE) on psychological well-being of individuals through the mediating role of meaningful work based on the assumptions of spillover theory. Resources acquired at work enrich individual’s family life which make work look more meaningful and in turn has positive consequences for psychological health of an individual. The unit of analysis for this study was individuals working in various banks of Pakistan. Data were collected from 215 full time bankers working in public and private banks of Pakistan. Banking industry was chosen in part due to its complex nature and further because of the lucrative incentives and training and development it offers to individuals working for these banks. Data were analyzed using model 4 given in PROCESS MACRO based on bootstrapping which is considered one of the best techniques for mediation analysis. Results supported all the hypotheses of this study. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that work should be designed in such a way that it enriches the family life of individuals, this creates a purpose and meaning in work and has positive consequences for the psychological health of individuals. Keywords: Work-Family Enrichment, Meaningful Work, Psychological Well-Being, Spillover Theory.
Bushra Usman, Sheikh Usman Yousaf
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 150-167; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-1(2021)-12

Abstract:
Improving women entrepreneurship is about improving the societies and economies. Women across the globe have impactful participation in the field of entrepreneurship yet they receive relatively lesser attention from entrepreneurship researchers. The field lacks in its own theories and measures hence, employs borrowed ones. Further, most of the researchers use the same tools to measure entrepreneurial performance and success for both male and female entrepreneurs while ignoring the basic differences of their motives to become entrepreneurs. Similarly, women centric success measuring instruments have not been given due attention in past studies and it remained a big gap in research. This study aims to reveal what success is for women entrepreneurs and develops a success measuring tool. Hermeneutic Phenomenology approach was used to attain these objectives. Interviews were conducted from Malaysian female entrepreneurs. The study explored first, second and broader constructs to understand the true meanings of success which is found to be a multifaceted phenomenon having its roots embedded in the dimensions of autonomy, intrinsic-satisfaction, customer-base, business-growth, family, networking and business-performance. Furthermore, it develops a success measuring instrument for women entrepreneurs based upon identified themes. The devised success instrument may practically contribute in gauging women entrepreneurship success for academicians, researchers, women entrepreneurs, policy makers and others. Women entrepreneurship can significantly contribute in economic development and understanding/measuring their perceived success would assist all related stakeholders. Keywords: Women Entrepreneurship, Success Instrument, Hermeneutic Phenomenology.
Muhammad Naveed Riaz, Hafiz Muhammad Zeeshan Iqbal, Gulnaz Murtaza
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 202-207; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-1(2021)-16

Abstract:
The direct and indirect consequences of decision situations in cellular companies were investigated in this research. Prior literature suggests that usually two types of decisions are made in the modern organizations broadly categorized as programmed and non-programmed decisions. Study was conducted which focused on examining the direct effect and indirect effect and (through programmed and non-programmed decisions) on subsequent decision styles of managers which were rational and intuitive. Three scales were used for data collection from managers in cellular companies (N = 400). Hierarchical regressions confirmed that decision situations have both direct and indirect effect on the decision styles of managers. Keywords: Certainty, Uncertainty, Programmed, Non-Programmed Decisions, Rational Style, Intuitive Style.
Sayyed Adnan Shabbir, Fauzia Syed
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 192-201; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-1(2021)-15

Abstract:
Positive emotions have drawn considerable interest of researchers in the recent past. One such emotion is happiness. The current study attempts to discover the underlying mechanism through which consumer happiness transforms into positive outcomes. Based on the “broaden and build theory of positive emotions” a model was developed and tested. Gratitude has been taken as a mediating variable. The proposed model explains the Pakistani customers’ shopping considerations from well known clothing outlets. Consumer happiness in this study has been used as an antecedent of repurchase intentions and customer advocacy, whereas, gratitude mediates the relationship between consumer happiness and positive outcomes. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire from 330 respondents through survey method. All questionnaires were personally administered. PLS-SEM techniques have been used through smart PLS 3 for testing the model. The relationship between consumer happiness and customer advocacy was found significant. Gratitude was found as a significant mediator among consumer happiness and outcomes. However, repurchase intention from branded clothing stores in Pakistan was found to be insignificantly affected by consumer happiness. The study contributes towards the better comprehension about the shopping experience of Pakistani shoppers towards branded clothing stores in true letter and spirit. The study contributes to the existing body of literature by incorporating experiences of shoppers from emerging economies like Pakistan and establishing the mechanism through which consumer happiness transforms consumer experiences into positive outcomes. Keywords: Consumer Happiness, Gratitude, Repurchase Intention, Customer Advocacy.
Zaheer Abbas, Annes Fatima, Sadruddin Bahadur Qutoshi
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 23-32; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-1(2021)-3

Abstract:
Women as leaders have been facing challenges in workplace as well as at homes. However, the focus of this research is to explore the challenges which women face in different leadership and managerial positions in public and private organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan. Employing qualitative research method, data was collected from eight (8) females who were in leadership and management positions in different public and private organizations in the context of Gilgit-Baltistan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect the data. The analysis of the data showed that women mostly face challenges regarding their job related duties due to household responsibilities, stereotypes of the masses about their abilities to manage public administration and the lack of equal opportunities for promotions and rewards as compared to their male counterparts in the organizations. It is recommended that both public and private organizations should develop women friendly policies to provide equal opportunities so as to facilitate them in their job responsibilities. Keywords: Leadership, Management, Challenges, Organizations, Stereotypes, Feminist Lens.
Muhammad Majid Mahmood Bagram, Akbar Abbas Bangash, Zara Kiran
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.30543/10-1(2021)-1

Abstract:
This research article throws light on the impacts of Corporate Governance in the developing countries particularly to Pakistan, Mexico, Brazil and Bangladesh. The paper starts with discussions on how and when there is an alteration in different features of company administration during the practice of financial advancing in Mexico. It encompasses ultimately the impact of transforms in the replica of business control regarding the expansion of the state e.g. enlargement in purchaser commodities in favour of central group buyers, growth revelation through home firms, fewer help in favour of community public schemes etc. The authors of this research article assert that problems of governance in Bangladesh are at the helm of affairs of its economy. We observed the data regarding governance of Bangladesh of period 1996-2004 and analysed these various governance dimensions out of the aforesaid economic progress analysis the key dimensions have been divulged. These are political governance, institution dimensions and technology dimensions. The political governance in Bangladesh has been paralysed from 1998 to 2004. When the performance of governance in Bangladesh become functional it had positively affected the economy. We cannot say the importance of company authority within growing kingdoms. The commercial domination might include a slightly different system than prevalent in the European countries and North America due to insufficient infrastructure and destroy governmental policy interventionism. We also throw light on important features of Brazilian firm’s changes after the application for communal power exercises. After making a deliberation on the implementation of joint supremacy in Brazil, Mexico, and Bangladesh and subsequently we have emphasized the impact of Corporate Governance and proper growth in Pakistan. The relationship between good governance and proper growth is proportional generally. Having studied different scenarios of the countries under remonstration, the writers have reached the conclusion that good governance is an essential component for upgrading the economies of developing countries because of these reasons it may be said that high-quality control leads towards a country obtain sky-scraping and frequent monetary increase through establishment of congenial environment for savings and investment, entrepreneurship, yielding implement upon manufacturers, generating constancy among marketplace, expansion in souks though elimination of hurdles/barriers towards inner job and progress over the competitors. Keywords: Business Control, Economic Development and Proper Growth.
Jawwad Muhammad Shujaat, Muhammad Naveed Riaz, Humaira Yasmin
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 477-482; https://doi.org/10.30543/9-4(2020)-40

Abstract:
The study examined moderating role of job stress between laissez-faire leadership and avoidant decision-making style. The study also investigated the level of job stress in three occupation including universities in comparison with banks and hospitals classified as and low, medium and high stress occupations respectively. Data was collected through adopted questionnaire from hospitals (medical superintendents and officers), banks (managers and officers), and universities (heads and lecturers). First sample of 150 subordinates was collect in the first part to examine the level of job stress in three occupations. The second sample comprised of 1200 participants (300 supervisors and 900 subordinates). Before conducting the main study, as a pilot testing, 60 supervisors including 30 from each segment of participants were compared on job stress. Hospital superintendents significantly scored higher on job stress as compared to bank managers and head of departments in universities. Similarly, medical officers significantly scored higher on job stress as compared to bank officers and lecturers. Finally, job stress moderated the anticipated relationship. Keywords: Laissez-faire, Avoidant Decision, Job Stress, Universities, Banks, Hospitals.
Rabia Kiani, Salman Tahir, Iqra Sarfaraz
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 423-440; https://doi.org/10.30543/9-4(2020)-36

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to examine various aspects which include business case implementation, risk-taking behavior and leadership skills impacts on construction sector of Islamabad, Pakistan. A questionnaire was prepared for the targeted construction firms. Sample size used for analysis was 215. On receipt of the data, a comparative analysis is done by using SPSS software to choose the better options. The better option from business case implementation and the leadership skill have been instrumental in the decision making while risk-taking behavior will have no effect on it. Approaches to the Project management are becoming flexible and more adoptive to compete with the challenges arising out of rapidly change environment and complex projects. However, consideration for the possible potential changes regarding decision making in projects is very rare and less discovered. The Effectual decision making approach in the construction industry has rapidly been growing. It seems that gradually the effectuation approach would replace the traditional methods that have long been in the usage. Keywords: Effectual Decision Making, Risk-Taking Behavior, Business Case Implementation, Leadership Skills, Construction Industry.
Muhammad Reehan Hameed, Ghulam Sarwar, Muhammad Abdullah
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 402-410; https://doi.org/10.30543/9-4(2020)-34

Abstract:
The public debt of South Asian countries has witnessed a continuous increase from the last three decades which has badly affected the household private consumption expenditures. High public debt can lead to steep losses for banks, both domestic and international, undermines the stability of financial systems in both the crisis-hit country and others. This can hit economic growth as well as private consumption. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of public debt on private consumption in South Asian countries i.e. Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Besides public debt, the impact of some other important macroeconomic, fiscal, and monetary variables like lending interest rate, public spending and money supply have also been examined. For this purpose, 31 years of panel data from 1990 to 2020 of South Asian countries have been taken. The study has used a variety of econometric techniques like Robust Least Square Regression, Panel Cointegration, Error Correction Model (ECM), Wald test, and Panel Fully Modified Least Squares (FMOLS) approach to examine the short-run and long-run relationship among the variables. The results of Robust Least Square Regression indicate that public debt discourages private consumption. The lending interest rate also badly affected private consumption. The other variables like public spending and money supply have a favorable impact on private consumption. The results of the Kao Residual Panel Cointegration Test and the Johansen Fisher Panel Cointegration Test indicate that there exists a long run relationship among the variables. The results of the ECM and Wald Test reveal that a long run and short-run causality is running from independent variables to the dependent variable respectively. The study recommends that by using monetary and fiscal policies effectively the private consumption and economic growth can be stimulated in the economy. Keywords: South Asia, Public Debt, Private Consumption, Lending Interest Rate Public Spending, Money Supply, Robust Least Square Regression, ECM, FMOLS, Wald Test.
Salomon Montejano Garcia, Gabriela Citlalli Lopez-Torres, Rocio Montserrat Campos Garcia
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 245-255; https://doi.org/10.30543/9-4(2020)-21

Abstract:
Businesses need to constantly maintain high quality in their products, and more importantly to remain competitive even at a global level, which is the current market pressure and need for many SME in countries underdevelopment, where more global enterprises have arrived leaving local businesses to the extreme of perishing. Therefore, already employed strategies in global companies to improve their product quality are essential to be reconsidered and to be implemented by local plants. Automation had become a highly important strategy in the manufacturing industry to satisfy customers and stand out from their competitors, more because today customers increasingly demand sustainable and higher quality products. The aim of this research was to validate the level of automatization and its effect onto product quality, in local, small, and medium enterprises (SME). A survey with two constructs was applied to manufacturing SME in the Aguascalientes region, Mexico. The data was analysed using SPSS-26 software. The regression analyses demonstrated that automation had a significant and positive effect on product quality in local SME, however, automatization is not recognized as a priority strategy leaving SME behind global competitive businesses in terms of product quality. Keywords: Quality, Strategies, Management, SME, Manufacturing.
Amen Imran, Sundus Wasai Khan
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 196-211; https://doi.org/10.30543/9-4(2020)-17

Abstract:
The supervisor’s negative attitude towards voice and unavailability of communication channels are considered significant predictors of defensive silence. However, lesser consideration has been given to provide an in-depth explanation of how and why these motivational forces influence employees’ step by step conscious decision to engage in defensive silence. This qualitative study incorporates semi-structured interviews with bank employees of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Thematic coding and causal networking techniques were used to transcribe and analyse data and derive emerging themes. Taking influence from the elements of Expectancy Theory, this paper extends theory in the context of service sector by presenting two expectancy theory based defensive silence models. The first model provides reasons such as favoritism, political appointment, supervisor’s self-interest etc., to explain how and why the supervisor’s negative attitude towards voice influences employees’ cognitive mechanism to adopt defensive silence. Similarly, the second model presents the emerging themes like centralized decision system, career ladder, leg pulling, professional jealousy etc., to explain how and why unavailability of communication channels predicts defensive silence. Thus, the study extends the application of expectancy theory and defensive silence phenomenon to new empirical context. The paper concludes with a discussion on implications and recommendations for future work. Keywords: Defensive Silence; Supervisor’s Negative Attitude Towards Voice; Unavailability of Communication Channels.
Salma Zahir, Kauser Hayat, Aftab Haider
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 138-147; https://doi.org/10.30543/9-4(2020)-13

Abstract:
The research paper studies the causal link between gross domestic product, gross fixed-capital formations, exchange rate, and trade deficits in Pakistan from 1986 to 2013 with time serial data. ADF and Phillip Perron tests are recycled for stationary and at the first difference, each variable is unified. According to the Johansen Co-integration test, the presence of longer-term Co-integration among variables is displayed, and the Error Correction model expresses that 49.27 % of short-term uncertainty is adjusted in long-term equilibrium. Moreover, the Granger causality test presented causality among the variables. While the conclusion showed that such variables have unidirectional causation. Keywords: Trade Deficit, Exchange Rate, Gross Fixed Capital Formation, Gross Domestic Product, ADF, Phillip Perron, Johansen Co-integration, Error Correction model, & Granger Causality test.
Muhammad Naveed, Alia Qadir, Muhammad Umer
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 212-222; https://doi.org/10.30543/9-4(2020)-18

Abstract:
The objective of this study is to offer detailed and updated overview of the factors perceived by the audit committee members to select external auditors. Moreover, the study aims to explore that what are the main determinants perceived by the clients from their external auditors. Qualitative research design is used, and open-ended interviews has been conducted to explore the phenomena under investigation. The contextual setting of the study is provided by financial firms listed on Pakistan stock exchange (PSX-100). The study finds that management continues to provide input into the selection decision of external auditors because the audit committees view management as an important information source. Audit committee seeks input from management to assess the external audit accessibility, reputation, firm’s industry knowledge and technical expertise. The result of the study suggests that more regulations are required to liable the audit committees for selecting external audit firm. The management input raises the audit risk and mitigate the audit independence. The findings remain robust for audit firms and companies looking for an independent and transparent relationship. Also, the study has implications to build transparent financial disclosure practices. Keywords: Audit Quality, Pakistan Stock Exchange, Clients Perceived Value.
Muhammad Reehan Hameed, Majid Ali, Hafsah Batool
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 223-232; https://doi.org/10.30543/9-4(2020)-19

Abstract:
Over the years, the South Asian countries were facing the dilemma of twin’s deficits because they had failed to generate sufficient revenues to finance their budget. Consequently, they were continuously relying on both domestic and external debt to bridge these deficits which had put a severe implication on their economic growth. Their financial position continued to deteriorate and undermined all the efforts of the governments made to stimulate economic growth. The governments in these countries failed to generate enough revenues through internal sources. Therefore, the deficits were normally fiancé through external sources. The paper examined whether the external debt was a blessing or course to the economic growth of South Asian countries i.e. Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. For this purpose 30 years of panel data of these countries from 1990 to 2019 had been taken. Fixed effect model and Panel Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) Approach had been applied to examine the short-run and long-run association among the variables. The natural log of GDP per capita was used as a proxy for economic growth. The other variables were external debt, initial GDP, foreign direct investment, trade openness, investment, and secondary school investment rate. The outcomes of the study indicated that that external debt had a negative impact on economic growth both in the short-run and long-run. This revealed that external debt had not been utilized effectively and productively. The study suggested that effort would be made to manage the external debt and reduced the twin's deficits to minimize the harmful impact of external debt on the economy. Keywords: South Asian, External Debt, ARDL, Fixed Effect Model, Economic Growth.
Muhammad Rovidad, Ali Raza, Shahid Akbar
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 130-137; https://doi.org/10.30543/9-4(2020)-12

Abstract:
This study investigates the effects of microcredit on crop productivity in three villages located in district Charsadda, Pakistan. Khushali Bank, Pakistan, is an important institute that finances microcredit ranging from 15,000 to 50,000 PKR (Pakistani Rupees) per person. Sample size of 200 was choose for the analysis of this study, out of which 90 responded. Ninety farmers from three villages producing maize, tobacco, and sugarcane were interviewed. A paired sample t-test was applied to compare crop productivity in situations where microcredit was supplied with situations where it was not. Production per acre of all the three crops show a significant positive correlation with the amount of microcredit obtained from the bank. However, crop productivity remained significantly constant. Thus micro financing generally improves crop production; however, the constancy of crop productivity is explained by small credit volumes, by high interest rates, by lack of modern agricultural technology, by lack of productive ideas, and by bad monitoring through field officers of banks. The analysis of this study suggests some policy implications first, micro financing is a source of encouragement for the needy farmers, so local banks should advertise micro financing regularly. Second, the banks should increase its micro financing credit up to 200000 PKR, so that farmers can easily manage their expenses that will be more beneficial for local economy and individual profit. Third, Banks must decrease interest rate that will encourage needy farmers to take loans on regular basis. Keywords: Agricultural Technology, Microcredit, Productivity, Khushali Bank, KP, Pakistan.
Misbah Noor, Fayaz Ali Shah, Shahid Jan Kakakhel
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 44-55; https://doi.org/10.30543/9-4(2020)-5

Abstract:
Social entrepreneurship has been recently becoming center of attention for academicians and practitioners. It is mainly because of its critical role in addressing unmet needs and social problems of underprivileged communities around the globe. Social entrepreneurs are often confronted with the scarcity of resources as they are inherently located in resource constrained settings. Given the scarcity of resources and the crucial role of social entrepreneurship, bricolage is emerging as a promising strategy to address resource scarcity in impoverished settings. In this vein, this paper provides a comprehensive review of literature on bricolage and how it unfolds in social entrepreneurship. The review also sheds light on the conceptual evolution of bricolage and how it invades the entrepreneurship literature. A systematic approach was adopted for conducting the literature search in order to capture all the recent work on bricolage in context of social entrepreneurship. The review shows that most of the studies on bricolage in context of social entrepreneurship are concentrated in developed countries and more stable environments with only few exceptions. Also social bricolage theory which is an extension of entrepreneurial bricolage is still understudied and needs further investigation and documentation. The paper holds particular relevance for academicians and researchers as it provides useful insights into concepts of bricolage and its relevance to social entrepreneurship. Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Bricolage, Social Entrepreneurship, Social Bricolage.
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